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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 207.10. Number of 3- to 5-year-olds not yet enrolled in kindergarten and percentage participating in home literacy activities with a family member, by type and frequency of activity and selected child and family characteristics: 2001, 2007, and 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child or family characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percent of children participating in activity with family member1
Read to by family member
three or more times in past week
At least once in past week Visited a library at least once in past month
Told a story by family member Taught letters, words, or numbers Did arts and crafts
2001 2007 2012 2001 2007 2012 2001 2007 2012 2001 2007 2012 2001 2007 2012 2001 2007 2012
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Total 8,551 (11.0) 8,686 (18.1) 8,244 (85.1) 84 (0.8) 83 (1.1) 83 (0.8) 84 (0.8) 79 (1.1) 83 (0.9) 94 (0.6) 87 (1.1) 98 (0.3) 79 (0.9) 90 (1.1) 86 (0.8) 36 (1.1) 36 (1.2) 42 (1.2)
Age                                                                        
3 years old 3,795 (91.4) 3,755 (108.1) 3,674 (89.8) 84 (1.1) 84 (1.5) 82 (1.3) 83 (1.2) 80 (2.0) 82 (1.4) 93 (1.0) 87 (1.4) 97 (0.5) 77 (1.3) 91 (1.3) 85 (1.1) 35 (1.9) 36 (2.0) 38 (1.6)
4 years old 3,861 (89.0) 3,738 (123.5) 3,508 (90.4) 85 (1.2) 83 (1.6) 84 (1.3) 84 (1.1) 76 (2.0) 85 (1.3) 95 (0.7) 86 (1.9) 98 (0.3) 82 (1.2) 89 (2.0) 87 (1.2) 37 (1.4) 35 (1.6) 43 (1.8)
5 years old 896 (47.0) 1,193 (78.0) 1,062 (59.6) 81 (2.7) 83 (3.0) 80 (2.7) 82 (2.4) 86 (2.6) 81 (2.6) 93 (1.8) 89 (2.2) 98 (0.7) 80 (2.4) 89 (2.7) 88 (1.9) 37 (3.4) 39 (3.4) 49 (3.8)
                                                                         
Sex                                                                        
Male 4,292 (79.9) 4,364 (101.1) 4,251 (103.9) 82 (1.2) 81 (1.7) 82 (1.2) 82 (1.1) 77 (1.9) 82 (1.4) 94 (0.7) 86 (1.6) 97 (0.4) 76 (1.3) 87 (1.8) 84 (1.1) 35 (1.4) 34 (1.8) 41 (1.7)
Female 4,260 (79.6) 4,322 (100.8) 3,993 (104.2) 86 (1.0) 86 (1.2) 84 (1.4) 85 (1.0) 81 (1.6) 85 (1.0) 94 (0.8) 88 (1.5) 98 (0.4) 83 (1.3) 93 (1.1) 88 (1.1) 37 (1.6) 38 (1.8) 42 (1.4)
                                                                         
Race/ethnicity                                                                        
White 5,313 (68.0) 4,664 (66.3) 4,062 (97.4) 89 (0.8) 91 (1.3) 90 (1.0) 86 (1.0) 85 (1.4) 87 (1.1) 95 (0.7) 88 (1.3) 98 (0.4) 85 (1.0) 92 (1.3) 90 (0.9) 39 (1.3) 41 (1.6) 44 (1.4)
Black 1,251 (55.1) 1,311 (6.0) 1,154 (63.4) 77 (2.6) 78 (4.0) 77 (3.3) 81 (2.1) 61 (5.0) 80 (2.3) 94 (1.8) 81 (5.2) 99 (0.6) 70 (3.1) 82 (5.1) 83 (2.8) 31 (2.6) 25 (3.6) 41 (3.8)
Hispanic 1,506 (43.5) 1,899 (13.6) 2,100 (76.1) 71 (1.9) 68 (2.4) 71 (2.0) 75 (2.0) 75 (2.2) 78 (2.2) 92 (1.1) 86 (1.6) 97 (0.7) 67 (2.2) 91 (1.4) 80 (1.9) 30 (2.0) 27 (2.2) 34 (2.2)
Asian/Pacific Islander 202 (29.0) 368 (44.3) 423 (32.7) 87 (4.1) 87 (3.7) 77 (3.2) 81 (5.8) 73 (7.2) 85 (2.7) 96 (2.2) 92 (2.7) 98 (1.1) 74 (6.9) 84 (5.8) 86 (2.6) 47 (7.5) 48 (7.2) 55 (4.4)
Other 280 (28.2) 444 (46.3) 505 (44.4) 87 (3.4) 86 (5.8) 87 (2.9) 92 (2.4) 95 (1.6) 84 (3.4) 94 (2.7) 90 (4.7) 99 (0.7) 85 (4.3) 90 (4.2) 88 (3.4) 31 (5.4) 43 (6.7) 46 (4.4)
                                                                         
Mother's highest level
     of education2
                                                                       
Less than high school 996 (54.5) 808 (71.6) 1,291 (71.9) 69 (2.8) 56 (5.1) 73 (3.1) 72 (2.7) 66 (4.5) 75 (3.5) 91 (2.0) 84 (3.3) 98 (0.8) 62 (3.0) 86 (4.4) 82 (2.6) 21 (2.4) 20 (3.7) 26 (3.1)
High school/GED 2,712 (89.0) 2,048 (108.7) 1,614 (64.0) 81 (1.6) 74 (2.8) 75 (2.5) 83 (1.3) 74 (3.2) 83 (1.8) 95 (0.9) 82 (3.3) 97 (0.9) 77 (1.8) 89 (2.3) 84 (1.8) 30 (1.9) 29 (2.9) 38 (2.8)
Vocational/technical
       or some college
1,833 (73.9) 1,838 (107.2) 1,663 (77.3) 85 (1.8) 84 (2.3) 85 (1.7) 85 (1.7) 75 (3.5) 83 (1.5) 94 (1.2) 85 (3.2) 97 (0.8) 81 (1.9) 87 (3.4) 86 (1.6) 38 (2.2) 28 (2.5) 40 (2.0)
Associate's degree 573 (40.9) 821 (59.4) 678 (50.0) 89 (2.5) 90 (2.1) 85 (2.3) 84 (2.7) 84 (2.8) 84 (2.2) 92 (2.3) 91 (2.1) 98 (0.7) 82 (3.2) 92 (2.2) 86 (2.3) 42 (4.3) 45 (4.5) 43 (3.9)
Bachelor's degree/some
       graduate school
1,553 (68.4) 1,990 (92.4) 1,870 (65.9) 93 (1.2) 95 (0.9) 92 (1.2) 88 (1.5) 86 (1.7) 90 (1.2) 95 (1.1) 90 (1.3) 99 (0.3) 89 (1.4) 92 (1.7) 92 (1.0) 46 (2.4) 43 (2.5) 49 (2.2)
Graduate/professional
       degree
685 (45.7) 1,053 (63.7) 680 (30.8) 96 (1.1) 95 (1.6) 95 (1.0) 89 (2.3) 90 (1.7) 89 (1.5) 95 (1.3) 93 (1.4) 97 (0.8) 86 (2.2) 92 (1.8) 91 (1.5) 55 (3.8) 54 (3.5) 64 (2.5)
                                                                         
Mother's employment
     status2
                                                                       
Employed 5,148 (84.2) 4,985 (130.1) 4,491 (88.6) 86 (1.0) 85 (1.2) 84 (1.1) 84 (1.0) 80 (1.4) 84 (1.2) 94 (0.7) 86 (1.5) 98 (0.3) 80 (1.2) 90 (1.3) 86 (0.9) 36 (1.2) 35 (1.7) 42 (1.5)
Unemployed 396 (36.9) 467 (61.5) 550 (52.0) 77 (5.0) 69 (7.5) 80 (4.4) 80 (4.7) 69 (7.9) 84 (3.5) 94 (3.3) 94 (2.0) 98 (1.1) 69 (5.5) 88 (7.1) 89 (4.0) 37 (4.8) 26 (5.8) 33 (4.2)
Not in labor force 2,809 (73.3) 3,105 (128.9) 2,756 (86.9) 83 (1.4) 83 (1.7) 84 (1.7) 82 (1.5) 79 (2.2) 84 (1.6) 94 (0.9) 87 (2.1) 97 (0.7) 80 (1.3) 89 (2.1) 87 (1.4) 38 (1.9) 38 (2.0) 43 (1.9)
                                                                         
Number of parents in the
     household
                                                                       
Two parents 6,416 (75.1) 6,826 (82.0) 5,702 (95.5) 87 (0.8) 85 (1.1) 86 (0.9) 84 (0.9) 82 (1.2) 85 (1.0) 94 (0.6) 88 (1.0) 98 (0.3) 81 (0.9) 91 (1.0) 88 (0.9) 38 (1.2) 37 (1.4) 42 (1.4)
None or one parent 2,135 (75.1) 1,859 (83.9) 2,542 (86.2) 76 (2.0) 78 (3.2) 76 (2.0) 82 (1.6) 70 (3.6) 79 (1.5) 93 (1.2) 83 (3.7) 97 (0.6) 74 (2.3) 84 (3.5) 82 (1.7) 30 (2.1) 30 (3.1) 40 (2.3)
                                                                         
Poverty status3                                                                        
Poor 2,008 (60.4) 1,934 (72.9) 1,958 (77.8) 74 (2.1) 71 (3.4) 74 (2.2) 81 (1.7) 69 (3.4) 82 (1.7) 92 (1.6) 86 (3.1) 96 (0.8) 73 (2.3) 85 (3.2) 83 (1.7) 27 (2.1) 28 (2.8) 39 (2.2)
Near-poor 1,782 (70.5) 1,939 (109.5) 1,960 (86.5) 81 (1.8) 81 (1.9) 81 (2.1) 82 (2.0) 76 (2.8) 81 (2.0) 95 (1.0) 81 (3.4) 98 (0.5) 76 (1.9) 89 (2.0) 82 (2.1) 33 (2.8) 34 (3.3) 38 (2.6)
Nonpoor 4,762 (71.9) 4,812 (83.0) 4,327 (87.6) 90 (0.9) 89 (1.3) 88 (1.0) 85 (1.0) 84 (1.2) 85 (1.2) 95 (0.6) 90 (0.9) 98 (0.4) 84 (1.0) 92 (1.1) 89 (1.0) 41 (1.4) 40 (1.7) 44 (1.5)
1 The respondent was the parent most knowledgeable about the child's care and education. Responding parents reported on their own activities and the activities of their spouse/other adults in the household.
2 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
3 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau’s poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family’s size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2011, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $22,811. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
NOTE: While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Totals include other racial/ethnic groups not separately shown. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP:2001 and 2012) and Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey (PFI:2007) of the National Household Education Surveys Program. (This table was prepared October 2014.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest