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Digest of Education Statistics
2017 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 331.95. Percentage of undergraduate degree/certificate completers who ever received loans and average cumulative amount borrowed, by degree level, selected student characteristics, and institution control: Selected years, 1999-2000 through 2015-16
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Degree level, selected student characteristic, and institution control 1999-2000 2011-12 2015-16
Loans to students Parent PLUS Loans1 Loans to students Parent PLUS Loans1 Loans to students Parent PLUS Loans1
Total loans to students Federal
loans to students
Total loans to students Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
Total loans to students Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Percent of completers who ever received loans
Total, all completers 52.5    (0.75)  50.5    (0.74)  7.2    (0.27)  61.6    (0.62)  58.6    (0.62)  24.8    (0.50)  10.5    (0.40)  61.8    (0.55)  59.7    (0.56)  10.4    (0.27)  10.3    (0.24) 
                                                                   
Certificate below associate's level 43.5    (2.64)  39.6    (2.57)  3.3    (0.55)  66.3    (1.71)  63.8    (1.79)  23.4    (1.25)  7.9    (0.83)  67.7    (1.76)  65.9    (1.88)  9.2    (0.71)  7.2    (0.65) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 39.3   (3.48) 35.9   (3.55) 3.4   (0.81) 58.0   (2.93) 55.9   (3.00) 21.5   (2.01) 8.7   (1.67) 57.4   (3.21) 55.9   (3.25) 7.7   (0.86) 8.4   (1.25)
Female 46.7   (3.12) 42.5   (2.95) 3.3   (0.68) 70.0   (1.90) 67.2   (1.96) 24.2   (1.50) 7.6   (0.93) 73.6   (1.75) 71.6   (1.87) 10.0   (0.93) 6.6   (0.76)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 27.1   (2.64) 22.2   (2.26) 0.9 ! (0.39) 36.2   (3.17) 31.8   (3.18) 10.5   (1.81) 1.8 ! (0.74) 44.6   (2.43) 43.0   (2.47) 4.3   (0.96) 3.4   (0.82)
Private nonprofit 53.2   (7.86) 49.8   (7.91) 9.8 ! (3.05) 76.1   (5.06) 73.3   (5.80) 23.1   (4.84)   (†) 80.1   (3.50) 76.4   (4.97) 11.9   (2.42) 6.4 ! (2.07)
Private for-profit 86.3   (1.60) 85.0   (1.75) 8.5   (1.33) 85.9   (1.73) 84.6   (1.92) 32.2   (1.64) 12.0   (1.27) 87.5   (1.58) 85.7   (1.89) 13.3   (1.11) 11.0   (0.98)
                                                                   
Associate's degree 38.9    (1.59)  36.9    (1.65)  4.3    (0.54)  49.8    (1.09)  46.1    (1.03)  18.7    (0.83)  5.0    (0.44)  48.1    (1.04)  46.2    (1.04)  5.8    (0.46)  5.1    (0.42) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 37.9   (2.76) 36.0   (2.82) 5.8   (1.28) 46.2   (1.75) 42.1   (1.73) 18.6   (1.05) 6.0   (0.75) 41.9   (1.48) 39.8   (1.46) 5.3   (0.72) 5.4   (0.72)
Female 39.4   (2.04) 37.4   (2.11) 3.5   (0.80) 52.3   (1.41) 48.9   (1.29) 18.9   (1.13) 4.3   (0.47) 52.5   (1.25) 50.8   (1.28) 6.1   (0.58) 4.9   (0.49)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 39.5   (2.04) 37.4   (2.03) 4.5   (0.76) 49.2   (1.52) 45.7   (1.54) 19.8   (1.11) 5.0   (0.54) 50.2   (1.60) 48.4   (1.63) 6.4   (0.66) 6.1   (0.67)
Black 44.5   (4.38) 42.3   (4.26) 2.8 ! (1.06) 66.2   (2.62) 60.8   (2.67) 22.1   (2.06) 3.2   (0.93) 66.7   (2.41) 65.6   (2.48) 5.4   (1.03) 4.2   (0.72)
Hispanic 41.3   (5.26) 39.5   (5.00) 7.2 ! (2.98) 44.6   (2.34) 40.7   (2.28) 15.8   (1.60) 5.9   (1.18) 35.4   (1.89) 34.0   (1.86) 3.6   (0.70) 4.1   (0.73)
   Asian 16.9 ! (5.79) 16.3 ! (5.73)   (†) 26.1   (4.11) 23.0   (3.93) 9.9   (2.87) 6.1 ! (2.18) 26.7   (3.28) 22.1   (3.07) 6.2 ! (1.95) 2.5 ! (0.88)
   Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 47.3   (11.14) 41.7   (11.28)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native   (†)   (†)   (†) 64.6   (11.14) 64.6   (11.14)   (†)   (†) 67.2   (10.02) 63.3   (10.20) 19.0 ! (8.22)   (†)
Two or more races   (†)   (†)   (†) 52.1   (6.13) 51.5   (5.97) 21.9   (5.24) 6.2 ! (2.47) 47.1   (5.10) 45.5   (5.18) 6.4 ! (2.55) 4.6 ! (1.95)
Other2   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 36.7   (2.91) 35.6   (2.89) 8.9   (1.38) 41.3   (1.57) 38.6   (1.54) 16.2   (1.10) 7.9   (0.79) 34.9   (1.57) 33.2   (1.50) 4.4   (0.51) 5.3   (0.59)
Independent 40.1   (1.87) 37.6   (2.04) 1.7   (0.50) 54.7   (1.39) 50.4   (1.34) 20.2   (1.01) 3.3   (0.48) 55.4   (1.29) 53.4   (1.35) 6.5   (0.65) 5.0   (0.59)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 32.6   (1.66) 30.6   (1.69) 1.9   (0.48) 42.1   (1.28) 38.1   (1.17) 14.9   (0.87) 3.2   (0.40) 40.9   (1.15) 38.8   (1.15) 4.8   (0.49) 3.9   (0.47)
Private nonprofit 45.7   (5.92) 43.0   (5.63) 11.1 ! (3.83) 86.9   (5.23) 84.8   (6.80) 43.2   (6.75) 12.5 ! (4.28) 83.9   (3.01) 83.1   (3.26) 11.9   (3.49) 9.0   (1.99)
Private for-profit 92.5   (1.29) 91.6   (1.20) 22.4   (3.49) 88.3   (1.77) 86.4   (1.87) 37.2   (1.93) 14.1   (1.63) 88.3   (1.16) 87.8   (1.15) 10.6   (0.86) 12.4   (1.02)
                                                                   
Bachelor's degree 62.2    (0.70)  61.0    (0.70)  10.2    (0.40)  69.0    (0.75)  66.3    (0.72)  29.8    (0.79)  15.5    (0.68)  68.9    (0.62)  66.7    (0.64)  13.8    (0.33)  14.6    (0.36) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 61.4   (1.00) 60.2   (1.01) 10.6   (0.56) 67.0   (1.39) 63.9   (1.37) 29.4   (1.20) 15.1   (1.00) 65.7   (0.85) 63.3   (0.86) 13.3   (0.53) 14.8   (0.57)
Female 62.8   (0.94) 61.6   (0.92) 9.8   (0.54) 70.5   (0.94) 68.2   (0.92) 30.1   (1.04) 15.9   (0.92) 71.4   (0.71) 69.3   (0.75) 14.2   (0.44) 14.4   (0.46)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 60.7   (0.87) 59.5   (0.85) 10.2   (0.45) 67.5   (0.94) 64.8   (0.92) 30.2   (1.03) 16.0   (0.87) 69.4   (0.69) 67.1   (0.70) 15.5   (0.45) 15.7   (0.44)
Black 80.5   (1.81) 80.0   (1.82) 13.9   (1.66) 84.2   (1.78) 82.0   (1.92) 33.2   (2.37) 16.9   (1.83) 84.9   (1.17) 83.8   (1.20) 10.6   (1.03) 16.7   (1.23)
Hispanic 68.7   (1.86) 67.1   (2.00) 11.7   (1.69) 71.9   (2.42) 69.2   (2.32) 30.0   (2.08) 15.1   (1.82) 66.6   (1.57) 64.7   (1.59) 10.2   (0.80) 11.8   (0.94)
   Asian 50.2   (2.43) 49.0   (2.55) 4.3   (0.85) 47.2   (3.22) 42.7   (3.02) 20.5   (2.49) 7.8   (1.70) 45.1   (2.04) 41.4   (1.98) 10.6   (1.02) 8.7   (1.19)
   Pacific Islander 66.7   (6.35) 66.7   (6.35) 19.1   (5.45)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 89.4   (4.56) 80.7   (8.09) 18.3 ! (8.05) 14.1 ! (5.77)
American Indian/Alaska Native 75.2   (6.58) 71.8   (6.80) 3.8 ! (1.73) 61.5   (11.92) 60.2   (12.04) 19.5 ! (8.06)   (†) 76.1   (5.87) 69.9   (6.68) 14.4   (4.23) 6.9 ! (2.22)
Two or more races 55.0   (5.12) 52.7   (5.48) 7.6   (1.95) 81.0   (3.68) 78.7   (3.94) 31.7   (4.43) 21.0   (4.63) 72.9   (2.35) 70.1   (2.60) 17.5   (2.58) 17.1   (2.01)
Other2 53.5   (6.22) 53.1   (6.19) 6.3 ! (2.25)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 59.2   (0.95) 58.0   (0.92) 14.4   (0.63) 64.9   (1.09) 61.6   (1.06) 29.8   (1.02) 21.0   (0.96) 65.9   (0.69) 63.4   (0.70) 15.9   (0.43) 18.9   (0.54)
Independent 65.9   (0.92) 64.8   (0.94) 4.9   (0.34) 74.1   (1.16) 72.2   (1.13) 29.7   (1.19) 8.6   (0.76) 72.6   (0.92) 70.6   (0.97) 11.3   (0.52) 9.3   (0.50)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 60.0   (0.80) 58.8   (0.81) 8.3   (0.42) 64.1   (0.89) 61.2   (0.86) 25.9   (0.84) 13.5   (0.69) 66.4   (0.68) 64.1   (0.66) 11.7   (0.40) 13.7   (0.45)
Private nonprofit 66.2   (1.16) 65.2   (1.17) 14.1   (0.93) 73.5   (1.72) 70.7   (1.74) 34.6   (1.83) 21.5   (1.75) 69.2   (0.94) 66.7   (0.96) 17.9   (0.75) 17.0   (0.66)
Private for-profit 77.2   (4.41) 77.0   (4.45) 10.8 ! (3.55) 87.2   (1.62) 86.3   (1.59) 40.5   (1.76) 10.9   (1.17) 86.5   (1.95) 85.3   (2.43) 15.1   (1.16) 12.7   (1.63)
  Average cumulative loan amount for students with loans (current dollars)3 
Total, all completers $14,260    (186)  $13,540    (162)  $12,630    (443)  $23,050    (285)  $19,510    (208)  $11,210    (450)  $22,990    (1,197)  $24,480    (336)  $22,520    (305)  $16,160    (439)  $27,170    (676) 
                                                                   
Certificate below associate's level 7,790    (418)  7,150    (330)  6,850    (1,081)  13,280    (374)  11,380    (343)  6,630    (526)  8,900    (612)  15,520    (502)  14,280    (413)  12,080    (1,649)  12,920    (1,158) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 8,110   (533) 7,550   (544) 8,290   (2,316) 13,370   (743) 10,970   (629) 7,540   (1,314) 10,080   (1,199) 15,380   (1,091) 13,760   (891) 14,630   (3,942) 16,320   (2,136)
Female 7,590   (492) 6,900   (373) 5,720   (941) 13,250   (393) 11,520   (357) 6,280   (510) 8,300   (775) 15,590   (476) 14,520   (423) 10,950   (1,549) 10,450   (1,172)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 7,640   (819) 7,540   (623)   (†) 12,420   (1,151) 11,030   (1,095) 9,410   (2,241)   (†) 16,400   (1,080) 15,550   (946)   (†)   (†)
Private nonprofit 11,240   (2,280) 9,880   (1,828) 9,680   (2,443) 15,820   (2,721) 11,850   (1,463) 14,530 ! (6,937)   (†) 17,110   (2,536) 15,840   (1,951) 13,520 ! (6,105) 17,470 ! (6,447)
Private for-profit 7,470   (323) 6,540   (287) 6,260   (1,604) 13,320   (345) 11,430   (329) 5,510   (338) 9,180   (650) 14,880   (434) 13,480   (326) 11,040   (1,616) 11,110   (943)
                                                                   
Associate's degree 9,490    (334)  8,840    (339)  7,630    (1,046)  17,160    (359)  15,130    (305)  8,370    (413)  14,830    (1,095)  18,550    (408)  18,060    (392)  9,950    (1,136)  12,980    (1,148) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 9,320   (698) 8,590   (663) 7,860   (2,013) 15,950   (536) 13,930   (418) 8,090   (561) 16,000   (1,696) 17,010   (652) 16,150   (552) 13,220   (2,547) 13,500   (1,712)
Female 9,570   (436) 8,970   (384) 7,430   (803) 17,900   (535) 15,850   (447) 8,570   (621) 13,690   (1,445) 19,420   (492) 19,110   (485) 7,970   (792) 12,580   (1,338)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 9,590   (480) 8,910   (433) 8,510   (1,285) 17,110   (485) 14,630   (377) 8,810   (577) 15,400   (1,429) 17,760   (533) 17,100   (486) 10,210   (1,837) 13,350   (1,638)
Black 9,500   (771) 8,590   (659)   (†) 19,280   (922) 17,580   (783) 9,380   (1,321) 15,050   (4,419) 22,300   (834) 21,930   (792) 9,020   (2,182) 11,310   (1,748)
Hispanic 8,840   (2,037) 9,090   (2,124)   (†) 15,170   (912) 14,020   (786) 6,650   (667) 12,220   (1,572) 15,970   (904) 15,590   (928) 9,770   (1,659) 12,440   (1,563)
   Asian   (†)   (†)   (†) 13,580   (1,965) 13,400   (1,786) 4,640   (902)   (†) 16,830   (1,772) 17,720   (1,981) 9,340   (2,170)   (†)
   Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native   (†)   (†)   (†) 22,330   (3,730) 22,100   (3,720)   (†)   (†) 18,230   (3,431) 17,830   (3,110)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races   (†)   (†)   (†) 17,570   (1,740) 15,260   (1,453) 5,920   (1,367)   (†) 21,790   (2,159) 20,940   (2,134)   (†)   (†)
Other2   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 8,280   (530) 7,400   (452) 8,830   (1,306) 13,240   (512) 11,200   (391) 7,090   (618) 15,520   (1,739) 12,140   (438) 11,660   (440) 8,340   (1,100) 15,470   (1,677)
Independent 10,120   (479) 9,630   (459)   (†) 18,860   (471) 16,860   (420) 8,960   (534) 13,880   (1,419) 20,780   (474) 20,250   (448) 10,550   (1,504) 11,510   (1,381)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 8,060   (431) 7,360   (398)   (†) 13,970   (349) 12,300   (315) 8,080   (538) 12,070   (1,154) 15,640   (511) 15,230   (494) 10,110   (1,639) 11,600   (1,490)
Private nonprofit 11,850   (1,035) 11,950   (999)   (†) 25,310   (2,076) 20,420   (1,564) 10,790   (2,742)   (†) 24,830   (1,159) 23,890   (1,239) 8,180   (2,395) 14,950   (2,567)
Private for-profit 13,440   (685) 12,540   (672) 9,550   (1,804) 24,680   (624) 21,550   (537) 8,550   (486) 17,590   (1,854) 26,420   (512) 25,340   (537) 10,220   (718) 15,740   (1,994)
                                                                   
Bachelor's degree 17,480    (204)  16,530    (180)  14,350    (548)  29,380    (456)  24,400    (295)  13,760    (704)  27,350    (1,613)  29,910    (402)  27,050    (384)  18,700    (432)  32,600    (796) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 17,470   (247) 16,530   (232) 14,730   (784) 29,030   (666) 23,740   (451) 14,630   (1,044) 29,780   (3,015) 28,920   (477) 26,120   (429) 18,760   (800) 33,790   (1,296)
Female 17,490   (256) 16,530   (230) 14,050   (627) 29,650   (551) 24,890   (378) 13,090   (857) 25,530   (1,602) 30,610   (451) 27,710   (420) 18,650   (641) 31,660   (967)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 17,370   (211) 16,390   (195) 14,720   (591) 29,060   (579) 23,690   (354) 14,050   (766) 27,450   (2,033) 30,090   (346) 26,460   (325) 20,040   (595) 34,370   (1,088)
Black 19,510   (793) 18,760   (718) 10,880   (1,006) 33,020   (1,066) 29,200   (842) 11,620   (1,662) 24,490   (4,344) 34,000   (877) 32,370   (809) 16,450   (1,555) 24,800   (2,009)
Hispanic 17,450   (821) 16,270   (626) 13,810   (1,693) 29,520   (1,584) 23,710   (825) 16,050   (2,820) 26,470   (3,900) 26,820   (774) 25,420   (725) 13,900   (1,028) 29,440   (2,070)
   Asian 14,540   (619) 13,990   (545) 20,260   (4,188) 23,130   (1,259) 20,740   (1,041) 10,070   (2,255)   (†) 25,450   (1,094) 22,770   (882) 19,250   (2,191) 34,080   (3,962)
   Pacific Islander 18,380   (1,787) 16,850   (1,222)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 26,520   (3,981) 27,690   (3,236)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 18,770   (1,553) 18,290   (1,646)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 26,380   (2,659) 25,550   (2,696)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races 17,720   (1,352) 16,470   (1,229)   (†) 28,050   (1,731) 23,950   (1,427) 12,250   (2,067)   (†) 29,680   (1,097) 27,280   (940) 14,490   (1,605) 40,070   (3,890)
Other2 16,210   (1,378) 15,250   (1,361)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 16,910   (221) 15,620   (177) 15,680   (671) 26,070   (575) 20,370   (285) 14,700   (917) 28,410   (1,566) 26,760   (282) 22,450   (199) 21,340   (575) 36,790   (1,047)
Independent 18,110   (320) 17,540   (300) 9,490   (802) 33,040   (637) 28,740   (481) 12,570   (905) 24,060   (4,374) 33,340   (649) 32,010   (587) 14,230   (634) 22,420   (1,257)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 16,210   (233) 15,700   (213) 11,600   (550) 25,640   (454) 22,030   (336) 11,400   (621) 20,460   (1,080) 26,930   (278) 25,000   (235) 15,770   (611) 27,530   (990)
Private nonprofit 19,620   (373) 17,810   (313) 17,950   (810) 32,310   (1,181) 24,610   (594) 18,370   (1,698) 37,130   (3,739) 31,890   (453) 26,670   (331) 23,840   (766) 41,940   (1,853)
Private for-profit 24,040   (1,204) 23,170   (1,160)   (†) 40,040   (798) 34,880   (612) 11,870   (911) 25,650   (2,506) 41,320   (1,592) 39,150   (1,303) 15,460   (1,060) 31,890   (2,316)
  Average cumulative loan amount for students with loans (constant 2016-17 dollars)3,4 
Total, all completers $20,440    (267)  $19,400    (232)  $18,100    (634)  $24,580    (304)  $20,800    (222)  $11,960    (479)  $24,510    (1,276)  $24,930    (342)  $22,930    (310)  $16,460    (447)  $27,670    (688) 
                                                                   
Certificate below associate's level 11,170    (600)  10,250    (473)  9,820    (1,549)  14,160    (399)  12,130    (366)  7,070    (561)  9,490    (652)  15,810    (511)  14,550    (421)  12,300    (1,679)  13,160    (1,180) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 11,620   (764) 10,820   (780) 11,890   (3,319) 14,250   (792) 11,700   (671) 8,040   (1,401) 10,750   (1,279) 15,660   (1,111) 14,010   (908) 14,900   (4,014) 16,620   (2,175)
Female 10,880   (706) 9,890   (535) 8,200   (1,349) 14,130   (419) 12,290   (381) 6,700   (544) 8,850   (826) 15,880   (484) 14,780   (431) 11,150   (1,578) 10,650   (1,194)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 10,960   (1,173) 10,810   (893)   (†) 13,240   (1,227) 11,760   (1,168) 10,030   (2,390)   (†) 16,700   (1,100) 15,840   (963)   (†)   (†)
Private nonprofit 16,110   (3,268) 14,160   (2,620) 13,880   (3,502) 16,870   (2,902) 12,640   (1,560) 15,490 ! (7,397)   (†) 17,430   (2,582) 16,130   (1,986) 13,770 ! (6,218) 17,790 ! (6,565)
Private for-profit 10,710   (463) 9,380   (411) 8,970   (2,299) 14,210   (367) 12,190   (351) 5,870   (360) 9,790   (693) 15,160   (442) 13,720   (332) 11,240   (1,645) 11,320   (960)
                                                                   
Associate's degree 13,600    (479)  12,680    (486)  10,940    (1,499)  18,300    (383)  16,130    (326)  8,930    (440)  15,820    (1,168)  18,900    (416)  18,400    (399)  10,130    (1,157)  13,220    (1,169) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 13,360   (1,001) 12,320   (951) 11,270   (2,885) 17,010   (572) 14,850   (446) 8,620   (598) 17,060   (1,808) 17,320   (663) 16,450   (563) 13,460   (2,594) 13,740   (1,744)
Female 13,720   (625) 12,860   (551) 10,650   (1,151) 19,090   (571) 16,900   (477) 9,140   (662) 14,590   (1,541) 19,780   (501) 19,460   (494) 8,110   (807) 12,810   (1,362)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 13,740   (687) 12,760   (621) 12,190   (1,842) 18,250   (517) 15,600   (402) 9,390   (615) 16,420   (1,524) 18,080   (543) 17,410   (495) 10,400   (1,870) 13,590   (1,668)
Black 13,620   (1,105) 12,310   (945)   (†) 20,560   (983) 18,750   (835) 10,010   (1,409) 16,040   (4,712) 22,710   (850) 22,340   (806) 9,180   (2,222) 11,520   (1,780)
Hispanic 12,670   (2,919) 13,020   (3,045)   (†) 16,180   (973) 14,950   (838) 7,090   (712) 13,030   (1,676) 16,270   (921) 15,880   (945) 9,950   (1,689) 12,670   (1,592)
   Asian   (†)   (†)   (†) 14,480   (2,095) 14,290   (1,904) 4,950   (961)   (†) 17,140   (1,804) 18,040   (2,017) 9,510   (2,210)   (†)
   Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native   (†)   (†)   (†) 22,330   (3,730) 22,100   (3,720)   (†)   (†) 18,560   (3,495) 18,160   (3,168)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races   (†)   (†)   (†) 18,740   (1,855) 16,270   (1,549) 6,310   (1,457)   (†) 22,200   (2,199) 21,330   (2,174)   (†)   (†)
Other2   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 11,870   (760) 10,600   (648) 12,650   (1,872) 14,120   (546) 11,940   (417) 7,560   (659) 16,550   (1,855) 12,360   (446) 11,870   (448) 8,490   (1,120) 15,760   (1,708)
Independent 14,500   (686) 13,800   (658)   (†) 20,110   (503) 17,980   (448) 9,550   (569) 14,810   (1,513) 21,160   (483) 20,630   (456) 10,740   (1,532) 11,720   (1,406)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 11,560   (618) 10,550   (571)   (†) 14,900   (372) 13,120   (336) 8,620   (574) 12,880   (1,231) 15,920   (521) 15,510   (503) 10,290   (1,669) 11,820   (1,517)
Private nonprofit 16,980   (1,484) 17,130   (1,432)   (†) 26,990   (2,214) 21,780   (1,668) 11,510   (2,924)   (†) 25,280   (1,180) 24,330   (1,262) 8,330   (2,439) 15,230   (2,614)
Private for-profit 19,270   (982) 17,980   (964) 13,690   (2,585) 26,320   (666) 22,970   (573) 9,110   (518) 18,760   (1,977) 26,900   (521) 25,810   (547) 10,410   (731) 16,030   (2,031)
                                                                   
Bachelor's degree 25,050    (292)  23,700    (258)  20,570    (785)  31,330    (486)  26,020    (315)  14,670    (751)  29,170    (1,720)  30,460    (409)  27,550    (391)  19,040    (440)  33,200    (811) 
Sex                                                                  
Male 25,040   (354) 23,700   (333) 21,110   (1,124) 30,960   (710) 25,310   (481) 15,600   (1,113) 31,750   (3,215) 29,460   (486) 26,600   (436) 19,110   (815) 34,410   (1,319)
Female 25,070   (367) 23,700   (330) 20,130   (899) 31,610   (588) 26,540   (403) 13,950   (914) 27,220   (1,708) 31,170   (459) 28,220   (427) 18,990   (653) 32,240   (985)
Race/ethnicity                                                                  
White 24,900   (302) 23,500   (279) 21,100   (848) 30,990   (617) 25,270   (377) 14,990   (817) 29,270   (2,167) 30,640   (352) 26,940   (331) 20,410   (606) 35,000   (1,108)
Black 27,970   (1,137) 26,880   (1,030) 15,590   (1,442) 35,200   (1,137) 31,130   (898) 12,390   (1,772) 26,120   (4,632) 34,630   (893) 32,960   (824) 16,760   (1,584) 25,260   (2,046)
Hispanic 25,010   (1,176) 23,320   (897) 19,800   (2,427) 31,470   (1,689) 25,280   (880) 17,110   (3,007) 28,230   (4,159) 27,320   (788) 25,880   (738) 14,160   (1,047) 29,980   (2,108)
   Asian 20,840   (887) 20,050   (781) 29,040   (6,003) 24,670   (1,342) 22,110   (1,110) 10,740   (2,404)   (†) 25,920   (1,114) 23,190   (898) 19,610   (2,231) 34,710   (4,034)
   Pacific Islander 26,340   (2,561) 24,160   (1,751)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 27,000   (4,054) 28,200   (3,296)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 26,900   (2,226) 26,210   (2,360)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 26,870   (2,708) 26,020   (2,746)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races 25,390   (1,938) 23,610   (1,761)   (†) 29,910   (1,846) 25,530   (1,521) 13,060   (2,204)   (†) 30,220   (1,117) 27,790   (957) 14,760   (1,634) 40,810   (3,961)
Other2 23,230   (1,975) 21,860   (1,951)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Dependency status                                                                  
Dependent 24,240   (316) 22,390   (253) 22,480   (962) 27,800   (613) 21,720   (304) 15,670   (978) 30,300   (1,670) 27,250   (288) 22,860   (203) 21,730   (586) 37,470   (1,066)
Independent 25,960   (459) 25,140   (430) 13,610   (1,149) 35,230   (680) 30,650   (513) 13,400   (965) 25,660   (4,664) 33,950   (661) 32,600   (598) 14,490   (646) 22,840   (1,280)
Institution control                                                                  
Public 23,240   (333) 22,510   (305) 16,620   (788) 27,340   (484) 23,490   (358) 12,160   (662) 21,820   (1,151) 27,420   (283) 25,460   (239) 16,060   (622) 28,040   (1,008)
Private nonprofit 28,120   (535) 25,530   (449) 25,720   (1,160) 34,450   (1,260) 26,250   (633) 19,580   (1,811) 39,590   (3,987) 32,480   (462) 27,160   (337) 24,280   (780) 42,710   (1,887)
Private for-profit 34,460   (1,725) 33,210   (1,663)   (†) 42,690   (851) 37,190   (652) 12,660   (971) 27,350   (2,672) 42,080   (1,621) 39,870   (1,327) 15,750   (1,080) 32,480   (2,358)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Parent PLUS Loans are taken out by parents of dependent students and are used toward the students' undergraduate education. Parent PLUS Loans were available through both the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) until FFELP was discontinued in 2010. Since then, Parent PLUS Loans have been referred to as Direct PLUS Loans.
2 The 2012 and 2016 questionnaires did not offer students the option of choosing an "Other" race category.
3 Average loan amounts were calculated only for students who took out each type of loan (or whose parents took out a PLUS Loan on their behalf).
4 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Data exclude students attending institutions in Puerto Rico.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1999-2000, 2011-12, and 2015-16 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:2000, NPSAS:12, and NPSAS:16). (This table was prepared June 2018.)

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