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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 401.10. Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2016
[In thousands of dollars]
Fiscal year Total
on-budget support,
off-budget support, and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation
On-budget support1 Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation Estimated federal tax expendi-tures for education2
Total Elementary and secondary Post-secondary Other
educa-tion3
Research at educational institutions Total Off-budget support Nonfederal funds
Direct Loan Program4 Federal Family Education Loan Program5 Perkins Loans6 Income Contingent Loans7 Leveraging Educational Assistance Partner-ships8 Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants9 Work-Study Aid10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Current dollars
1965 $5,324,767 $5,331,016 $1,942,577 $1,197,511 $374,652 $1,816,276   -$6,249 $16,111   -$22,360  
1970 13,318,909 12,511,079 5,830,442 3,432,277 964,719 2,283,641   807,830 $770,000 20,976 -$30,986   47,840  
1975 24,412,487 23,288,120 10,617,195 7,644,037 1,608,478 3,418,410   1,124,367 1,233,000 35,667 $20,000 -39,300   -125,000   $8,605,000
1980 39,273,874 34,465,612 16,027,686 11,087,992 1,548,730 5,801,204   4,808,262 4,598,000 31,778 76,800 -8,477   110,161   13,320,000
1985 47,642,802 39,027,876 16,901,334 11,174,379 2,107,588 8,844,575   8,614,926 8,467,000 21,387 76,000 -12,961   63,500   19,105,000
                                     
1990 62,748,203 51,593,753 21,984,361 13,620,326 3,383,031 12,606,035   11,154,450 10,826,000 15,014 $500 59,181 127,719   126,036   19,040,000
1991 70,349,116 57,599,477 25,418,031 14,707,407 3,698,617 13,775,422   12,749,639 12,372,000 17,349 500 63,530 131,115   165,145   18,995,000
1992 74,481,656 60,483,092 27,926,887 14,387,387 3,991,955 14,176,863   13,998,564 13,568,000 17,333 542 72,000 175,656   165,033   19,950,000
1993 84,692,869 67,740,617 30,834,326 17,844,015 4,107,193 14,955,083   16,952,252 16,524,000 29,255 72,429 172,023   154,545   21,010,000
1994 92,724,117 68,254,205 32,304,356 16,177,051 4,483,704 15,289,094   24,469,912 $818,540 23,214,000 52,667 72,429 172,000   140,276   22,630,000
                                     
1995 95,217,958 71,639,520 33,623,809 17,618,137 4,719,655 15,677,919   23,578,438 4,615,671 18,519,000 52,667 63,400 181,000   146,700   24,600,000
1996 96,853,432 71,327,362 34,391,501 15,775,508 4,828,038 16,332,315   25,526,070 8,414,470 16,711,000 31,100 31,400 179,000   159,100   26,340,000
1997 103,060,841 73,731,845 35,478,905 15,959,425 5,021,163 17,272,352   29,328,996 9,758,696 19,163,000 52,700 50,000 228,200   76,400   28,125,000
1998 107,393,639 76,909,233 37,486,166 15,799,570 5,148,492 18,475,005   30,484,406 10,087,664 20,002,500 45,000 25,000 240,950   83,292   29,540,000
1999 113,137,861 82,863,597 39,937,911 17,651,199 5,318,020 19,956,467   30,274,264 9,805,764 20,107,000 33,300 25,000 255,900   47,300   37,360,000
                                     
2000 119,877,488 86,223,885 43,790,783 14,977,852 5,795,116 21,660,134   33,653,603 10,577,535 22,711,000 33,300 50,000 276,743   5,025   39,475,000
2001 130,307,565 94,846,476 48,530,061 14,938,278 5,880,007 25,498,130   35,461,089 10,324,341 24,694,000 25,000 80,000 316,655   21,093   41,460,000
2002 149,459,682 109,211,479 52,754,118 22,964,176 6,297,697 27,195,488   40,248,203 11,117,896 28,606,000 25,000 104,000 308,811   86,496  
2003 170,450,390 124,374,489 59,274,219 29,499,694 6,532,502 29,068,074   46,075,901 11,742,063 33,791,000 33,000 103,000 304,671   102,167  
2004 184,648,526 132,420,703 62,653,231 32,432,974 6,576,821 30,757,677   52,227,823 12,448,155 39,266,000 33,000 102,000 295,143   83,525  
                                     
2005 204,626,929 148,306,678 69,029,389 38,560,566 7,297,025 33,419,698   56,320,251 12,569,446 43,284,000 0 101,000 305,644   60,161  
200611 226,449,825 166,495,661 70,948,229 57,757,738 7,074,484 30,715,210   59,954,164 12,175,674 47,307,000 0 100,000 309,608   61,882  
2007 209,994,867 145,697,988 70,735,875 37,465,287 7,214,906 30,281,920   64,296,879 12,507,162 51,320,000 0 100,000 287,126   82,591  
2008 219,998,213 144,338,889 71,272,580 36,386,271 7,882,220 28,797,817   75,659,324 17,850,773 57,296,000 0 98,000 281,812   132,739  
200912 367,606,421 271,297,568 172,660,784 53,085,401 8,853,694 36,697,689   96,308,853 28,857,577 66,778,000 0 98,000 309,058   266,218  
                                     
2010 271,538,873 170,640,505 75,187,097 49,227,882 9,232,220 36,993,306   100,898,368 80,709,552 19,618,000 0 98,000 255,108   217,708  
2011 292,447,776 182,101,478 74,538,319 64,741,176 10,804,871 32,017,112   110,346,298 109,917,342 0 0 0 231,480   197,476  
2012 293,051,015 188,010,977 76,283,637 70,200,145 9,351,012 32,176,184   105,040,038 104,612,005 0 0 0 243,871   184,162  
2013 280,986,150 178,918,154 75,823,798 63,549,350 9,239,858 30,305,148   102,067,996 101,729,011 0 0 0 192,116   146,869  
2014 287,909,179 188,354,107 77,243,750 69,443,305 9,463,416 32,203,636   99,555,072 99,186,791 0 0 0 249,553   118,728  
                                     
2015 291,750,690 195,792,216 79,005,904 74,901,134 9,494,286 32,390,891   95,958,475 95,589,178 0 0 0 249,553 13  119,743 13 
2016 284,749,780 188,918,425 82,096,684 63,331,075 9,035,880 34,454,786 13  95,831,355 95,462,059 0 0 0 249,553 13  119,743 13 
  Constant fiscal year 2016 dollars14 
1965 $38,634,562 $38,679,902 $14,094,628 $8,688,702 $2,718,338 $13,178,234   -$45,340 $116,896   -$162,236  
1970 79,029,735 74,236,355 34,595,798 20,365,928 5,724,304 13,550,325   4,793,380 $4,568,910 124,464 -$183,860   283,866  
1975 102,070,465 97,369,401 44,391,300 31,960,300 6,725,169 14,292,632   4,701,064 5,155,267 149,126 $83,622 -164,316   -522,635   $35,978,160
1980 112,006,584 98,293,727 45,709,938 31,622,246 4,416,879 16,544,664   13,712,857 13,113,203 90,629 219,029 -24,176   314,172   37,987,790
1985 99,932,817 81,862,641 35,451,272 23,438,738 4,420,756 18,551,875   18,070,176 17,759,895 44,860 159,413 -27,186   133,194   40,073,555
                                     
1990 113,363,276 93,211,225 39,717,778 24,606,996 6,111,912 22,774,539   20,152,051 19,558,661 27,125 $903 106,919 230,742   227,701   34,398,384
1991 121,467,030 99,453,096 43,887,584 25,394,279 6,386,150 23,785,084   22,013,934 21,361,890 29,955 863 109,693 226,387   285,145   32,797,374
1992 123,949,092 100,653,298 46,474,695 23,942,856 6,643,236 23,592,511   23,295,794 22,579,268 28,845 902 119,819 292,319   274,641   33,199,911
1993 136,878,836 109,480,963 49,833,790 28,839,122 6,637,959 24,170,091   27,397,874 26,705,742 47,281 117,058 278,020   249,772   33,955,921
1994 147,157,092 108,322,307 51,268,378 25,673,663 7,115,828 24,264,438   38,834,785 $1,299,058 36,841,599 83,585 114,948 272,971   222,624   35,914,766
                                     
1995 146,854,086 110,489,202 51,857,799 27,172,347 7,279,096 24,179,960   36,364,884 7,118,722 28,561,743 81,228 97,781 279,155   226,255   37,940,433
1996 146,312,438 107,751,269 51,953,805 23,831,402 7,293,516 24,672,547   38,561,169 12,711,389 25,244,610 46,981 47,435 270,408   240,346   39,790,739
1997 152,560,372 109,144,828 52,519,220 23,624,645 7,432,799 25,568,164   43,415,544 14,445,741 28,366,879 78,012 74,015 337,803   113,094   41,633,276
1998 157,587,124 112,854,960 55,006,396 23,183,950 7,554,787 27,109,826   44,732,164 14,802,422 29,351,240 66,032 36,684 353,565   122,221   43,346,363
1999 163,924,060 120,060,050 57,865,550 25,574,606 7,705,214 28,914,680   43,864,010 14,207,451 29,132,786 48,248 36,222 370,770   68,532   54,130,446
                                     
2000 169,483,004 121,903,480 61,911,486 21,175,714 8,193,145 30,623,135   47,579,524 14,954,538 32,108,852 47,080 70,690 391,260   7,104   55,809,824
2001 179,433,660 130,603,702 66,825,947 20,570,025 8,096,776 35,110,953   48,829,958 14,216,629 34,003,665 34,425 110,160 436,034   29,045   57,090,466
2002 202,441,603 147,925,826 71,454,911 31,104,740 8,530,166 36,836,009   54,515,777 15,059,075 38,746,533 33,862 140,867 418,281   117,158  
2003 224,530,629 163,835,836 78,080,652 38,859,312 8,605,124 38,290,748   60,694,793 15,467,567 44,512,157 43,470 135,680 401,337   134,582  
2004 237,026,610 169,983,650 80,425,679 41,633,032 8,442,426 39,482,514   67,042,960 15,979,244 50,404,339 42,361 130,934 378,864   107,218  
                                     
2005 253,907,746 184,023,747 85,653,910 47,847,204 9,054,386 41,468,248   69,883,999 15,596,578 53,708,194 0 125,324 379,253   74,650  
200611 271,595,171 199,688,463 85,092,565 69,272,399 8,484,863 36,838,636   71,906,708 14,603,033 56,738,188 0 119,936 371,332   74,219  
2007 245,382,367 170,250,433 82,656,003 43,778,788 8,430,733 35,384,909   75,131,934 14,614,819 59,968,242 0 116,852 335,511   96,509  
2008 248,390,768 162,966,994 80,470,885 41,082,215 8,899,485 32,514,409   85,423,774 20,154,560 64,690,514 0 110,648 318,182   149,870  
200912 414,218,915 305,698,099 194,554,172 59,816,630 9,976,342 41,350,956   108,520,816 32,516,718 75,245,450 0 110,426 348,247   299,974  
                                     
2010 301,240,526 189,305,623 83,411,264 54,612,560 10,242,065 41,039,733   111,934,903 89,537,780 21,763,870 0 108,720 283,012   241,521  
2011 317,008,325 197,394,849 80,798,247 70,178,314 11,712,293 34,705,995   119,613,476 119,148,495 0 0 0 250,920   214,061  
2012 311,430,617 199,802,668 81,068,001 74,602,964 9,937,489 34,194,213   111,627,949 111,173,071 0 0 0 259,166   195,712  
2013 294,745,107 187,679,181 79,536,637 66,661,150 9,692,303 31,789,091   107,065,926 106,710,342 0 0 0 201,523   154,061  
2014 297,574,814 194,677,497 79,836,963 71,774,643 9,781,120 33,284,771   102,897,317 102,516,672 0 0 0 257,931   122,714  
                                     
2015 297,345,041 199,546,553 80,520,851 76,337,372 9,676,340 33,011,989   97,798,489 97,422,111 0 0 0 254,338 13  122,039 13 
2016 284,749,780 188,918,425 82,096,684 63,331,075 9,035,880 34,454,786 13  95,831,355 95,462,059 0 0 0 249,553 13  119,743 13 
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
1 On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations. Excludes federal support for medical education benefits under Medicare in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Benefits are excluded because data before fiscal year (FY) 1990 are not available. This program existed since Medicare began, but was not available as a separate budget item until FY 1990. Excluded amounts range from an estimated $4,440,000,000 in FY 1990 to an estimated $12,100,000,000 in FY 2016.
2 Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
3 Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research.
4 The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (commonly referred to as the Direct Loan Program) provides students with the same benefits they were eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders.
5 The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, formerly known as the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, provided student loans guaranteed by the federal government and disbursed to borrowers. After June 30, 2010, no new FFEL loans have been originated; all new loans are originated through the Direct Loan Program.
6 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993 one-third of federal capital contributions). Excludes repayments of outstanding loans.
7 Student loans created from institutional matching funds (one-ninth of federal contributions). This was a demonstration project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in fiscal year 1992.
8 Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant Program. Starting in fiscal year 2000, amounts under $30.0 million have required dollar-for-dollar state matching contributions, while amounts over $30.0 million have required two-to-one state matching contributions.
9 Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 percent of the total grant.
10 Employer contributions to student earnings are generally one-third of federal allocation.
11 The increase in postsecondary expenditures in 2006 resulted primarily from an accounting adjustment.
12 All education funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) are included in the FY 2009 row of this table. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that they were available for the Department of Education to obligate during FY 2009 and FY 2010.
13 Estimated.
14 Data adjusted by the federal budget composite deflator, as reported in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2017.
NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data do not represent obligations, but instead represent appropriations or (especially for earlier years) outlays. Negative amounts occur when program receipts exceed outlays. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2017. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 through 2016. (This table was prepared May 2017.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest