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Digest of Education Statistics: 2017
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

NCES 2018-070
January 2018


Table 202.30b. Percentage distribution of children who were under 6 years old and not yet in kindergarten, by reported availability of good child care choices, amount of difficulty finding the type of child care wanted, and selected child and family characteristics: 2012 and 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child or family characteristic Whether parent/guardian feels there are good choices for child care or early childhood programs where they live For children whose parent/guardian tried to find care,
amount of difficulty finding the type of child care or early childhood program wanted
2012 2016 2012 2016
No Yes Don't know No Yes Don't know No difficulty A little difficulty Some difficulty A lot of difficulty Did not find the child care program wanted No difficulty A little difficulty Some difficulty A lot of difficulty Did not find the child care program wanted
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Total children under 6
        years old
16.4   (0.53) 57.8   (0.61) 25.9   (0.64) 16.6   (0.82) 57.1   (0.96) 26.3   (0.88) 42.3   (0.89) 19.1   (0.65) 22.0   (0.82) 11.3   (0.57) 5.4   (0.44) 49.2   (1.16) 16.1   (0.77) 16.5   (0.66) 10.8   (0.64) 7.3   (0.82)
Age                                                                                                
Under 1 year old 15.7   (1.19) 49.9   (1.57) 34.4   (1.71) 15.8   (1.26) 48.2   (2.07) 36.0   (2.02) 33.2   (2.97) 24.1   (2.78) 23.2   (2.58) 13.3   (2.11) 6.2   (1.44) 41.5   (2.96) 13.0   (1.73) 19.8   (1.87) 15.9   (2.24) 9.7   (2.01)
1 to 2 years old 17.1   (1.00) 53.8   (1.21) 29.1   (1.14) 16.9   (1.25) 54.2   (1.38) 28.9   (1.48) 37.1   (1.71) 19.4   (1.03) 25.1   (1.51) 12.7   (1.09) 5.8   (0.74) 44.8   (2.16) 17.5   (1.57) 18.1   (1.50) 12.2   (1.14) 7.4   (0.87)
3 to 5 years old 16.0   (0.76) 66.5   (0.99) 17.6   (0.82) 16.8   (1.15) 65.4   (1.68) 17.8   (1.15) 48.0   (1.09) 17.5   (0.85) 19.7   (0.85) 9.9   (0.76) 4.9   (0.49) 54.7   (1.70) 16.1   (0.96) 14.4   (0.90) 8.3   (0.93) 6.6   (1.37)
                                                                                                 
Race/ethnicity of child                                                                                                
and poverty status of                                                                                                
household1                                                                                                 
White 15.5   (0.82) 62.5   (1.04) 22.0   (0.83) 14.7   (0.73) 63.2   (1.13) 22.2   (0.97) 45.6   (1.30) 21.0   (0.90) 21.2   (0.96) 8.6   (0.71) 3.6   (0.44) 52.6   (1.34) 17.4   (0.96) 16.3   (0.81) 8.5   (0.85) 5.1   (0.63)
Poor 18.7   (2.66) 52.5   (2.99) 28.8   (2.54) 18.5   (2.51) 55.0   (3.44) 26.5   (3.17) 42.4   (4.36) 15.5   (2.86) 20.8   (3.07) 13.2   (3.43) 8.1   (1.94) 53.0   (5.30) 14.8   (3.84) 5.4 ! (1.97) 9.6   (2.83) 17.2 ! (5.18)
Near-poor 17.7   (1.92) 52.1   (2.29) 30.2   (2.23) 18.8   (1.98) 55.0   (2.48) 26.2   (2.46) 45.3   (3.48) 18.6   (3.19) 19.3   (2.73) 9.5   (2.06) 7.3   (1.63) 49.0   (3.60) 10.9   (2.38) 20.3   (2.58) 11.3   (2.38) 8.5   (1.91)
Nonpoor 14.2   (0.95) 67.8   (1.25) 18.0   (0.93) 13.0   (0.72) 66.5   (1.26) 20.4   (1.23) 46.1   (1.51) 22.3   (1.20) 21.6   (0.99) 7.8   (0.77) 2.3   (0.39) 53.3   (1.37) 19.0   (1.13) 16.7   (0.90) 7.9   (0.81) 3.1   (0.52)
Black 19.2   (1.72) 60.6   (2.36) 20.2   (2.12) 19.0   (2.46) 58.6   (3.06) 22.4   (2.81) 41.8   (2.90) 16.6   (2.02) 21.2   (2.48) 14.0   (1.90) 6.4   (1.13) 47.0   (3.99) 15.7   (2.39) 14.9   (2.51) 15.0   (2.72) 7.5   (1.90)
Poor 16.3   (2.20) 62.4   (4.14) 21.3   (3.71) 15.8   (3.31) 63.8   (4.46) 20.5   (4.07) 45.8   (4.99) 16.0   (2.75) 17.5   (4.66) 11.7   (2.45) 8.9   (2.20) 51.3   (5.55) 12.8   (3.71) 13.5   (3.41) 14.8   (4.38) 7.5 ! (2.54)
Near-poor 22.7   (3.80) 56.2   (4.86) 21.1   (4.90) 18.2   (4.53) 59.5   (6.13) 22.3   (5.17) 37.4   (5.40) 17.4   (3.89) 25.0   (5.03) 12.3   (3.03) 7.9 ! (2.69) 47.4   (9.20) 8.9 ! (3.96) 12.3 ! (4.80) 19.5 ! (6.32) 11.9 ! (5.01)
Nonpoor 20.4   (3.21) 61.7   (4.23) 17.9   (3.45) 23.0   (4.71) 52.6   (5.07) 24.4   (4.00) 40.2   (5.19) 16.7   (3.66) 22.6   (3.70) 18.0   (4.26) 2.5 ! (1.11) 42.4   (5.23) 23.3   (4.31) 18.0   (4.09) 12.0 ! (4.11) 4.4 ! (2.11)
Hispanic 16.2   (1.02) 48.4   (1.44) 35.4   (1.58) 18.6   (1.71) 45.7   (2.09) 35.7   (2.30) 37.5   (2.10) 17.6   (1.79) 23.3   (1.65) 15.0   (1.38) 6.7   (1.09) 46.2   (3.05) 11.4   (1.45) 17.8   (1.99) 12.8   (1.62) 11.7   (2.92)
Poor 11.1   (1.50) 45.3   (2.75) 43.6   (2.97) 13.0   (2.58) 47.3   (3.74) 39.7   (3.78) 38.8   (4.30) 12.9   (2.89) 24.9   (2.81) 15.5   (2.47) 7.9   (2.01) 55.3   (4.87) 10.3   (2.97) 14.6   (3.93) 10.0   (2.56) 9.9   (2.37)
Near-poor 17.6   (2.22) 42.6   (3.04) 39.8   (2.88) 20.5   (3.55) 39.6   (3.86) 39.9   (4.63) 33.5   (4.30) 18.6   (3.72) 25.1   (3.93) 15.9   (2.86) 6.9 ! (2.14) 41.1   (5.95) 9.9   (2.46) 14.9   (2.81) 14.3   (3.23) 19.8 ! (8.09)
Nonpoor 20.0   (2.24) 56.1   (2.64) 23.8   (2.05) 20.6   (2.04) 49.7   (3.05) 29.6   (3.07) 38.9   (3.30) 19.7   (2.83) 21.3   (2.62) 14.2   (2.36) 5.8   (1.55) 45.1   (3.42) 13.0   (2.09) 21.4   (3.72) 13.3   (2.46) 7.3   (1.79)
Asian/Pacific Islander 15.9   (1.97) 54.2   (3.33) 29.8   (2.66) 14.7   (3.25) 48.6   (3.10) 36.6   (3.63) 31.1   (3.56) 18.5   (2.84) 29.4   (2.77) 13.6   (2.95) 7.4   (1.71) 43.0   (3.98) 21.2   (2.81) 20.0   (3.11) 9.1 ! (3.25) 6.7 ! (2.16)
Asian 16.2   (2.05) 53.7   (3.44) 30.2   (2.73) 15.0   (3.29) 49.3   (3.11) 35.7   (3.59) 28.7   (3.51) 19.0   (2.98) 31.0   (2.92) 13.6   (3.11) 7.7   (1.82) 43.0   (3.98) 21.2   (2.81) 20.0   (3.11) 9.1 ! (3.25) 6.7 ! (2.16)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska
     Native
  (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Two or more races 17.7   (2.61) 53.2   (3.28) 29.1   (3.13) 20.3   (2.73) 59.0   (3.65) 20.7   (2.63) 38.1   (3.52) 15.3   (2.35) 22.1   (3.16) 13.5   (3.01) 11.0 ! (3.44) 40.6   (4.81) 19.5   (2.97) 17.3   (2.92) 14.6   (3.02) 8.1   (1.98)
                                                                                                 
Number of parents in the                                                                                                
household2                                                                                                 
Two parents 16.6   (0.57) 58.2   (0.72) 25.2   (0.71) 16.1   (0.83) 57.0   (1.03) 26.8   (1.01) 42.8   (1.00) 19.9   (0.69) 21.4   (0.86) 11.1   (0.69) 4.9   (0.43) 48.4   (1.26) 16.9   (0.78) 16.8   (0.81) 11.0   (0.73) 7.0   (0.97)
One parent 15.6   (1.24) 56.6   (1.43) 27.8   (1.34) 18.6   (1.68) 58.4   (1.94) 23.0   (1.89) 39.0   (2.26) 17.1   (1.70) 24.7   (2.21) 12.9   (1.29) 6.3   (0.86) 51.3   (2.29) 14.0   (1.54) 15.0   (1.66) 11.3   (1.83) 8.3   (1.49)
                                                                                                 
Mother in household                                                                                                
Yes 16.3   (0.52) 57.8   (0.64) 25.9   (0.64) 16.6   (0.84) 57.3   (1.01) 26.1   (0.93) 41.5   (0.94) 19.4   (0.70) 22.3   (0.89) 11.5   (0.58) 5.3   (0.42) 49.0   (1.23) 16.1   (0.78) 16.4   (0.69) 11.1   (0.67) 7.4   (0.83)
No 17.1   (2.20) 56.9   (3.22) 26.1   (2.98) 16.2   (3.39) 54.4   (4.04) 29.5   (4.24) 50.9   (3.99) 15.0   (2.75) 18.7   (2.90) 9.6   (2.23) 5.8 ! (1.89) 51.7   (5.72) 16.2   (3.29) 19.5   (4.67) 5.6 ! (1.99) 6.9 ! (2.45)
                                                                                                 
Mother's employment status3                                                                                                 
Currently employed 16.7   (0.77) 63.2   (0.85) 20.2   (0.71) 17.7   (0.82) 62.8   (1.14) 19.6   (0.90) 40.6   (1.13) 21.3   (0.87) 23.1   (1.03) 10.3   (0.69) 4.6   (0.43) 48.1   (1.42) 16.9   (1.00) 18.1   (0.92) 12.2   (0.76) 4.8   (0.72)
35 or more hours per week 17.0   (0.97) 63.7   (1.10) 19.3   (0.86) 18.7   (0.99) 63.5   (1.28) 17.8   (0.86) 39.1   (1.29) 22.0   (1.03) 24.3   (1.03) 10.2   (0.76) 4.4   (0.48) 46.8   (1.65) 17.7   (1.21) 18.8   (1.12) 12.6   (1.02) 4.1   (0.57)
Less than 35 hours per
       week
15.9   (1.42) 61.8   (1.68) 22.3   (1.38) 14.9   (1.47) 60.6   (2.68) 24.5   (2.56) 44.7   (2.35) 19.6   (1.51) 19.7   (1.92) 10.6   (1.51) 5.4   (0.85) 52.1   (2.53) 14.2   (2.10) 15.7   (1.57) 10.7   (1.44) 7.3 ! (2.62)
Looking for work 19.1   (2.61) 49.3   (3.19) 31.6   (2.88) 15.8   (3.88) 58.6   (4.29) 25.6   (4.03) 39.9   (4.84) 14.9   (2.80) 22.5   (3.52) 14.7   (2.18) 8.0   (2.40) 46.9   (6.03) 14.1 ! (5.01) 15.2 ! (4.79) 7.7 ! (3.17) 16.1 ! (5.39)
Not in labor force 15.2   (1.03) 51.7   (1.31) 33.1   (1.16) 15.1   (1.44) 48.0   (1.69) 36.9   (1.82) 46.0   (1.82) 14.7   (1.36) 19.3   (1.30) 12.8   (1.34) 7.2   (1.01) 52.6   (2.70) 13.6   (1.36) 12.2   (1.33) 7.9   (1.10) 13.6   (2.15)
                                                                                                 
Mother's highest education3                                                                                                 
Less than high school 12.4   (1.75) 49.4   (2.67) 38.3   (2.62) 13.7   (3.07) 46.1   (3.45) 40.3   (3.50) 51.7   (3.92) 12.5   (2.49) 17.2   (2.88) 11.9   (2.48) 6.7 ! (2.13) 59.8   (5.41) 9.1 ! (2.91) 8.9   (2.61) 7.9 ! (2.41) 14.3 ! (5.58)
High school/GED 17.0   (1.39) 49.4   (1.93) 33.6   (1.56) 16.9   (1.83) 48.8   (2.43) 34.3   (2.42) 42.0   (2.64) 15.4   (1.88) 21.5   (2.62) 15.1   (1.69) 6.0   (1.33) 51.0   (3.00) 12.7   (1.91) 10.5   (1.85) 12.5   (2.20) 13.4   (2.75)
Vocational/technical or                                                                                                
some college 20.7   (1.30) 55.3   (1.48) 24.0   (1.19) 20.3   (1.59) 53.2   (1.91) 26.5   (1.78) 39.5   (2.15) 18.6   (1.68) 20.7   (1.58) 12.6   (1.50) 8.7   (0.99) 47.3   (2.82) 15.6   (1.78) 17.9   (1.95) 11.9   (1.64) 7.3   (1.33)
Associate's degree 16.5   (1.91) 60.3   (2.35) 23.2   (2.20) 19.0   (2.25) 56.3   (2.98) 24.6   (2.52) 42.1   (2.48) 19.3   (2.34) 21.9   (2.32) 10.6   (1.62) 6.2   (1.30) 49.2   (3.39) 13.1   (1.91) 18.4   (2.18) 9.9   (2.22) 9.4   (1.99)
Bachelor's degree 15.5   (1.00) 64.8   (1.42) 19.7   (1.10) 15.3   (1.15) 64.2   (1.45) 20.5   (1.20) 39.8   (1.94) 23.5   (1.50) 24.0   (1.34) 9.2   (0.85) 3.6   (0.59) 50.6   (1.82) 17.2   (1.30) 17.0   (1.31) 11.1   (1.31) 4.2   (0.69)
Graduate/professional degree 13.5   (1.12) 72.5   (1.44) 14.0   (1.10) 15.3   (1.34) 70.7   (1.64) 14.0   (1.25) 42.0   (1.61) 21.4   (1.37) 25.4   (1.52) 8.7   (1.07) 2.5   (0.45) 41.3   (1.78) 22.0   (1.54) 22.3   (1.37) 10.5   (1.06) 3.9   (0.73)
                                                                                                 
Language spoken most at home                                                                                                
by mother3                                                                                                 
English 16.8   (0.68) 60.4   (0.74) 22.8   (0.68) 17.7   (0.97) 60.4   (1.04) 21.9   (0.77) 43.3   (1.06) 19.8   (0.79) 21.5   (0.89) 10.3   (0.61) 5.1   (0.45) 50.6   (1.28) 16.2   (0.84) 16.3   (0.75) 10.2   (0.73) 6.7   (0.69)
Non-English 12.9   (1.42) 46.4   (2.36) 40.7   (2.47) 10.9   (1.77) 42.5   (3.37) 46.6   (3.86) 34.2   (3.16) 12.7   (2.13) 25.8   (2.94) 19.9   (2.59) 7.4   (1.41) 38.7   (4.45) 14.8   (2.35) 18.4   (3.00) 13.2   (2.77) 14.9 ! (5.94)
English and other language                                                                                                
equally 17.1   (2.60) 46.1   (3.08) 36.9   (3.33) 13.7   (2.49) 43.5   (3.79) 42.8   (4.62) 33.8   (4.31) 21.7   (3.92) 25.0   (3.53) 10.8   (2.62) 8.7 ! (2.62) 43.0   (3.51) 13.3   (2.42) 16.3   (2.76) 19.4   (4.18) 8.0   (2.19)
                                                                                                 
Mother's age when first                                                                                                
became parent3                                                                                                 
Less than 18 15.1   (1.78) 48.8   (3.01) 36.1   (3.09) 18.1   (3.88) 46.4   (4.70) 35.5   (4.97) 42.4   (4.69) 18.7   (4.04) 19.1   (3.60) 14.3   (2.80) 5.5 ! (1.84) 53.3   (6.04) 12.7 ! (4.49) 12.2   (3.31) 11.6 ! (3.65) 10.1 ! (3.86)
18 or 19 19.1   (2.34) 52.7   (2.68) 28.2   (2.40) 20.6   (2.69) 53.8   (3.57) 25.6   (3.06) 44.0   (3.24) 15.2   (1.93) 18.1   (2.40) 12.6   (2.13) 10.1   (2.28) 53.5   (4.91) 9.3   (2.32) 10.2   (1.85) 12.5   (2.72) 14.5 ! (4.77)
20 or older 16.0   (0.57) 59.5   (0.74) 24.4   (0.76) 15.8   (0.78) 58.5   (0.96) 25.7   (0.94) 41.5   (1.08) 19.9   (0.78) 22.9   (0.87) 10.8   (0.62) 5.0   (0.40) 48.4   (1.28) 17.0   (0.86) 17.6   (0.82) 10.6   (0.69) 6.4   (0.72)
                                                                                                 
Household income                                                                                                
$20,000 or less 15.4   (1.30) 53.6   (1.80) 31.0   (1.67) 18.6   (2.61) 56.3   (2.69) 25.1   (2.38) 40.9   (2.73) 15.7   (1.75) 22.8   (2.33) 12.6   (1.58) 8.1   (1.27) 52.8   (2.88) 11.6   (2.02) 11.5   (1.91) 11.0   (2.06) 13.0   (2.57)
$20,001 to $50,000 17.8   (0.99) 49.6   (1.45) 32.7   (1.51) 16.9   (1.32) 48.3   (1.89) 34.8   (1.97) 38.5   (1.85) 18.2   (1.68) 22.2   (1.74) 13.3   (1.32) 7.9   (0.99) 45.3   (2.96) 13.9   (1.78) 17.4   (1.79) 14.2   (1.74) 9.2   (2.02)
$50,001 to $75,000 17.5   (1.34) 57.6   (1.88) 24.9   (1.72) 22.2   (1.94) 51.8   (2.32) 26.0   (2.19) 43.3   (2.12) 15.4   (1.33) 23.3   (2.03) 12.4   (1.57) 5.6   (1.12) 48.4   (2.88) 15.2   (1.63) 15.7   (1.74) 9.3   (1.60) 11.4   (2.88)
$75,001 to $100,000 18.4   (1.89) 60.6   (2.14) 20.9   (1.83) 15.0   (1.93) 58.6   (2.48) 26.4   (2.09) 41.2   (2.45) 22.3   (2.02) 21.9   (2.02) 10.6   (1.68) 4.0   (0.94) 49.8   (2.61) 16.9   (2.00) 19.0   (1.98) 10.2   (2.16) 4.2 ! (1.31)
Over $100,000 13.3   (1.00) 70.2   (1.37) 16.5   (1.23) 12.5   (0.92) 68.8   (1.39) 18.7   (1.38) 46.2   (1.56) 22.5   (1.38) 20.6   (1.37) 8.5   (1.17) 2.3   (0.57) 50.5   (1.73) 19.6   (1.19) 17.5   (1.20) 9.5   (1.00) 2.9   (0.55)
                                                                                                 
Poverty status of household1                                                                                                 
Poor 14.9   (1.08) 52.4   (1.59) 32.7   (1.50) 17.1   (2.04) 53.1   (2.03) 29.9   (2.07) 43.3   (2.51) 14.6   (1.62) 20.7   (2.13) 13.2   (1.51) 8.3   (1.08) 52.0   (2.60) 12.3   (1.86) 11.2   (1.63) 11.7   (1.86) 12.8   (2.26)
Near-poor 17.7   (1.25) 49.8   (1.75) 32.5   (1.74) 19.3   (1.73) 49.1   (2.06) 31.6   (2.10) 39.6   (2.32) 17.7   (1.93) 22.7   (2.04) 12.5   (1.29) 7.6   (1.23) 45.7   (2.97) 11.1   (1.58) 16.2   (1.71) 14.3   (1.94) 12.7   (3.05)
Nonpoor 16.4   (0.77) 63.7   (1.05) 19.9   (0.87) 15.4   (0.83) 61.8   (1.09) 22.8   (0.95) 42.8   (1.17) 20.9   (0.99) 22.2   (0.86) 10.4   (0.83) 3.7   (0.49) 49.5   (1.24) 18.8   (0.97) 18.2   (0.92) 9.5   (0.84) 4.1   (0.57)
                                                                                                 
Household size                                                                                                
2 or 3 persons 16.7   (1.07) 56.7   (1.19) 26.7   (1.17) 18.5   (1.43) 57.4   (1.53) 24.1   (1.16) 36.0   (1.67) 21.4   (1.23) 24.4   (1.43) 13.1   (1.20) 5.0   (0.64) 41.4   (1.71) 19.8   (1.62) 20.2   (1.48) 12.8   (1.14) 5.8   (0.79)
4 persons 16.3   (0.92) 61.3   (1.26) 22.3   (1.06) 16.0   (1.06) 62.1   (1.31) 21.9   (1.19) 42.7   (1.44) 19.6   (1.16) 23.2   (1.38) 8.8   (0.83) 5.6   (0.70) 51.4   (1.70) 19.1   (1.39) 15.4   (0.95) 8.5   (0.89) 5.7   (0.86)
5 persons 19.0   (1.59) 56.9   (1.64) 24.1   (1.58) 16.6   (1.80) 52.4   (2.14) 31.0   (2.19) 45.2   (2.57) 19.4   (1.76) 16.8   (1.54) 12.2   (1.75) 6.4   (1.10) 54.5   (2.46) 10.6   (1.35) 16.1   (1.83) 10.2   (1.67) 8.6   (2.50)
6 or more persons 13.6   (1.10) 54.0   (1.87) 32.4   (1.92) 15.5   (2.03) 52.8   (2.53) 31.8   (2.17) 47.8   (2.69) 13.7   (1.77) 21.2   (2.05) 13.0   (1.82) 4.3   (0.99) 50.5   (3.73) 9.7   (1.71) 13.7   (1.98) 13.7   (2.39) 12.4   (3.28)
                                                                                                 
Locale                                                                                                
City 17.1   (1.00) 54.3   (1.22) 28.7   (1.18) 16.5   (1.37) 53.7   (1.63) 29.8   (1.43) 33.8   (1.69) 21.1   (1.57) 24.5   (1.51) 14.2   (1.28) 6.4   (0.92) 46.7   (2.07) 16.0   (1.32) 18.5   (1.47) 12.6   (1.21) 6.2   (0.96)
Suburban 13.5   (0.81) 61.1   (1.21) 25.3   (0.99) 14.4   (1.18) 60.2   (1.41) 25.5   (1.47) 45.3   (1.62) 18.3   (1.23) 21.1   (1.57) 10.7   (0.92) 4.6   (0.69) 48.9   (1.82) 17.3   (1.36) 15.5   (1.23) 9.8   (1.05) 8.4   (1.53)
Town 17.9   (2.36) 58.9   (2.52) 23.2   (1.88) 21.2   (1.91) 61.0   (2.71) 17.8   (2.67) 47.9   (3.11) 17.5   (1.95) 19.0   (2.02) 9.3   (1.82) 6.3   (1.45) 54.3   (3.49) 14.5   (2.33) 12.7   (2.21) 10.4   (2.43) 8.1   (2.27)
Rural 19.2   (1.55) 57.0   (1.90) 23.8   (1.68) 20.0   (1.69) 54.4   (2.43) 25.6   (2.15) 47.6   (1.92) 17.8   (1.30) 21.2   (1.74) 8.8   (1.41) 4.6   (0.78) 52.9   (2.68) 13.9   (1.43) 16.8   (1.86) 9.8   (1.67) 6.6   (1.16)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2015, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $24,257. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
2 Excludes children living apart from their parents.
3 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
NOTE: The 2012 administration of the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. For NHES:2016, initial contact with all respondents was by mail, and the majority of respondents received paper-and-pencil questionnaires. However, as an experiment with web use, a small sample of NHES:2016 respondents received mailed invitations to complete the survey online. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2012 and 2016). (This table was prepared December 2017.)