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Digest of Education Statistics: 2017
Digest of Education Statistics: 2017

NCES 2018-070
January 2018

Appendix A.2. Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) surveys over 7,300 postsecondary institutions, including universities and colleges, as well as institutions offering technical and vocational education beyond the high school level. IPEDS, an annual universe collection that began in 1986, replaced the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS). In order to present data in a timely manner, Digest of Education Statistics tables use “provisional” IPEDS data for the most recent years. These data have been fully reviewed, edited, and imputed, but do not incorporate data revisions submitted by institutions after the close of data collection. Tables are updated with these institutional revisions on a periodic basis.

IPEDS consists of interrelated survey components that provide information on postsecondary institutions, student enrollment, programs offered, degrees and certificates conferred, and both the human and financial resources involved in the provision of institutionally based postsecondary education. Prior to 2000, the IPEDS survey had the following subject-matter components: Graduation Rates; Fall Enrollment; Institutional Characteristics; Completions; Salaries, Tenure, and Fringe Benefits of Full-Time Faculty; Fall Staff; Finance; and Academic Libraries (in 2000, the Academic Libraries component became a survey separate from IPEDS). Since 2000, IPEDS survey components occurring in a particular collection year have been organized into three seasonal collection periods: fall, winter, and spring. The Institutional Characteristics and Completions components first took place during the fall 2000 collection; the Employees by Assigned Position (EAP), Salaries, and Fall Staff components first took place during the winter 2001–02 collection; and the Enrollment, Student Financial Aid, Finance, and Graduation Rates components first took place during the spring 2001 collection. In the winter 2005–06 data collection, the EAP, Fall Staff, and Salaries components were merged into the Human Resources component. During the 2007–08 collection year, the Enrollment component was broken into two separate components: 12-Month Enrollment (taking place in the fall collection) and Fall Enrollment (taking place in the spring collection). In the 2011–12 IPEDS data collection year, the Student Financial Aid component was moved to the winter data collection to aid in the timing of the net price of attendance calculations displayed on the College Navigator (https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/ ). In the 2012–13 IPEDS data collection year, the Human Resources component was moved from the winter data collection to the spring data collection, and in the 2013–14 data collection year, the Graduation Rates and Graduation Rates 200 Percent components were moved from the spring data collection to the winter data collection. In the 2014–15 data collection year, a new component (Admissions) was added to IPEDS and a former IPEDS component (Academic Libraries) was reintegrated into IPEDS. The Admissions component, created out of admissions data contained in the fall collection’s Institutional Characteristics component, was made a part of the winter collection. The Academic Libraries component, after having been conducted as a survey independent of IPEDS between 2000 and 2012, was reintegrated into IPEDS as part of the spring collection.

Beginning in 2008–09, the first-professional degree category was combined with the doctor’s degree category. However, some degrees formerly identified as first-professional that take more than 2 full-time-equivalent academic years to complete, such as those in Theology (M.Div, M.H.L./Rav), are included in the master’s degree category. Doctor’s degrees were broken out into three distinct categories: research/scholarship, professional practice, and other doctor’s degrees.

IPEDS race/ethnicity data collection also changed in 2008–09. The “Asian” race category is now separate from a “Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander” category, and a new category of “Two or more races” has been added.

The degree-granting institutions portion of IPEDS is a census of colleges that award associate’s or higher degrees and are eligible to participate in Title IV financial aid programs. Prior to 1993, data from technical and vocational institutions were collected through a sample survey. Beginning in 1993, all data are gathered in a census of all postsecondary institutions. Beginning in 1997, the survey was restricted to institutions participating in Title IV programs. The tabulations developed for editions of the Digest of Education Statistics from 1993 forward are based on lists of all institutions and are not subject to sampling errors.

The classification of institutions offering college and university education changed as of 1996. Prior to 1996, institutions that had courses leading to an associate’s or higher degree or that had courses accepted for credit toward those degrees were considered higher education institutions. Higher education institutions were accredited by an agency or association that was recognized by the U.S. Department of Education or were recognized directly by the Secretary of Education. The newer standard includes institutions that award associate’s or higher degrees and that are eligible to participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Tables that contain any data according to this standard are titled “degree-granting” institutions. Time-series tables may contain data from both series, and they are noted accordingly. The impact of this change on data collected in 1996 was not large. For example, tables on faculty salaries and benefits were only affected to a very small extent. Also, degrees awarded at the bachelor’s level or higher were not heavily affected. The largest impact was on private 2-year college enrollment. In contrast, most of the data on public 4-year colleges were affected to a minimal extent. The impact on enrollment in public 2-year colleges was noticeable in certain states, such as Arizona, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, and Washington, but was relatively small at the national level. Overall, total enrollment for all institutions was about one-half of 1 percent higher in 1996 for degree-granting institutions than for higher education institutions.

Prior to the establishment of IPEDS in 1986, HEGIS acquired and maintained statistical data on the characteristics and operations of higher education institutions. Implemented in 1966, HEGIS was an annual universe survey of institutions accredited at the college level by an agency recognized by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Education. These institutions were listed in NCES’s Education Directory, Colleges and Universities.

HEGIS surveys collected information on institutional characteristics, faculty salaries, finances, enrollment, and degrees. Since these surveys, like IPEDS, were distributed to all higher education institutions, the data presented are not subject to sampling error. However, they are subject to nonsampling error, the sources of which varied with the survey instrument.

The NCES Taskforce for IPEDS Redesign recognized that there were issues related to the consistency of data definitions as well as the accuracy, reliability, and validity of other quality measures within and across surveys. The IPEDS redesign in 2000 provided institution-specific web-based data forms. While the new system shortened data processing time and provided better data consistency, it did not address the accuracy of the data provided by institutions.

Beginning in 2003–04 with the Prior Year Data Revision System, prior-year data have been available to institutions entering current data. This allows institutions to make changes to their prior-year entries either by adjusting the data or by providing missing data. These revisions allow the evaluation of the data’s accuracy by looking at the changes made.

NCES conducted a study (NCES 2005-175) of the 2002–03 data that were revised in 2003–04 to determine the accuracy of the imputations, track the institutions that submitted revised data, and analyze the revised data they submitted. When institutions made changes to their data, it was assumed that the revised data were the “true” data. The data were analyzed for the number and type of institutions making changes, the type of changes, the magnitude of the changes, and the impact on published data.

Because NCES imputes for missing data, imputation procedures were also addressed by the Redesign Taskforce. For the 2003–04 assessment, differences between revised values and values that were imputed in the original files were compared (i.e., revised value minus imputed value). These differences were then used to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of imputation procedures. The size of the differences also provides an indication of the accuracy of imputation procedures. To assess the overall impact of changes on aggregate IPEDS estimates, published tables for each component were reconstructed using the revised 2002–03 data. These reconstructed tables were then compared to the published tables to determine the magnitude of aggregate bias and the direction of this bias.

Since the 2000–01 data collection year, IPEDS data collections have been web-based. Data have been provided by “keyholders,” institutional representatives appointed by campus chief executives, who are responsible for ensuring that survey data submitted by the institution are correct and complete. Because Title IV institutions are the primary focus of IPEDS and because these institutions are required to respond to IPEDS, response rates for Title IV institutions have been high (data on specific components are cited below). More details on the accuracy and reliability of IPEDS data can be found in the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175).

Further information on IPEDS may be obtained from

Richard Reeves
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative DataDivision
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
richard.reeves@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds

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Fall (12-Month Enrollment)

The 12-month period during which data are collected is July 1 through June 30. Data are collected by race/ethnicity, gender, and level of study (undergraduate or postbaccalaureate) and include unduplicated headcounts and instructional activity (contact or credit hours). These data are also used to calculate a full-time-equivalent (FTE) enrollment based on instructional activity. FTE enrollment is useful for gauging the size of the educational enterprise at the institution. Prior to the 2007–08 IPEDS data collection, the data collected in the 12-Month Enrollment component were part of the Fall Enrollment component, which is conducted during the spring data collection period. However, to improve the timeliness of the data, a separate 12-Month Enrollment survey component was developed in 2007. These data are now collected in the fall for the previous academic year. The response rate for the 12-Month Enrollment component of the fall 2016 data collection was nearly 100 percent. Data from 5 of 6,756 Title IV institutions that were expected to respond to this component contained item nonresponse, and these missing items were imputed.

Further information on the IPEDS 12-Month Enrollment component may be obtained from

Tara Lawley
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
tara.lawley@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/

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Fall (Completions)

This survey was part of the HEGIS series throughout its existence. However, the degree classification taxonomy was revised in 1970–71, 1982–83, 1991–92, 2002–03, and 2009–10. Collection of degree data has been maintained through IPEDS.

Degrees-conferred trend tables arranged by the 2009–10 classification are included in the Digest of Education Statistics to provide consistent data from 1970–71 through the most recent year. Data in this edition on associate’s and other formal awards below the baccalaureate degree, by field of study, cannot be made comparable with figures from years prior to 1982–83. The nonresponse rate does not appear to be a significant source of nonsampling error for this survey. The response rate over the years has been high; for the fall 2016 Completions component, it rounded to 100 percent. Because of the high response rate, there was no need to conduct a nonresponse bias analysis. Imputation methods for the fall 2016 IPEDS Completions component are discussed in the 2016–17 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Methodology Report (NCES 2017-078).

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) indicated that most Title IV institutions supplying revised data on completions in 2003–04 were able to supply missing data for the prior year. The small differences between imputed data for the prior year and the revised actual data supplied by the institution indicated that the imputed values produced by NCES were acceptable.

Further information on the IPEDS Completions component may be obtained from

Tara Lawley
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
tara.lawley@ed.gov

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Fall (Institutional Characteristics)

This survey collects the basic information necessary to classify institutions, including control, level, and types of programs offered, as well as information on tuition, fees, and room and board charges. Beginning in 2000, the survey collected institutional pricing data from institutions with first-time, full-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students. Unduplicated full-year enrollment counts and instructional activity are now collected in the 12-Month Enrollment survey. Beginning in 2008–09, the student financial aid data collected include greater detail. The overall unweighted response rate was 100.0 percent for Title IV degree-granting institutions for 2009 data.

In the fall 2016 data collection, the response rate for Title IV entities on the Institutional Characteristics component rounded to 100 percent: Of the 6,834 Title IV entities that were expected to respond, only 1 response was missing.

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) looked at tuition and price in Title IV institutions. Only 8 percent of institutions in 2002–03 and 2003–04 reported the same data to IPEDS and Thomson Peterson—a company providing information about institutions based on the institutions’ voluntary data submissions—consistently across all selected data items. Differences in wordings or survey items may account for some of these inconsistencies.

Further information on the IPEDS Institutional Characteristics component may be obtained from

Moussa Ezzeddine
Christopher Cody
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
moussa.ezzedddine@ed.gov
christopher.cody@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds

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Winter (Student Financial Aid)

This component was part of the spring data collection from IPEDS data collection years 2000–01 to 2010–11, but it moved to the winter data collection starting with the 2011–12 IPEDS data collection year. This move assists with the timing of the net price of attendance calculations displayed on College Navigator (https://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator/).

Financial aid data are collected for undergraduate students. Data are collected regarding federal grants, state and local government grants, institutional grants, and loans. The collected data include the number of students receiving each type of financial assistance and the average amount of aid received by type of aid. Beginning in 2008–09, student financial aid data collected includes greater detail on types of aid offered.

In the winter 2016–17 data collection, the Student Financial Aid component collected data about financial aid awarded to undergraduate students, with particular emphasis on full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students awarded financial aid for the 2015–16 academic year. In addition, the component collected data on undergraduate and graduate students receiving benefits for veterans and members of the military service. Finally, student counts and awarded aid amounts were collected to calculate the net price of attendance for two subsets of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students: those awarded any grant aid, and those awarded Title IV aid. The response rate for the Student Financial Aid component in 2016–17 rounded to 100 percent: Of the 6,682 Title IV institutions that were expected to respond, responses were missing for 10 institutions.

Further information on the IPEDS Student Financial Aid component may be obtained from

Bao Le
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
bao.le@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds

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Winter (Graduation Rates and Graduation Rates 200 Percent)

In IPEDS data collection years 2012–13 and earlier, the Graduation Rates and Graduation Rates 200 Percent components were collected during the spring collection. In the IPEDS 2013–14 data collection year, however, the Graduation Rates and Graduation Rates 200 Percent collections were moved to the winter data collection.

The 2016–17 Graduation Rates component collected counts of full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students beginning their postsecondary education in the specified cohort year and their completion status as of 150 percent of normal program completion time at the same institution where the students started. If 150 percent of normal program completion time extended beyond August 31, 2016, the counts as of that date were collected. Four-year institutions used 2010 as the cohort year, while less-than-4-year institutions used 2013 as the cohort year. Of the 5,995 institutions that were expected to respond to the Graduation Rates component, responses were missing for 11 institutions, resulting in a response rate that rounded to 100 percent.

The 2016–17 Graduation Rates 200 Percent component was designed to combine information reported in a prior collection via the Graduation Rates component with current information about the same cohort of students. From previously collected data, the following counts were obtained: the number of students entering the institution as full-time, first-time degree/certificate-seeking students in a cohort year; the number of students in this cohort completing within 100 and 150 percent of normal program completion time; and the number of cohort exclusions (such as students who left for military service). Then the number of additional cohort exclusions and additional program completers between 151 and 200 percent of normal program completion time was collected. Four-year institutions reported on bachelor’s or equivalent degree-seeking students and used cohort year 2008 as the reference period, while less-than-4-year institutions reported on all students in the cohort and used cohort year 2012 as the reference period. Of the 5,594 institutions that were expected to respond to the Graduation Rates 200 Percent component, responses were missing for 10 institutions, resulting in a response rate that rounded to 100 percent.

Further information on the IPEDS Graduation Rates and Graduation Rates 200 Percent components may be obtained from

Andrew Mary
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
andrew.mary@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/

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Winter (Admissions)

In the 2014–15 survey year, an Admissions component was added to the winter data collection. This component was created out of the admissions data that had previously been a part of the fall Institutional Characteristics component. Situating these data in a new component in the winter collection enables all institutions to report data for the most recent fall period.

The Admissions component collects information about the selection process for entering first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students. Data obtained from institutions include admissions considerations (e.g., secondary school records, admission test scores), the number of first-time degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students who applied, the number admitted, and the number enrolled. Admissions data were collected only from institutions that do not have an open admissions policy for entering first-time students. Data collected for the IPEDS winter 2016–17 Admissions component relate to individuals applying to be admitted during the fall of the 2016–17 academic year (the fall 2016 reporting period). Of the 2,045 Title IV institutions that were expected to respond to the Admissions component, responses were missing for 2 institutions.

Further information on the IPEDS Admissions component may be obtained from

Moussa Ezzeddine
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
moussa.ezzeddine@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds

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Spring (Academic Libraries)

From 1966 to 1988, the Academic Libraries Survey was conducted on a 3-year cycle as part of HEGIS. From 1988 to 1998, the survey was a part of IPEDS and conducted on a 2-year cycle. It remained on a 2-year cycle from 2000 to 2012, but during that period it was conducted independently of IPEDS. In 2014, the survey was reincorporated into IPEDS as the Academic Libraries component, with data collection occurring annually.

The Academic Libraries component collects information from degree-granting institutions on library collections, expenditures, and services. Institutions answer a screening question in the IPEDS Institutional Characteristics component to determine whether they should also respond to the Academic Libraries component. The component consists of two sections, one for institutions reporting any library expenditures and one for institutions reporting total library expenditures greater than $100,000. Of the 4,333 institutions that were expected to respond to the Academic Libraries component in the IPEDS spring 2017 data collection, all 4,333 provided data, resulting in a response rate of 100 percent.

Further information on the IPEDS Academic Libraries component may be obtained from

Richard Reeves
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
richard.reeves@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/

Top

Spring (Fall Enrollment)

This survey has been part of the HEGIS and IPEDS series since 1966. Response rates have been relatively high, generally exceeding 85 percent. Beginning in 2000, with web-based data collection, higher response rates were attained. In the spring 2017 data collection, the Fall Enrollment component covered fall 2016. Of the 6,742 institutions that were expected to respond, 6,734 provided data, for a response rate that rounded to 100 percent. Data collection procedures for the Fall Enrollment component of the spring 2017 data collection are presented in Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2016; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2016: First Look (Provisional Data) (NCES 2018-002).

Beginning with the fall 1986 survey and the introduction of IPEDS (see above), the survey was redesigned. The survey allows (in alternating years) for the collection of age and residence data. Beginning in 2000, the survey collected instructional activity and unduplicated headcount data, which are needed to compute a standardized, full-time-equivalent (FTE) enrollment statistic for the entire academic year. As of 2007–08, the timeliness of the instructional activity data has been improved by collecting these data in the fall as part of the 12-Month Enrollment component instead of in the spring as part of the Fall Enrollment component.

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) showed that public institutions made the majority of changes to enrollment data during the 2004 revision period. The majority of changes were made to unduplicated headcount data, with the net differences between the original data and the revised data being about 1 percent. Part-time students in general and enrollment in private not-for-profit institutions were often underestimated. The fewest changes by institutions were to Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP) code data. (The CIP is a taxonomic coding scheme that contains titles and descriptions of primarily postsecondary instructional programs.)

Further information on the IPEDS Fall Enrollment component may be obtained from

Tara Lawley
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
tara.lawley@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/

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Spring (Finance)

This survey was part of the HEGIS series and has been continued under IPEDS. Substantial changes were made in the financial survey instruments in fiscal year (FY) 1976, FY 1982, FY 1987, FY 1997, and FY 2002. While these changes were significant, a considerable effort has been made in this report to present only comparable information on trends and to note inconsistencies. The FY 1976 survey instrument contained numerous revisions to earlier survey forms, which made direct comparisons of line items very difficult. Beginning in FY 1982, Pell Grant data were collected in the categories of federal restricted grant and contract revenues and restricted scholarship and fellowship expenditures. The introduction of IPEDS in the FY 1987 survey included several important changes to the survey instrument and data processing procedures. Beginning in FY 1997, data for private institutions were collected using new financial concepts consistent with Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) reporting standards, which provide a more comprehensive view of college finance activities. The data for public institutions continued to be collected using the older survey form. The data for public and private institutions were no longer comparable and, as a result, no longer presented together in analysis tables. In FY 2001, public institutions had the option of either continuing to report using Government Accounting Standards Board (GASB) standards or using the new FASB reporting standards. Beginning in FY 2002, public institutions could use either the original GASB standards, the FASB standards, or the new GASB Statement 35 standards (GASB35).

Possible sources of nonsampling error in the financial statistics include nonresponse, imputation, and misclassification. The unweighted response rate has been about 85 to 90 percent for most of the years these data appeared in the Digest of Education Statistics; however, in more recent years, response rates have been much higher because Title IV institutions are required to respond. Since 2002, the IPEDS data collection has been a full-scale web-based collection, which has improved the quality and timeliness of the data. For example, the ability of IPEDS to tailor online data entry forms for each institution based on characteristics such as institutional control, level of institution, and calendar system and the institutions’ ability to submit their data online are aspects of full-scale web-based collections that have improved response.

The response rate for the FY 2016 Finance component was nearly 100 percent: Of the 6,825 institutions and administrative offices that were expected to respond, 6,816 provided data. Data collection procedures for the FY 2016 component are discussed in Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2016; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2016: First Look (Provisional Data) (NCES 2018-002).

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) found that only a small percentage (2.9 percent, or 168) of postsecondary institutions either revised 2002–03 data or submitted data for items they previously left unreported. Though relatively few institutions made changes, the changes made were relatively large—greater than 10 percent of the original data. With a few exceptions, these changes, large as they were, did not greatly affect the aggregate totals.

Further information on the IPEDS Finance component may be obtained from

Bao Le
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
bao.le@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds

Top

Spring (Human Resources)

The Human Resources component was part of the IPEDS winter data collection from data collection years 2000–01 to 2011–12. For the 2012–13 data collection year, the Human Resources component was moved to the spring 2013 data collection, in order to give institutions more time to prepare their survey responses (the spring and winter collections begin on the same date, but the reporting deadline for the spring collection is several weeks later than the reporting deadline for the winter collection).

IPEDS Collection Years 2012–13 and Later

In 2012–13, new occupational categories replaced the primary function/occupational activity categories previously used in the IPEDS Human Resources component. This change was required in order to align the IPEDS Human Resources categories with the 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) system. In tandem with the change in 2012–13 from using primary function/occupational activity categories to using the new occupational categories, the sections making up the IPEDS Human Resources component (which previously had been Employees by Assigned Position, Fall Staff, and Salaries) were changed to Full-Time Instructional Staff, Full-time Noninstructional Staff, Salaries, Part-Time Staff, and New Hires.

The webpage “Archived Changes—Changes to IPEDS Data Collections, 2012–13” (https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/InsidePages/ArchivedChanges?year=2012-13) provides information on the redesigned IPEDS Human Resources component. “Resources for Implementing Changes to the IPEDS Human Resources (HR) Survey Component Due to Updated 2010 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) System” (https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/Section/resources_soc) is a webpage containing additional information, including notes comparing the new classifications with the old (“Comparison of New IPEDS Occupational Categories with Previous Categories”), a crosswalk from the new IPEDS occupational categories to the 2010 SOC occupational categories (“New IPEDS Occupational Categories and 2010 SOC”), answers to frequently asked questions, and a link to current IPEDS Human Resources survey screens.

Of the 6,819 institutions and administrative offices that were expected to respond to the spring 2017 Human Resources component, 6,811 provided data, for a response rate that rounded to 100 percent. Data collection procedures for this component are presented in Enrollment and Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2016; and Financial Statistics and Academic Libraries, Fiscal Year 2016: First Look (Provisional Data) (NCES 2018-002).

IPEDS Collection Years Prior to 2012–13

In collection years before 2001–02, IPEDS conducted a Fall Staff survey and a Salaries survey; in the 2001–02 collection year, the Employees by Assigned Position (EAP) survey was added to IPEDS. In the 2005–06 collection year, these three surveys became sections of the IPEDS “Human Resources” component.

Data gathered by the Employees by Assigned Position section categorized all employees by full- or part-time status, faculty status, and primary function/occupational activity. Institutions with M.D. or D.O. programs were required to report their medical school employees separately. A response to the EAP was required of all 6,858 Title IV institutions and administrative offices in the United States and other jurisdictions for winter 2008–09, and 6,845, or 99.8 percent unweighted, responded. Of the 6,970 Title IV institutions and administrative offices required to respond to the winter 2009–10 EAP, 6,964, or 99.9 percent, responded. And of the 7,256 Title IV institutions and administrative offices required to respond to the EAP for winter 2010–11, 7,252, or 99.9 percent, responded.

The main functions/occupational activities of the EAP section were primarily instruction, instruction combined with research and/or public service, primarily research, primarily public service, executive/administrative/managerial, other professionals (support/service), graduate assistants, technical and paraprofessionals, clerical and secretarial, skilled crafts, and service/maintenance.

All full-time instructional faculty classified in the EAP full-time non-medical school part as either (1) primarily instruction or (2) instruction combined with research and/or public service were included in the Salaries section, unless they were exempt.

The Fall Staff section categorized all staff on the institution’s payroll as of November 1 of the collection year by employment status (full time or part time), primary function/occupational activity, gender, and race/ethnicity. These data elements were collected from degree-granting and non-degree-granting institutions; however, additional data elements were collected from degree-granting institutions and related administrative offices with 15 or more full-time staff. These elements include faculty status, contract length/teaching period, academic rank, salary class intervals, and newly hired full-time permanent staff.

The Fall Staff section, which was required only in odd-numbered reporting years, was not required during the 2008–09 Human Resources data collection. However, of the 6,858 Title IV institutions and administrative offices in the United States and other jurisdictions, 3,295, or 48.0 percent unweighted, did provide data in the Fall Staff section that year. During the 2009–10 Human Resources data collection, when all 6,970 Title IV institutions and administrative offices were required to respond to the Fall Staff section, 6,964, or 99.9 percent, did so. A response to the Fall Staff section of the 2010–11 Human Resources collection was optional, and 3,364 Title IV institutions and administrative offices responded that year (a response rate of 46.3 percent).

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) found that for 2003–04 employee data items, changes were made by 1.2 percent (77) of the institutions that responded. For all institutions making changes, the changes resulted in different employee counts. For both institutional and aggregate differences, however, the changes had little impact on the original employee count submissions. A large number of institutions reported different staff data to IPEDS and Thomson Peterson; however, the magnitude of the differences was small—usually no more than 17 faculty members for any faculty variable.

The Salaries section collected data for full-time instructional faculty (except those in medical schools in the EAP section, described above) on the institution’s payroll as of November 1 of the collection year by contract length/teaching period, gender, and academic rank. The reporting of data by faculty status in the Salaries section was required from 4-year degree-granting institutions and above only. Salary outlays and fringe benefits were also collected for full-time instructional staff on 9/10- and 11/12-month contracts/teaching periods. This section was applicable to degree-granting institutions unless exempt.

Between 1966–67 and 1985–86, this survey differed from other HEGIS surveys in that imputations were not made for nonrespondents. Thus, there is some possibility that the salary averages presented in this report may differ from the results of a complete enumeration of all colleges and universities. Beginning with the surveys for 1987–88, the IPEDS data tabulation procedures included imputations for survey nonrespondents. The unweighted response rate for the 2008–09 Salaries survey section was 99.9 percent. The response rate for the 2009–10 Salaries section was 100.0 percent (4,453 of the 4,455 required institutions responded), and the response rate for 2010–11 was 99.9 percent (4,561 of the 4,565 required institutions responded). Imputation methods for the 2010–11 Salaries survey section are discussed in Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2010, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Staff, 2010–11 (NCES 2012-276).

Although data from this survey are not subject to sampling error, sources of nonsampling error may include computational errors and misclassification in reporting and processing. The electronic reporting system does allow corrections to prior-year reported or missing data, and this should help alleviate these problems. Also, NCES reviews individual institutions’ data for internal and longitudinal consistency and contacts institutions to check inconsistent data.

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System Data Quality Study (NCES 2005-175) found that only 1.3 percent of the responding Title IV institutions in 2003–04 made changes to their salaries data. The differences between the imputed data and the revised data were small and found to have little impact on the published data.

Further information on the Human Resources component may be obtained from

Richard Reeves
Postsecondary Branch
Administrative Data Division
National Center for Education Statistics
550 12th Street SW
Washington, DC 20202
richard.reeves@ed.gov
https://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/