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Digest of Education Statistics: 2016
Digest of Education Statistics: 2016

NCES 2017-094
February 2018


Table 605.10. Gross domestic product per capita and public and private education expenditures per full-time-equivalent (FTE) student, by level of education and country: Selected years, 2005 through 2013
Country Gross domestic product per capita Elementary and secondary education
expenditures per FTE student
Higher education expenditures per FTE student
2005 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2005 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2005 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
  Current dollars
OECD average1  $28,772 $33,206 $33,471 $35,048 $36,388 $38,157 $6,751   $8,632   $8,501   $8,719   $8,798   $9,233   $11,342   $13,707   $13,211   $13,689   $14,765   $14,806  
Australia 33,983 39,971 40,801 43,208 43,158 47,245 7,142   9,139   9,803   9,383   8,688   9,446   14,579   16,074   15,142   16,267   16,662   18,337  
Austria 34,107 38,834 40,411 42,978 44,892 47,571 9,436   11,681   11,693   12,509   12,460   13,346   14,775   14,257   15,007   14,895   16,037   16,695  
Belgium 32,077 36,698 37,878 40,093 41,684 43,142 7,306   9,783   10,123   10,722   11,168   11,585   11,960   15,443   15,179   15,420   15,217   15,911  
Canada2,3 40,136 37,480 42,585 42,460 7,774   9,774   10,078   10,226   10,224     22,810 4,5  22,475 4  23,226 4  22,006 4     
Chile 12,635 14,578 15,107 17,312 21,486 21,260 2,099   2,635   2,935   3,203   4,407   4,202   6,873   6,829   6,863   7,101     7,880  
                                                             
Czech Republic 20,280 25,614 25,364 27,046 28,679 30,038 4,098   5,615   5,532   6,128   6,440   6,578   6,649   8,237   7,635   9,392     10,432  
Denmark 33,626 38,299 40,600 41,843 43,564 45,781 8,997 6  11,094 6  11,404 6  10,230 6  10,858   11,127   14,959 6  18,556 6  18,977 6  21,254 6    16,461  
Estonia 16,660 19,789 20,093 23,088 24,689 27,090 3,736   6,149   5,984   6,055   6,501   6,786   3,869   6,373   6,501   7,868   8,423   11,607  
Finland 30,468 35,848 36,030 38,611 40,209 41,044 6,610   8,314   8,591   9,180   9,406   9,579   12,285   16,569   16,714   18,002   17,965   17,868  
France 29,644 33,724 34,395 36,391 37,347 39,428 7,456   8,861 2  9,070 2  9,329 2  9,392 2  9,670   10,995   14,642   15,067   15,375   15,371   16,194  
                                                             
Germany 30,496 36,048 37,661 40,990 42,730 44,245 7,039   8,534     9,521   9,843   10,267   12,446   15,711     16,723   17,157   16,895  
Greece 25,472 29,381 27,539 26,622 25,462 26,689 5,493 3            6,130            
Hungary 17,014 20,154 20,625 22,413 22,494 23,999 4,027 4  4,506 4  4,555 4  4,527 4  4,400   4,589   6,244 4  8,518 4  8,745 4  9,210 4  8,933   9,980  
Iceland 35,571 36,718 35,509 38,224 40,464 42,968 8,815 6  9,309   8,592   9,326   9,230   9,773   9,474 6  9,939   8,728   8,612   10,868   11,256  
Ireland 38,061 39,750 41,000 42,943 45,210 47,674 6,411   9,615 4  9,638 4  9,830 4  10,017 4  9,324 4  10,468   16,420 4  16,008 4  16,095 4  14,228 4  13,381 4 
                                                             
Israel 21,474 27,454 26,552 30,168 31,296 33,696 5,041   5,464   5,692   6,277   6,406   6,382   10,919   11,214   10,730   11,554   12,496   15,185  
Italy2 27,750 32,397 32,110 33,870 35,334 36,036 7,410 4  8,943 4  8,489 4  8,534 4    8,784 4  8,026 4  9,562   9,580   9,990     11,172  
Japan6 30,290 32,324 35,238 34,967 35,695 36,353 7,343   8,502   9,168   9,102   9,440   9,537   12,326   15,957   16,015   16,446   16,929   17,883  
Korea, Republic of 21,342 27,171 28,829 29,035 32,022 32,664 5,638   8,122   7,396   7,652   7,984   8,320 3  7,606   9,513   9,972   9,927   9,928   9,323  
Latvia 19,984 15,004 22,434       4,995   5,066   5,995         7,552   7,489   8,193  
                                                             
Luxembourg 69,984 82,972 84,672 88,668 91,754 97,057 15,930 2,3,4  18,018 2  19,050 2  19,600 2  20,029   19,479              
Mexico 11,299 14,397 15,195 17,125 16,767 17,141 2,025   2,339   2,464   2,765   2,826   2,877   6,402   8,020   7,872   7,889   8,188   7,568  
Netherlands 34,724 41,089 41,682 43,150 46,062 48,025 7,045   10,030   10,075   10,268   10,480   10,552   13,883   17,849   17,161   17,549   19,305   18,947  
New Zealand 24,882 29,204 29,629 31,487 32,165 36,381 5,659   7,556   7,681   8,831   8,360   8,987   10,262   10,619   10,418   10,582   13,603   14,585  
Norway7 47,620 54,708 44,825 46,696 51,368 52,920 9,975   12,971   13,067   13,219   13,414 8  14,300 8  15,552   19,269   18,512   18,840   19,726 8  20,379 8 
                                                             
Poland4 13,573 18,910 20,034 21,753 22,869 24,479 3,165   5,167   5,693   6,066   6,301 2  6,644   5,593   7,776   8,866   9,659   8,569   8,929  
Portugal 19,967 24,935 25,519 25,672 27,204 27,850 5,646 2,4  7,288 2,4  7,419 2,4  7,282 2,4  7,691 4,6  8,741 6  8,787 4  10,481 4  10,578 4  9,640 4  10,047 4,6  11,106 6 
Slovak Republic 15,881 22,620 23,194 25,130 25,725 27,427 2,740 8  4,781 8  5,066 8  5,105 8  5,290 8  5,852   5,783 8  6,758 8  6,904 8  8,177 8  9,124 8  10,321 4 
Slovenia 23,043 27,150 26,649 28,156 28,455 29,114 7,065   8,670   8,505   8,867   8,601   8,910   8,573   9,311   9,693   10,413   11,729   12,064  
Spain 27,270 32,146 31,574 32,157 32,775 32,767 6,411   8,818   8,479   8,476   8,114   7,764   10,089   13,614   13,373   13,173   12,298   12,604  
                                                             
Sweden 32,770 37,192 39,251 41,761 43,869 45,277 7,861   9,709   10,044   10,548   10,789   10,914   15,946   19,961   19,562   20,818   22,824   23,219  
Switzerland4 35,500 44,773 48,962 51,582 55,623 59,723 10,721   13,411   13,510   14,623   14,815   17,679   21,734   21,577   21,893   22,882   24,669   25,126  
Turkey 14,442 15,775 17,781 18,002 19,193     2,020   2,501   2,852   3,327         8,193     10,638  
United Kingdom 31,580 34,483 35,299 33,886 37,170 38,853 6,888   9,602   9,980   9,738   10,045   11,545   13,506   16,338   15,862   14,223   24,313   25,744  
United States 41,674 45,087 46,548 49,321 49,895 51,764 9,771 2  11,818 2  11,826 2  11,841 2    11,843 9  23,435   27,066   25,576   26,021   26,562 9  27,924 9 
  Constant 2015 dollars
OECD average1  $34,920 $36,685 $36,382 $36,930 $37,565 $38,822 $8,193   $9,536   $9,241   $9,187   $9,082   $9,394   $13,765   $15,144   $14,360   $14,424   $15,242   $15,064  
Australia 41,243 44,160 44,349 45,528 44,553 48,068 8,668   10,097   10,655   9,886   8,968   9,610   17,694   17,758   16,459   17,141   17,201   18,656  
Austria 41,394 42,903 43,925 45,286 46,343 48,400 11,452   12,905   12,710   13,180   12,863   13,578   17,932   15,751   16,312   15,695   16,555   16,986  
Belgium 38,930 40,543 41,172 42,246 43,032 43,894 8,867   10,808   11,003   11,298   11,529   11,787   14,516   17,061   16,499   16,248   15,709   16,188  
Canada2,3 44,341 40,739 44,872 43,833 9,435   10,798   10,954   10,775   10,554     27,683 4,5  24,830 4  25,245 4  23,188 4     
Chile 15,334 16,105 16,420 18,241 22,181 21,630 2,547   2,911   3,191   3,375   4,549   4,276   8,341   7,545   7,459   7,482     8,017  
                                                             
Czech Republic 24,613 28,298 27,569 28,498 29,606 30,562 4,973   6,204   6,013   6,457   6,648   6,692   8,069   9,100   8,299   9,896     10,614  
Denmark 40,811 42,312 44,131 44,089 44,973 46,579 10,919 6  12,256 6  12,395 6  10,779 6  11,209   11,321   18,155 6  20,500 6  20,627 6  22,395 6  0   16,747  
Estonia 20,219 21,862 21,840 24,328 25,487 27,562 4,534   6,794   6,505   6,381   6,711   6,904   4,696   7,041   7,066   8,290   8,696   11,809  
Finland 36,978 39,604 39,163 40,684 41,509 41,760 8,022   9,185   9,338   9,673   9,710   9,746   14,910   18,305   18,167   18,968   18,546   18,180  
France 35,978 37,258 37,385 38,345 38,554 40,115 9,050   9,789 2  9,858 2  9,830 2  9,696 2  9,839   13,345   16,176   16,377   16,200   15,868   16,476  
                                                             
Germany 37,011 39,825 40,936 43,190 44,112 45,016 8,542   9,428     10,032   10,161   10,446   15,105   17,357     17,621   17,711   17,189  
Greece 30,914 32,460 29,934 28,052 26,286 27,155 6,667 3            7,440            
Hungary 20,649 22,266 22,419 23,617 23,221 24,417 4,887 4  4,979 4  4,951 4  4,770 4  4,542   4,669   7,578 4  9,411 4  9,505 4  9,704 4  9,222   10,154  
Iceland 43,171 40,565 38,597 40,277 41,772 43,717 10,698 6  10,285   9,339   9,826   9,529   9,943   11,499 6  10,980   9,487   9,075   11,219   11,452  
Ireland 46,193 43,915 44,566 45,248 46,671 48,505 7,781   10,623 4  10,476 4  10,357 4  10,341 4  9,486 4  12,704   18,141 4  17,400 4  16,959 4  14,688 4  13,614 4 
                                                             
Israel 26,062 30,331 28,861 31,788 32,308 34,283 6,118   6,037   6,187   6,614   6,613   6,493   13,252   12,389   11,663   12,174   12,899   15,449  
Italy2 33,679 35,792 34,902 35,688 36,476 36,664 8,993 4  9,880 4  9,227 4  8,992 4    8,937 4  9,741 4  10,563   10,413   10,526     11,366  
Japan6 36,762 35,711 38,302 36,845 36,849 36,986 8,912   9,392   9,965   9,591   9,745   9,704   14,960   17,629   17,407   17,329   17,476   18,194  
Korea, Republic of 25,902 30,018 31,336 30,594 33,057 33,233 6,843   8,973   8,039   8,062   8,242   8,465 3  9,231   10,510   10,839   10,460   10,249   9,486  
Latvia 21,057 15,489 22,825       5,264   5,230   6,099         7,957   7,731   8,335  
                                                             
Luxembourg 84,937 91,667 92,035 93,429 94,721 98,749 19,334 2,3,4  19,906 2  20,706 2  20,652 2  20,676   19,819              
Mexico 13,713 15,906 16,516 18,044 17,309 17,440 2,458   2,584   2,678   2,913   2,918   2,928   7,770   8,861   8,557   8,313   8,453   7,699  
Netherlands 42,143 45,395 45,306 45,467 47,551 48,862 8,550   11,081   10,951   10,819   10,819   10,736   16,849   19,720   18,654   18,492   19,930   19,277  
New Zealand 30,198 32,264 32,206 33,178 33,205 37,015 6,869   8,348   8,349   9,305   8,630   9,143   12,454   11,732   11,324   11,150   14,042   14,840  
Norway7 57,795 60,440 48,723 49,203 53,029 53,842 12,107   14,330   14,203   13,929   13,847 8  14,549 8  18,875   21,288   20,121   19,852   20,364 8  20,734 8 
                                                             
Poland4 16,473 20,892 21,776 22,921 23,608 24,906 3,841   5,708   6,188   6,392   6,505 2  6,760   6,788   8,591   9,637   10,177   8,846   9,085  
Portugal 24,233 27,548 27,738 27,050 28,084 28,335 6,852 2,4  8,052 2,4  8,064 2,4  7,673 2,4  7,940 4,6  8,894 6  10,665 4  11,579 4  11,498 4  10,157 4  10,372 4,6  11,300 6 
Slovak Republic 19,274 24,990 25,210 26,479 26,556 27,905 3,325 8  5,282 8  5,507 8  5,379 8  5,461 8  5,954   7,019 8  7,466 8  7,504 8  8,616 8  9,418 8  10,501 4 
Slovenia 27,967 29,995 28,967 29,668 29,375 29,621 8,574   9,579   9,245   9,343   8,879   9,065   10,405   10,287   10,536   10,973   12,108   12,274  
Spain 33,097 35,515 34,319 33,883 33,834 33,338 7,781   9,742   9,216   8,931   8,376   7,899   12,245   15,040   14,536   13,880   12,695   12,823  
                                                             
Sweden 39,772 41,089 42,664 44,004 45,288 46,066 9,541   10,726   10,918   11,114   11,138   11,105   19,353   22,053   21,263   21,936   23,562   23,624  
Switzerland4 43,084 49,464 53,220 54,352 57,421 60,763 13,011   14,816   14,685   15,408   15,294   17,987   26,378   23,838   23,797   24,110   25,466   25,563  
Turkey 15,955 17,147 18,736 18,584 19,527     2,196   2,635   2,944   3,385         8,633     10,823  
United Kingdom 38,328 38,096 38,368 35,706 38,372 39,530 8,360   10,608   10,848   10,261   10,370   11,746   16,392   18,050   17,242   14,987   25,099   26,192  
United States 50,578 49,812 50,596 51,969 51,508 52,666 11,858 2  13,056 2  12,854 2  12,476 2    12,050 9  28,442   29,902   27,800   27,418   27,421 9  28,410 9 
—Not available.
1 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country reporting data contributes equally. The average includes all current OECD countries for which a given year's data are available, even if they were not members of OECD in that year.
2 Education expenditures exclude postsecondary non-higher-education.
3 Elementary and secondary education expenditures include preprimary education (for children ages 3 and older).
4 Education expenditures include public institutions only.
5 Excludes occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States.
6 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
7 The GDP mainland market value is used for Norway.
8 Occupation-specific education corresponding to that offered at the vocational associate's degree level in the United States is included in elementary and secondary education instead of in higher education.
9 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in higher education.
NOTE: Includes all expenditures by public and private education institutions (such as administration, instruction, ancillary services for students and families, and research and development) unless otherwise noted. Expenditures for International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) level 4 (postsecondary non-higher-education) are included in elementary and secondary education unless otherwise noted. ISCED was revised in 2011. The previous version, ISCED 1997, was used to calculate all data for years prior to 2012 (with the exception of Canada’s 2011 data, which were calculated using ISCED 2011). ISCED 2011 was used to calculate all data for 2012 and later years (with the exception of Chile’s 2012 data, which were calculated using ISCED 1997). Data calculated using ISCED 2011 may not be directly comparable to data calculated using ISCED 1997. Data adjusted to U.S. dollars using the purchasing power parity (PPP) index. Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education at a Glance, selected years, 2008 through 2016; and Online Education Database, retrieved December 6, 2016, from http://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx. (This table was prepared January 2017.)