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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.65. Percentage distribution of first-time kindergartners, by primary type of child care arrangement during the year prior to kindergarten entry and selected child, family, and school characteristics: 2010-11
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, family, or school characteristic Total, all children No regular nonparental care Primary type of nonparental care arrangement1
Total, any regular nonparental care Home-based care Center-based care Multiple arrangements
Relative care Nonrelative care
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Total 100.0   (†) 20.9   (0.82) 79.1   (0.82) 14.9   (0.46) 6.3   (0.36) 55.3   (0.97) 2.5   (0.18)
Sex of child                                          
Male 100.0   (†) 21.0   (0.91) 79.0   (0.91) 14.3   (0.51) 6.6   (0.38) 55.6   (1.01) 2.6   (0.23)
Female 100.0   (†) 20.8   (0.88) 79.2   (0.88) 15.6   (0.67) 6.0   (0.46) 55.1   (1.13) 2.4   (0.25)
                                           
Age of child at kindergarten entry, fall 2010                                          
Less than 5 years old 100.0   (†) 19.5   (1.88) 80.5   (1.88) 14.4   (1.39) 4.3   (1.19) 59.3   (2.53) 2.5   (0.53)
5 years old to 5 1/2 years old 100.0   (†) 21.5   (0.92) 78.5   (0.92) 15.8   (0.64) 5.9   (0.39) 54.5   (1.09) 2.3   (0.21)
More than 5 1/2 years old to 6 years old 100.0   (†) 20.5   (0.89) 79.5   (0.89) 14.8   (0.62) 6.4   (0.45) 55.6   (1.05) 2.7   (0.26)
More than 6 years old 100.0   (†) 21.1   (1.56) 78.9   (1.56) 11.8   (1.15) 8.6   (1.15) 55.8   (2.26) 2.6   (0.63)
                                           
Race/ethnicity of child                                          
White 100.0   (†) 18.1   (0.86) 81.9   (0.86) 12.9   (0.57) 8.5   (0.65) 57.8   (1.15) 2.7   (0.25)
Black 100.0   (†) 19.9   (1.93) 80.1   (1.93) 17.8   (1.29) 3.9   (0.59) 55.5   (2.06) 2.8   (0.47)
Hispanic 100.0   (†) 28.3   (1.28) 71.7   (1.28) 18.1   (0.70) 4.0   (0.43) 47.8   (1.41) 1.8   (0.21)
Asian 100.0   (†) 19.6   (2.37) 80.4   (2.37) 14.6   (1.43) 2.3   (0.57) 61.6   (3.25) 1.8   (0.52)
Pacific Islander 100.0   (†) 38.8   (6.02) 61.2   (6.02) 27.2   (7.27)   (†) 27.6   (6.59)   (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 100.0   (†) 23.5   (3.93) 76.5   (3.93) 13.2 ! (4.58)   (†) 56.7   (2.41)   (†)
Two or more races 100.0   (†) 17.2   (2.03) 82.8   (2.03) 13.8   (1.53) 5.2   (0.97) 60.9   (2.51) 2.9 ! (0.93)
                                           
Parents' employment status, fall 20102                                          
Two parents                                          
Both employed full time 100.0   (†) 8.4   (0.67) 91.6   (0.67) 17.6   (0.89) 12.9   (1.12) 57.1   (1.35) 4.0   (0.47)
One employed full time, one part time 100.0   (†) 16.5   (1.19) 83.5   (1.19) 14.7   (0.85) 7.1   (0.75) 58.8   (1.40) 2.8   (0.38)
One employed full time, one looking for                                          
work 100.0   (†) 23.6   (2.19) 76.4   (2.19) 16.2   (1.87) 4.6   (0.86) 52.9   (2.82) 2.8   (0.80)
One employed full time, one not in labor                                          
force 100.0   (†) 33.7   (1.63) 66.3   (1.63) 4.7   (0.49) 1.6   (0.25) 58.9   (1.59) 1.0   (0.22)
Other combination 100.0   (†) 36.8   (1.48) 63.2   (1.48) 11.7   (1.29) 4.3   (0.90) 45.8   (1.92) 1.5   (0.43)
Single parent                                          
Employed full time 100.0   (†) 9.5   (0.97) 90.5   (0.97) 29.0   (1.23) 7.9   (0.95) 49.4   (1.39) 4.2   (0.41)
Employed part time 100.0   (†) 16.3   (1.75) 83.7   (1.75) 26.6   (1.99) 5.0   (1.14) 49.4   (2.56) 2.7 ! (0.97)
Looking for work 100.0   (†) 23.0   (2.23) 77.0   (2.23) 17.9   (2.32) 2.8 ! (1.19) 54.7   (2.38) 1.5 ! (0.72)
Not in labor force 100.0   (†) 35.2   (2.53) 64.8   (2.53) 14.2   (1.70)   (†) 48.1   (2.69)   (†)
No parent in household 100.0   (†) 23.4   (2.65) 76.6   (2.65) 16.9   (3.28) 3.7 ! (1.29) 52.8   (4.15) 3.3 ! (1.45)
                                           
Parents' highest level of education3                                          
Less than high school 100.0   (†) 37.7   (2.11) 62.3   (2.11) 15.8   (1.21) 3.1   (0.68) 42.5   (2.04) 0.9 ! (0.27)
High school completion 100.0   (†) 28.3   (1.22) 71.7   (1.22) 19.1   (0.96) 5.1   (0.40) 45.5   (1.25) 1.9   (0.33)
Some college/vocational 100.0   (†) 20.2   (0.90) 79.8   (0.90) 18.1   (0.81) 7.0   (0.54) 51.6   (1.30) 3.0   (0.35)
Bachelor's degree 100.0   (†) 14.7   (0.96) 85.3   (0.96) 10.9   (0.69) 6.5   (0.71) 64.8   (1.23) 3.1   (0.31)
Any graduate education 100.0   (†) 12.9   (1.14) 87.1   (1.14) 8.7   (0.70) 7.6   (0.67) 68.3   (1.38) 2.4   (0.33)
                                           
Household type, fall 2010                                          
Two-parent household 100.0   (†) 21.5   (0.94) 78.5   (0.94) 12.4   (0.45) 6.9   (0.49) 56.7   (1.14) 2.5   (0.21)
Mother-only household 100.0   (†) 17.5   (0.87) 82.5   (0.87) 23.9   (0.90) 5.2   (0.58) 50.4   (1.08) 3.1   (0.32)
Father-only household 100.0   (†) 17.5   (2.96) 82.5   (2.96) 30.8   (3.51) 5.8   (1.69) 43.4   (3.66) 2.4 ! (1.16)
Other household type 100.0   (†) 23.4   (2.65) 76.6   (2.65) 16.9   (3.28) 3.7 ! (1.29) 52.8   (4.15) 3.3 ! (1.45)
                                           
Primary home language                                          
English 100.0   (†) 18.4   (0.72) 81.6   (0.72) 14.9   (0.56) 7.0   (0.41) 57.1   (0.98) 2.7   (0.21)
Non-English 100.0   (†) 35.6   (2.10) 64.4   (2.10) 14.7   (0.95) 2.9   (0.48) 45.3   (1.84) 1.5   (0.25)
Primary language not identified 100.0   (†) 22.1   (4.09) 77.9   (4.09) 18.2   (3.74)   (†) 54.2   (4.62)   (†)
                                           
Poverty status4                                          
Below poverty threshold 100.0   (†) 30.4   (1.46) 69.6   (1.46) 16.4   (0.90) 2.6   (0.36) 48.9   (1.46) 1.7   (0.30)
100 to 199 percent of poverty threshold 100.0   (†) 24.9   (1.20) 75.1   (1.20) 16.5   (0.90) 5.0   (0.49) 51.8   (1.40) 1.7   (0.25)
200 percent or more of poverty threshold 100.0   (†) 13.5   (0.69) 86.5   (0.69) 12.3   (0.64) 8.7   (0.58) 62.3   (1.12) 3.2   (0.29)
                                           
Socioeconomic status5                                          
Lowest 20 percent 100.0   (†) 35.2   (1.52) 64.8   (1.52) 15.6   (0.75) 3.4   (0.44) 44.3   (1.28) 1.6   (0.27)
Middle 60 percent 100.0   (†) 19.6   (0.71) 80.4   (0.71) 16.9   (0.54) 6.9   (0.45) 53.9   (1.09) 2.7   (0.23)
Highest 20 percent 100.0   (†) 12.3   (1.13) 87.7   (1.13) 8.7   (0.67) 7.1   (0.56) 69.1   (1.29) 2.7   (0.29)
                                           
School type                                          
Public 100.0   (†) 21.8   (0.80) 78.2   (0.80) 15.8   (0.51) 6.2   (0.35) 53.7   (0.98) 2.5   (0.20)
Private 100.0   (†) 14.5   (1.98) 85.5   (1.98) 8.3   (0.78) 7.0   (0.88) 67.9   (1.69) 2.3   (0.32)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. "Multiple arrangements" refers to children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more types of arrangements.
2 Parents who reported working at least 35 hours per week are defined as employed full time, while those who reported working less than 35 hours per week are defined as employed part time. Those neither employed nor looking for work are not in the labor force.
3 Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a two-parent household, by the only parent in a single-parent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents.
4 Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its annual income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
5 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations and household income at the time of data collection.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W1_2P0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010-11 school year. Two parents may refer to two biological parents, two adoptive parents, or one biological/adoptive parent and one other parent/partner. Single parent refers to one biological or adoptive parent only. In households without parents, the guardian or guardians may be related or unrelated to the child. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–First Grade Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared November 2014.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest