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Digest of Education Statistics
2017 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 102.51. Supplemental Poverty Measure estimates for all persons, persons in families, and related children under age 18, by race/ethnicity: 2009 through 2016
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Race/ ethnicity and year Number below the poverty level based on Supplemental Poverty Measure (in thousands) Percent below the poverty level based on Supplemental Poverty Measure
All persons In all families In families with female householder, no spouse present All persons In all families In families with female householder, no spouse present
Total Householder1 Related children under 182 Total Related children under 182 Total House-holder1 Related children under 182 Total Related children under 182
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Total3                                                
2009 45,927 (529.5) 34,003 (482.2) 10,133 (139.0) 12,331 (233.6) 12,912 (323.0) 5,843 (168.8) 15.1 (0.17) 13.6 (0.20) 12.8 (0.17) 16.8 (0.32) 28.5 (0.65) 32.6 (0.82)
2010 48,631 (560.3) 35,603 (491.9) 10,535 (144.1) 12,951 (225.2) 14,133 (307.9) 6,507 (159.7) 15.9 (0.18) 14.2 (0.20) 13.4 (0.18) 17.7 (0.31) 30.4 (0.56) 35.3 (0.73)
2011 49,603 (541.1) 36,709 (506.3) 11,075 (152.7) 12,965 (220.0) 14,926 (302.0) 6,833 (164.2) 16.1 (0.18) 14.5 (0.20) 13.8 (0.18) 17.9 (0.30) 31.0 (0.57) 36.1 (0.77)
2012 49,690 (555.1) 36,709 (505.3) 11,118 (148.3) 12,945 (216.8) 14,105 (348.3) 6,477 (184.1) 16.0 (0.18) 14.5 (0.20) 13.7 (0.18) 17.8 (0.30) 30.0 (0.62) 35.3 (0.79)
2013 48,603 (629.7) 35,550 (549.9) 10,778 (155.0) 11,827 (233.1) 13,694 (378.8) 6,080 (188.6) 15.5 (0.20) 13.9 (0.22) 13.3 (0.19) 16.3 (0.32) 29.1 (0.73) 33.5 (0.88)
                                                 
2014 48,253 (525.3) 35,217 (471.3) 10,787 (144.3) 11,907 (223.3) 13,784 (295.3) 6,075 (152.3) 15.3 (0.17) 13.7 (0.18) 13.2 (0.17) 16.4 (0.31) 28.7 (0.53) 33.2 (0.69)
2015 45,664 (549.8) 33,243 (518.4) 10,121 (148.4) 11,526 (223.7) 12,749 (304.9) 5,673 (158.9) 14.3 (0.17) 12.9 (0.20) 12.3 (0.17) 15.9 (0.30) 26.3 (0.55) 30.8 (0.74)
2016 44,558 (487.5) 32,216 (452.4) 9,914 (141.1) 10,870 (206.0) 12,593 (300.3) 5,648 (159.0) 13.9 (0.15) 12.4 (0.17) 12.0 (0.17) 15.0 (0.28) 26.1 (0.57) 31.2 (0.77)
                                                 
White                                                
2009 20,422 (351.3) 13,393 (299.8) 4,796 (104.0) 3,810 (122.2) 4,046 (164.4) 1,572 (77.5) 10.4 (0.18) 8.4 (0.19) 8.8 (0.19) 9.4 (0.30) 21.3 (0.76) 24.6 (1.05)
2010 21,746 (371.8) 13,972 (303.9) 4,917 (109.0) 3,894 (122.4) 4,242 (162.1) 1,660 (72.1) 11.0 (0.19) 8.9 (0.20) 9.1 (0.20) 9.8 (0.31) 21.9 (0.73) 25.5 (0.99)
2011 21,436 (344.0) 13,972 (305.6) 4,993 (105.1) 3,788 (122.9) 4,299 (156.4) 1,675 (75.3) 11.0 (0.18) 9.0 (0.19) 9.2 (0.19) 9.9 (0.32) 21.6 (0.66) 25.6 (0.96)
2012 20,923 (357.6) 13,561 (289.1) 4,870 (102.4) 3,582 (113.1) 3,972 (147.3) 1,510 (69.0) 10.7 (0.18) 8.7 (0.19) 9.0 (0.19) 9.4 (0.30) 20.7 (0.70) 24.6 (0.98)
2013 20,894 (396.1) 13,203 (336.3) 4,765 (116.7) 3,226 (128.2) 3,988 (201.2) 1,409 (83.9) 10.7 (0.20) 8.5 (0.22) 8.9 (0.21) 8.5 (0.34) 21.1 (0.95) 23.7 (1.26)
                                                 
2014 20,837 (345.2) 13,278 (301.3) 4,717 (108.1) 3,513 (115.1) 3,980 (159.5) 1,478 (72.8) 10.7 (0.18) 8.6 (0.20) 8.8 (0.20) 9.4 (0.31) 20.9 (0.72) 24.3 (1.02)
2015 19,700 (335.1) 12,794 (303.1) 4,498 (102.9) 3,743 (130.2) 3,836 (156.5) 1,581 (77.9) 10.1 (0.17) 8.3 (0.19) 8.4 (0.18) 10.0 (0.35) 19.8 (0.73) 25.0 (1.08)
2016 19,327 (346.3) 12,191 (282.5) 4,468 (106.9) 3,132 (101.8) 3,770 (142.9) 1,513 (70.1) 9.9 (0.18) 7.9 (0.18) 8.3 (0.19) 8.5 (0.28) 19.4 (0.70) 24.5 (1.10)
                                                 
Black                                                
2009 8,452 (214.3) 6,487 (191.4) 1,903 (55.9) 2,640 (96.4) 4,257 (168.4) 1,964 (89.4) 22.9 (0.58) 21.7 (0.64) 21.1 (0.56) 25.3 (0.94) 32.6 (1.07) 35.0 (1.35)
2010 9,327 (230.4) 7,080 (211.8) 2,081 (65.9) 2,936 (105.2) 4,739 (167.8) 2,218 (93.8) 25.1 (0.61) 23.8 (0.72) 23.0 (0.67) 28.7 (1.03) 34.8 (1.13) 38.0 (1.41)
2011 9,380 (242.4) 7,096 (227.8) 2,066 (69.8) 2,895 (114.6) 4,728 (185.2) 2,232 (102.1) 25.3 (0.65) 24.0 (0.76) 22.6 (0.71) 28.9 (1.13) 35.7 (1.16) 39.6 (1.54)
2012 9,623 (235.6) 7,348 (233.0) 2,213 (72.2) 2,877 (114.0) 4,633 (190.7) 2,147 (103.3) 25.6 (0.63) 24.6 (0.77) 23.8 (0.74) 28.8 (1.14) 35.6 (1.24) 39.1 (1.54)
2013 9,294 (275.9) 7,066 (252.1) 2,017 (67.3) 2,777 (121.2) 4,395 (200.6) 2,056 (111.1) 24.6 (0.74) 23.5 (0.85) 21.7 (0.74) 28.0 (1.22) 34.3 (1.39) 37.8 (1.80)
                                                 
2014 8,904 (207.2) 6,664 (180.0) 1,979 (56.9) 2,621 (101.2) 4,232 (150.3) 1,964 (86.4) 23.1 (0.53) 21.9 (0.59) 21.2 (0.54) 26.1 (0.99) 32.1 (1.02) 35.7 (1.40)
2015 8,944 (242.2) 6,539 (229.3) 1,945 (64.8) 2,415 (102.4) 4,049 (186.8) 1,768 (94.7) 22.8 (0.62) 21.2 (0.73) 20.8 (0.64) 24.0 (1.00) 29.7 (1.17) 31.7 (1.48)
2016 8,411 (225.1) 6,177 (215.0) 1,830 (64.1) 2,440 (109.6) 3,986 (189.4) 1,856 (101.3) 21.5 (0.57) 20.0 (0.69) 19.5 (0.63) 24.2 (1.07) 30.7 (1.26) 34.6 (1.60)
                                                 
Hispanic                                                
2009 13,329 (281.7) 11,239 (271.8) 2,674 (64.6) 4,879 (132.5) 3,842 (168.4) 1,953 (89.5) 27.3 (0.58) 26.3 (0.63) 25.7 (0.59) 29.3 (0.80) 37.4 (1.36) 41.9 (1.58)
2010 13,845 (279.4) 11,669 (262.5) 2,791 (63.3) 5,109 (136.5) 4,331 (160.6) 2,227 (94.3) 27.8 (0.56) 26.7 (0.59) 26.2 (0.53) 30.0 (0.80) 41.5 (1.19) 46.8 (1.51)
2011 14,571 (303.9) 12,397 (284.6) 3,081 (71.5) 5,210 (132.0) 4,907 (180.7) 2,473 (99.6) 27.9 (0.58) 27.1 (0.63) 26.6 (0.62) 30.2 (0.77) 43.2 (1.25) 47.5 (1.45)
2012 14,799 (273.5) 12,443 (264.0) 3,170 (69.8) 5,212 (127.6) 4,492 (172.7) 2,315 (99.3) 27.9 (0.52) 26.9 (0.56) 26.5 (0.52) 30.1 (0.74) 39.9 (1.16) 45.1 (1.49)
2013 14,062 (338.9) 11,883 (318.0) 3,032 (80.7) 4,747 (143.6) 4,371 (193.5) 2,175 (103.4) 26.0 (0.62) 25.1 (0.67) 25.0 (0.65) 27.0 (0.82) 37.4 (1.46) 41.2 (1.70)
                                                 
2014 14,106 (269.5) 11,878 (258.3) 3,123 (65.7) 4,684 (130.6) 4,551 (177.6) 2,190 (92.8) 25.4 (0.49) 24.6 (0.53) 25.1 (0.51) 26.6 (0.73) 38.2 (1.20) 42.7 (1.41)
2015 12,711 (290.3) 10,780 (278.9) 2,787 (75.0) 4,363 (131.6) 3,995 (174.1) 1,918 (96.6) 22.4 (0.51) 21.8 (0.57) 21.8 (0.56) 24.3 (0.73) 33.6 (1.21) 37.9 (1.59)
2016 12,645 (262.6) 10,733 (258.7) 2,748 (68.1) 4,305 (129.7) 3,901 (166.0) 1,872 (94.3) 22.0 (0.46) 21.2 (0.51) 21.1 (0.49) 23.7 (0.72) 32.7 (1.16) 37.3 (1.49)
                                                 
Asian                                                
2009 2,403 (109.7) 1,894 (102.8) 529 (28.1) 547 (42.3) 308 (43.0) 107 (17.7) 17.6 (0.78) 15.8 (0.84) 15.0 (0.76) 17.3 (1.30) 23.5 (3.00) 31.5 (4.46)
2010 2,262 (113.2) 1,747 (113.4) 504 (29.8) 440 (42.4) 346 (50.0) 105 (17.1) 16.1 (0.80) 14.3 (0.91) 14.5 (0.84) 13.9 (1.31) 26.7 (3.25) 31.1 (4.30)
2011 2,618 (125.6) 2,006 (114.5) 620 (34.5) 475 (40.5) 357 (52.5) 94 (21.3) 17.0 (0.80) 14.9 (0.84) 15.5 (0.84) 14.2 (1.20) 25.0 (3.27) 26.1 (5.25)
2012 2,628 (127.7) 2,018 (123.4) 556 (33.6) 556 (48.0) 368 (49.0) 122 (23.4) 16.5 (0.79) 14.7 (0.88) 13.9 (0.78) 16.5 (1.43) 26.2 (2.80) 37.1 (5.47)
2013 2,760 (160.0) 2,138 (149.5) 658 (42.9) 494 (51.7) 360 (58.4) 94 (21.2) 16.6 (0.93) 14.7 (1.00) 15.4 (0.93) 14.2 (1.45) 22.5 (3.39) 25.7 (5.46)
                                                 
2014 2,908 (148.7) 2,200 (132.2) 664 (36.7) 521 (47.0) 412 (46.8) 108 (17.6) 16.8 (0.83) 14.7 (0.87) 15.0 (0.79) 14.7 (1.31) 24.9 (2.55) 28.3 (4.06)
2015 2,847 (138.8) 2,036 (126.1) 631 (36.9) 484 (46.6) 296 (42.3) 81 (15.7) 16.1 (0.77) 13.4 (0.82) 13.8 (0.79) 13.7 (1.30) 21.6 (2.75) 30.2 (4.99)
2016 2,656 (118.7) 1,895 (108.1) 578 (33.4) 428 (39.2) 371 (48.1) 94 (17.1) 14.5 (0.65) 12.0 (0.68) 12.5 (0.71) 11.7 (1.06) 23.5 (2.74) 32.0 (5.26)
1 Refers to the person who owns or rents (maintains) the housing unit.
2 Refers to all children in the household who are related to the householder by birth, marriage, or adoption (except a child who is the spouse of the householder).
3 Total includes other racial/ethnic groups not shown separately.
NOTE: The estimates in this table are for the Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM), whereas poverty estimates in other tables are for the official poverty measure. The official poverty measure consists of a set of thresholds for families of different sizes and compositions that are compared to before-tax cash income to determine a family's poverty status. The SPM extends the information provided by the official poverty measure by adding to family income the value of benefits from many government programs designed to assist low-income families, subtracting taxes and necessary expenses such as child care costs (for working families) and medical expenses, and adjusting poverty thresholds for differences in housing costs. For more information about the SPM, see https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/supplemental-poverty-measure.html. SPM estimates can be generated only from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Official poverty estimates generated from the CPS are presented in table 102.50. To match the population included in the official poverty measure, SPM estimates presented in this table exclude unrelated children under age 15. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM) Research Files, 2009 through 2016. (This table was prepared October 2017.)

2017 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest