Skip Navigation
Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 220.39. Percentage distribution of fall 2010 first-time kindergartners, by two risk factors (low parental education and family poverty) and selected child, family, and school characteristics: 2010-11
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, family, or school characteristic All first-time kindergartners Percentage distribution, by two risk factors1
Total number (in thousands) Percentage distribution, by selected characteristics Total Both risk factors: No parent completed high school2  and family below poverty threshold3 One risk factor: No parent completed high school One risk factor: Family below poverty threshold Neither risk factor
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Total 3,759   (28.1) 100.0   (†) 100.0 (†) 5.5   (0.49) 2.0   (0.23) 17.7   (0.83) 74.8   (1.07)
                                         
Sex of child                                        
Male 1,914   (21.3) 50.9   (0.48) 100.0 (†) 6.0   (0.66) 1.9   (0.24) 18.0   (1.18) 74.1   (1.42)
Female 1,844   (24.3) 49.1   (0.48) 100.0 (†) 5.0   (0.49) 2.1   (0.31) 17.4   (0.88) 75.6   (1.07)
                                         
Age of child at kindergarten entry                                        
Less than 5 years old 132   (21.1) 3.5   (0.56) 100.0 (†) 5.2 ! (2.35)   (†) 18.9   (3.83) 74.2   (4.97)
5 years old to 5 1/2 years old 1,635   (30.3) 43.5   (0.68) 100.0 (†) 5.2   (0.61) 2.7   (0.36) 18.2   (1.17) 73.9   (1.41)
More than 5 1/2 years old to 6 years old 1,635   (27.1) 43.5   (0.68) 100.0 (†) 6.1   (0.73) 1.5   (0.28) 18.0   (1.08) 74.4   (1.37)
More than 6 years old 357   (21.5) 9.5   (0.56) 100.0 (†) 4.7   (1.00) 1.2 ! (0.50) 13.4   (2.05) 80.7   (2.56)
                                         
Race/ethnicity of child                                        
White 1,964   (65.5) 52.3   (1.68) 100.0 (†) 1.1   (0.23) 0.3   (0.08) 11.1   (1.02) 87.5   (1.03)
Black 488   (44.9) 13.0   (1.20) 100.0 (†) 7.6   (1.88) 1.2 ! (0.48) 31.4   (2.26) 59.9   (2.08)
Hispanic 923   (46.9) 24.6   (1.25) 100.0 (†) 14.7   (1.39) 6.0   (0.84) 27.5   (1.84) 51.8   (2.71)
Asian 165   (25.4) 4.4   (0.68) 100.0 (†) 7.5 ! (2.81) 5.0 ! (1.71) 12.9   (2.60) 74.6   (3.68)
Pacific Islander   (†)   (†) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 42 ! (18.7) 1.1 ! (0.50) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 8.8 ! (3.99) 75.2   (4.35)
Two or more races 161   (8.5) 4.3   (0.22) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 14.6   (2.26) 83.4   (2.52)
                                         
How often child exhibited positive learning
      behaviors, fall 20104
                                       
Never 43   (5.4) 1.2   (0.15) 100.0 (†) 5.0 ! (2.48)   (†) 32.0   (7.73) 60.1   (7.57)
Sometimes 872   (24.3) 23.8   (0.66) 100.0 (†) 8.2   (1.22) 2.2   (0.51) 23.1   (1.34) 66.5   (2.12)
Often 1,780   (37.2) 48.5   (0.94) 100.0 (†) 4.8   (0.60) 1.8   (0.30) 17.1   (1.21) 76.3   (1.28)
Very often 971   (33.8) 26.5   (0.85) 100.0 (†) 4.1   (0.61) 1.9   (0.46) 13.0   (1.16) 81.0   (1.50)
                                         
Primary type of nonparental care arrangement
      prior to kindergarten entry5
                                       
No regular nonparental arrangement 751   (37.8) 20.6   (0.99) 100.0 (†) 10.1   (1.33) 3.6   (0.67) 25.8   (1.60) 60.5   (2.34)
Home-based care                                        
Relative care 548   (23.5) 15.0   (0.64) 100.0 (†) 6.0   (1.27) 1.9 ! (0.67) 21.5   (2.36) 70.6   (2.70)
Nonrelative care 240   (16.8) 6.6   (0.45) 100.0 (†)   (†) 1.5 ! (0.71) 6.5   (1.29) 91.1   (1.16)
Center-based care 2,008   (39.7) 55.2   (1.11) 100.0 (†) 4.5   (0.54) 1.6   (0.22) 14.9   (0.96) 79.1   (0.94)
Multiple arrangements 93   (8.2) 2.6   (0.22) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 10.9 ! (3.40) 88.4   (3.44)
                                         
Household type, fall 20106                                        
Two-parent household 2,757   (42.3) 78.6   (0.91) 100.0 (†) 3.8   (0.40) 1.8   (0.26) 12.0   (0.82) 82.4   (1.17)
Mother-only household 641   (31.6) 18.3   (0.88) 100.0 (†) 10.1   (1.66) 2.2   (0.46) 39.5   (1.79) 48.2   (2.24)
Father-only household 45   (6.6) 1.3   (0.19) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 27.8   (6.84) 63.3   (6.64)
Other household type 65   (6.9) 1.9   (0.19) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 24.5 ! (7.68) 62.8   (5.03)
                                         
Primary home language                                        
English 3,119   (41.7) 83.1   (0.81) 100.0 (†) 2.3   (0.40) 0.5   (0.09) 15.3   (0.90) 81.9   (0.96)
Non-English 585   (28.7) 15.6   (0.77) 100.0 (†) 22.7   (1.71) 9.7   (1.16) 30.2   (2.20) 37.3   (3.11)
Primary language not identified 47   (7.3) 1.3   (0.20) 100.0 (†) 7.0 ! (3.07)   (†) 26.7   (7.47) 59.3   (8.95)
                                         
Parents’ highest level of education7                                        
Less than high school 291   (19.9) 7.8   (0.53) 100.0 (†) 73.4   (2.34) 26.6   (2.34)   (†)   (†)
High school completion 771   (26.2) 20.5   (0.66) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 42.7   (1.91) 57.3   (1.91)
Some college/vocational 1,250   (34.3) 33.3   (0.87) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 22.7   (1.26) 77.3   (1.26)
Bachelor’s degree 779   (26.9) 20.8   (0.72) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 6.3   (1.27) 93.7   (1.27)
Any graduate education 661   (28.5) 17.6   (0.75) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 2.9   (0.66) 97.1   (0.66)
                                         
Poverty status, spring 20113                                        
Below poverty threshold 793   (35.2) 23.2   (1.00) 100.0 (†) 23.8   (1.73)   (†) 76.2   (1.73)   (†)
100 to 199 percent of poverty threshold 812   (25.8) 23.8   (0.74) 100.0 (†)   (†) 6.3   (0.84)   (†) 93.7   (0.84)
200 percent or more of poverty threshold 1,812   (45.9) 53.0   (1.18) 100.0 (†)   (†) 0.9   (0.21)   (†) 99.1   (0.21)
                                         
Two risk factors1                                        
Both risk factors: No parent completed
      high school2  and family below poverty
      threshold3
189   (16.8) 5.5   (0.49) 100.0 (†) 100.0   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)
One risk factor: No parent completed high
      school
68   (7.8) 2.0   (0.23) 100.0 (†)   (†) 100.0   (†)   (†)   (†)
One risk factor: Family below poverty
      threshold
604   (28.9) 17.7   (0.83) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 100.0   (†)   (†)
Neither risk factor 2,556   (46.5) 74.8   (1.07) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 100.0   (†)
                                         
Socioeconomic status8                                        
Lowest 20 percent 728   (32.3) 19.4   (0.86) 100.0 (†) 28.9   (1.92) 7.9   (0.97) 52.7   (1.99) 10.6   (1.24)
Middle 60 percent 2,255   (38.2) 60.1   (0.83) 100.0 (†) 0.2 ! (0.12) 0.9   (0.18) 12.9   (0.84) 86.0   (0.87)
Highest 20 percent 769   (33.0) 20.5   (0.87) 100.0 (†)   (†)   (†) 0.9 ! (0.29) 99.1   (0.29)
                                         
School control, fall 2010                                        
Public 3,361   (21.5) 89.4   (0.29) 100.0 (†) 6.1   (0.54) 2.2   (0.25) 18.9   (0.88) 72.8   (1.14)
Private 397   (12.8) 10.6   (0.29) 100.0 (†) 0.9 ! (0.28)   (†) 7.3 ! (2.36) 91.3   (2.29)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Includes only children for whom information about both risk factors is available. Excludes children with missing information about parental education or family poverty.
2 High school not completed by any parent or guardian living with the child.
3 Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
4 Derived from child’s approaches to learning scale score in fall of the kindergarten year. This score is based on teachers’ reports on how often students exhibit positive learning behaviors in seven areas: attentiveness, task persistence, eagerness to learn, learning independence, ability to adapt easily to changes in routine, organization, and ability to follow classroom rules. Possible scores range from 1 to 4, with higher scores indicating that a child exhibits positive learning behaviors more often. Fall 2010 scores were categorized into the four anchor points on the original scale--1 (never), 2 (sometimes), 3 (often), and 4 (very often)--by rounding the mean score to the nearest whole number.
5 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. "Multiple arrangements" refers to children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
6 A two-parent household may have two biological parents, two adoptive parents, or one biological/adoptive parent and one other parent/partner. A mother-only or father-only household has one biological or adoptive parent only, without another parent/partner. In other household types, which do not include biological or adoptive parents, the guardian or guardians may be related or unrelated to the child.
7 Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a two-parent household, by the only parent in a single-parent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents.
8 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations and household income during the child’s kindergarten year.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W7C17P_7T170. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010-11 school year. Estimates represent characteristics as of 2010-11, when the first wave of data collection occurred, and include the entire sample of 2010-11 first-time kindergartners. However, estimates in this table may differ from estimates in tables based on earlier data files, because weights have been adjusted to account for survey nonresponse at each data collection wave. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten-Third Grade Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared October 2016.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest