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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.70. Number and percentage distribution of 3- to 5-year-olds not enrolled in school and all children enrolled in prekindergarten through second grade, by grade level and selected maternal and household characteristics: 2001, 2005, and 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected maternal or household characteristic 3- to 5-year-olds, not enrolled in school Enrolled in nursery school or prekindergarten Enrolled in kindergarten Enrolled in first grade Enrolled in second grade
2001 2005 2012 2001 2005 2012 2001 2005 2012 2001 2005 2012 2001 2005 2012
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Number of children
     (in thousands)
3,990 (3.2) 4,156 (5.0) 3,250 (90.6) 4,586 (#) 4,926 (#) 4,994 (103.8) 3,831 (#) 3,717 (#) 5,710 (115.2) 4,333 (#) 4,118 (#) 3,944 (136.3) 3,934 (#) 3,900 (#) 4,192 (151.8)
                                                             
Percentage distribution                                                            
Mother's highest level
     of education1
100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
Less than high school 16.4 (1.26) 13.8 (1.24) 24.4 (1.60) 8.0 (0.76) 6.8 (0.76) 11.4 (1.06) 10.7 (1.31) 9.5 (1.16) 16.9 (1.83) 11.7 (1.28) 10.0 (1.20) 11.1 (1.56) 13.5 (1.26) 10.3 (1.21) 10.1 (1.93)
High school/GED 39.7 (1.59) 37.2 (2.17) 26.8 (1.61) 26.1 (1.34) 24.6 (1.34) 16.7 (1.04) 30.3 (1.86) 27.5 (1.92) 21.6 (1.92) 30.3 (2.17) 31.1 (2.13) 16.4 (1.45) 32.8 (2.11) 29.5 (1.77) 27.0 (2.94)
Vocational/technical
      or some college
19.1 (1.30) 21.2 (1.43) 24.1 (1.41) 24.6 (1.28) 19.2 (1.32) 19.5 (1.21) 23.5 (1.84) 20.7 (1.70) 21.3 (2.12) 24.3 (1.87) 19.9 (1.93) 25.4 (1.96) 22.5 (2.18) 19.8 (1.64) 20.0 (1.60)
Associate's degree 5.9 (0.67) 6.8 (0.82) 7.7 (0.82) 7.7 (0.71) 8.4 (0.71) 9.4 (0.86) 7.6 (1.18) 7.7 (0.96) 8.0 (1.06) 7.5 (1.01) 10.3 (1.22) 8.4 (0.81) 7.5 (0.92) 8.0 (0.98) 12.0 (1.50)
Bachelor's degree 13.0 (1.05) 14.9 (1.20) 13.9 (1.10) 20.4 (1.03) 25.5 (1.13) 30.6 (1.15) 18.8 (1.51) 21.3 (1.42) 23.4 (1.73) 18.5 (1.71) 18.0 (1.23) 28.1 (1.78) 14.9 (1.66) 18.7 (1.46) 20.7 (1.59)
Graduate/professional
      degree
6.0 (0.73) 6.1 (0.73) 3.1 (0.38) 13.2 (0.99) 15.5 (0.94) 12.4 (0.70) 9.1 (1.16) 13.4 (1.43) 8.7 (0.87) 7.7 (1.03) 10.6 (1.22) 10.6 (0.99) 8.8 (1.25) 13.6 (1.62) 10.1 (0.94)
                                                             
Mother's employment
     status1
100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
Working 35 hours/week
      or more
36.7 (1.55) 33.5 (1.92) 34.2 (2.03) 43.7 (1.18) 39.4 (1.42) 45.3 (1.23) 38.9 (1.99) 36.9 (2.25) 40.4 (2.32) 46.1 (2.33) 40.7 (2.35) 44.2 (1.98) 42.3 (2.30) 41.2 (2.19) 42.6 (2.26)
Working less than 35
      hours/week
19.2 (1.30) 21.1 (1.50) 14.3 (1.34) 22.8 (1.00) 24.4 (1.36) 18.3 (0.94) 22.6 (1.57) 21.5 (1.62) 16.8 (1.63) 19.7 (1.59) 20.7 (1.42) 17.8 (1.68) 20.1 (1.60) 22.7 (1.72) 19.6 (1.65)
Looking for work 5.7 (0.75) 8.7 (1.37) 7.6 (1.01) 3.9 (0.55) 4.0 (0.59) 6.7 (0.90) 3.9 (0.87) 7.3 (1.06) 8.2 (1.59) 4.1 (0.89) 5.7 (1.07) 5.7 (1.01) 5.1 (1.09) 4.9 (0.82) 3.5 (0.58)
Not in labor force 38.4 (1.48) 36.8 (1.79) 43.9 (2.00) 29.6 (1.27) 32.2 (1.35) 29.7 (1.18) 34.7 (2.16) 34.3 (1.99) 34.6 (2.31) 30.1 (2.05) 32.8 (1.97) 32.3 (2.06) 32.5 (2.22) 31.2 (1.99) 34.4 (2.42)
                                                             
Household income 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
$20,000 or less 28.6 (1.24) 22.2 (1.29) 24.0 (1.74) 21.2 (0.93) 17.3 (1.07) 14.0 (0.80) 22.6 (1.56) 19.3 (1.26) 20.8 (1.52) 23.1 (1.79) 18.2 (1.45) 12.6 (1.12) 21.8 (1.71) 20.1 (1.54) 14.8 (1.41)
$20,001 to $50,000 40.5 (1.50) 42.4 (1.65) 34.8 (1.92) 28.9 (1.20) 27.6 (1.39) 24.9 (1.07) 37.8 (1.95) 31.9 (1.76) 30.4 (1.86) 36.4 (2.18) 33.0 (1.95) 25.1 (1.52) 36.3 (2.11) 32.9 (2.10) 28.7 (1.90)
$50,001 to $75,000 18.8 (1.31) 19.9 (1.24) 17.4 (1.46) 21.2 (1.09) 20.8 (0.97) 18.9 (1.02) 20.9 (1.68) 18.4 (1.46) 13.9 (1.34) 18.3 (1.41) 20.4 (1.84) 19.5 (1.73) 19.6 (1.80) 20.3 (1.56) 18.5 (1.51)
$75,001 to $100,000 7.2 (0.76) 9.0 (1.08) 10.2 (1.08) 13.0 (0.92) 14.7 (0.93) 15.1 (0.88) 9.0 (1.04) 14.1 (1.29) 13.4 (1.02) 11.1 (1.41) 10.8 (1.22) 15.1 (1.26) 12.0 (1.33) 13.9 (1.41) 10.8 (1.08)
Over $100,000 4.9 (0.61) 6.4 (0.93) 13.7 (1.60) 15.7 (0.83) 19.7 (1.11) 27.1 (1.02) 9.6 (0.98) 16.3 (1.29) 21.5 (1.63) 11.0 (1.30) 17.6 (1.36) 27.8 (1.90) 10.3 (1.27) 12.8 (1.39) 27.3 (1.68)
                                                             
Poverty status of
     household2
100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
Poor 27.5 (1.24) 25.9 (1.53) 33.0 (1.79) 19.3 (0.94) 17.2 (1.10) 17.7 (1.00) 22.2 (1.67) 21.2 (1.53) 28.9 (2.16) 23.1 (2.00) 20.8 (1.47) 17.1 (1.46) 21.2 (1.70) 22.1 (1.50) 22.0 (1.76)
Near-poor 23.9 (1.27) 31.3 (1.73) 29.6 (1.78) 17.9 (0.99) 20.9 (1.24) 20.0 (1.18) 22.6 (1.86) 23.1 (2.05) 21.4 (1.84) 20.9 (1.93) 22.8 (1.35) 20.9 (1.39) 22.1 (1.92) 23.4 (1.66) 23.0 (1.81)
Nonpoor 48.6 (1.39) 42.8 (1.66) 37.5 (1.62) 62.8 (1.18) 61.9 (1.34) 62.3 (1.32) 55.2 (1.91) 55.7 (1.82) 49.7 (1.77) 56.0 (1.99) 56.4 (1.74) 62.1 (1.89) 56.7 (1.97) 54.5 (1.82) 55.0 (2.14)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
1 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
2 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau's poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family's size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2011, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $22,811. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
NOTE: Enrollment data include homeschooled students and ungraded students if a grade equivalent was available. For 2001 and 2005, excludes students for whom no grade equivalent was available. For 2012, all students had a known grade level and were included. While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey, Before- and After-School Programs and Activities Survey, and Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2001, 2005, and 2012; ASPA-NHES:2001 and 2005; and PFI-NHES:2012). (This table was prepared October 2014.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest