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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.40. Child care arrangements of 3- to 5-year-old children who are not yet in kindergarten, by age and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1991 through 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and child care arrangement Total Age Race/ethnicity
3 years old 4 years old 5 years old White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander Other1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1991                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 8,402 (40.9) 3,733 (7.1) 3,627 (14.6) 1,042 (38.6) 5,850 (59.9) 1,236 (41.0) 999 (31.3) 147   (19.0) 170   (29.9)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.4 (0.21) 43.2 (0.24) 12.4 (0.40) 69.6 (0.67) 14.7 (0.47) 11.9 (0.37) 1.7   (0.23) 2.0   (0.35)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
69.0 (0.80) 62.2 (1.19) 74.0 (1.05) 75.7 (2.10) 69.4 (0.87) 75.2 (2.02) 59.3 (2.35) 73.5   (4.94) 61.7   (6.08)
Relative care 16.9 (0.60) 16.2 (0.72) 18.0 (0.85) 15.6 (1.34) 14.8 (0.66) 24.1 (2.09) 19.6 (2.08) 22.5   (4.03) 16.6 ! (6.52)
Nonrelative care 14.8 (0.56) 14.8 (0.76) 14.7 (0.79) 14.9 (1.81) 17.3 (0.76) 7.9 (1.20) 9.4 (1.27) 11.2   (3.19) 12.9   (3.60)
Center-based programs3 52.8 (0.89) 42.3 (1.44) 60.4 (1.04) 63.9 (2.12) 54.0 (0.95) 58.3 (2.49) 38.8 (2.20) 56.4   (5.76) 49.9   (6.09)
Percent with parental care
     only
31.0 (0.80) 37.8 (1.19) 26.0 (1.05) 24.3 (2.10) 30.6 (0.87) 24.8 (2.02) 40.7 (2.35) 26.5   (4.94) 38.3   (6.08)
                                         
1995                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 9,222 (52.9) 4,123 (8.3) 4,061 (12.5) 1,038 (48.3) 6,334 (94.0) 1,389 (56.1) 1,042 (38.8) 208   (25.0) 249   (31.0)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.7 (0.25) 44.0 (0.24) 11.3 (0.46) 68.7 (0.94) 15.1 (0.60) 11.3 (0.42) 2.3   (0.27) 2.7   (0.34)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
74.1 (1.01) 68.0 (1.95) 77.9 (1.24) 83.8 (1.78) 74.8 (1.39) 80.1 (2.50) 61.6 (2.33) 80.1   (4.78) 72.2   (5.53)
Relative care 19.4 (0.64) 21.4 (1.23) 18.4 (0.95) 15.2 (2.14) 16.5 (0.84) 28.7 (2.78) 22.8 (2.01) 24.3   (5.61) 21.2   (4.73)
Nonrelative care 16.9 (0.84) 18.5 (1.35) 15.3 (1.03) 17.2 (2.19) 19.4 (1.04) 11.3 (1.65) 12.5 (1.64) 8.8 ! (3.96) 11.8   (3.40)
Center-based programs3 55.1 (0.97) 40.7 (1.55) 64.8 (1.45) 74.5 (2.35) 56.9 (1.44) 59.8 (3.19) 37.4 (2.15) 59.4   (6.51) 54.5   (6.96)
Percent with parental care
     only
25.9 (1.01) 32.0 (1.95) 22.1 (1.24) 16.2 (1.78) 25.2 (1.39) 19.9 (2.50) 38.4 (2.33) 19.9   (4.78) 27.8   (5.53)
                                         
1999                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 8,518 (139.7) 3,809 (79.1) 3,703 (79.9) 1,006 (54.2) 5,384 (77.4) 1,214 (59.2) 1,376 (52.3) 204   (25.5) 341   (33.5)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.7 (0.93) 43.5 (0.93) 11.8 (0.64) 63.2 (0.91) 14.2 (0.69) 16.2 (0.61) 2.4   (0.30) 4.0   (0.39)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
76.9 (0.72) 69.2 (1.42) 82.3 (0.99) 86.5 (1.78) 76.8 (0.91) 86.3 (1.97) 66.6 (2.04) 84.0   (5.25) 83.0   (4.28)
Relative care 22.8 (0.77) 24.3 (1.28) 22.0 (1.14) 20.2 (2.06) 18.7 (0.90) 33.4 (2.58) 26.5 (1.86) 22.5 ! (6.85) 34.4   (4.81)
Nonrelative care 16.1 (0.67) 16.3 (1.02) 15.9 (1.07) 16.1 (2.08) 19.4 (0.88) 7.4 (1.37) 12.7 (1.29) 9.1 ! (3.95) 11.2   (2.22)
Center-based programs3 59.7 (0.63) 45.7 (1.28) 69.6 (1.19) 76.5 (2.40) 60.0 (0.81) 73.2 (2.40) 44.2 (2.19) 61.1   (7.05) 68.9   (5.19)
Percent with parental care
     only
23.1 (0.72) 30.8 (1.42) 17.7 (0.99) 13.5 (1.78) 23.2 (0.91) 13.7 (1.97) 33.4 (2.04) 16.0 ! (5.25) 17.0   (4.28)
                                         
2001                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 8,551 (11.0) 3,795 (91.4) 3,861 (89.0) 896 (47.0) 5,313 (68.0) 1,251 (55.1) 1,506 (43.5) 202   (29.0) 280   (28.2)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.4 (1.06) 45.1 (1.04) 10.5 (0.55) 62.1 (0.79) 14.6 (0.64) 17.6 (0.51) 2.4   (0.34) 3.3   (0.33)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
73.9 (0.67) 66.2 (1.29) 79.6 (1.11) 82.0 (2.49) 74.7 (0.99) 84.9 (2.22) 61.0 (2.03) 69.9   (7.18) 80.9   (4.11)
Relative care 22.8 (0.89) 23.6 (1.39) 22.5 (1.33) 20.9 (2.66) 19.6 (1.01) 36.7 (3.42) 22.8 (1.89) 19.6   (4.42) 25.2   (5.16)
Nonrelative care 14.0 (0.65) 14.7 (1.17) 13.6 (0.95) 13.1 (2.13) 16.5 (0.98) 8.5 (1.65) 11.3 (1.43)   (†) 14.0   (4.09)
Center-based programs3 56.4 (0.55) 42.8 (1.21) 65.9 (1.25) 73.0 (2.69) 59.1 (0.89) 63.1 (2.93) 39.9 (1.86) 63.4   (7.13) 60.6   (4.85)
Percent with parental care
     only
26.1 (0.67) 33.8 (1.29) 20.4 (1.11) 18.0 (2.49) 25.3 (0.99) 15.1 (2.22) 39.0 (2.03) 30.1   (7.18) 19.1   (4.11)
                                         
2005                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 9,066 (9.0) 4,070 (93.0) 3,873 (92.0) 1,123 (67.3) 5,177 (80.2) 1,233 (57.1) 1,822 (50.0) 282   (31.7) 552   (48.3)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.9 (1.03) 42.7 (1.01) 12.4 (0.74) 57.1 (0.89) 13.6 (0.63) 20.1 (0.56) 3.1   (0.35) 6.1   (0.53)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
73.7 (0.92) 66.6 (1.48) 79.4 (1.42) 79.6 (3.15) 75.9 (1.22) 80.5 (2.85) 62.0 (2.10) 79.8   (4.41) 72.9   (4.62)
Relative care 22.6 (1.02) 24.0 (1.44) 20.8 (1.56) 23.8 (3.17) 21.4 (1.34) 25.0 (3.42) 22.6 (1.79) 15.9   (4.68) 31.7   (4.49)
Nonrelative care 11.6 (0.73) 14.4 (1.12) 9.2 (1.03) 9.9 (2.00) 15.0 (1.13) 5.2 (1.31) 8.1 (1.36) 7.0 ! (3.34) 8.7   (2.41)
Center-based programs3 57.2 (0.83) 42.5 (1.67) 69.2 (1.36) 68.7 (3.51) 59.1 (1.32) 66.5 (3.41) 43.4 (2.10) 72.5   (4.99) 55.9   (4.89)
Percent with parental care
     only
26.3 (0.92) 33.4 (1.48) 20.6 (1.42) 20.4 (3.15) 24.1 (1.22) 19.5 (2.85) 38.0 (2.10) 20.2   (4.41) 27.1   (4.62)
                                         
2012                                        
All 3- to 5-year-olds                                        
In thousands 8,244 (85.1) 3,674 (89.8) 3,508 (90.4) 1,062 (59.6) 4,062 (97.4) 1,154 (63.4) 2,100 (76.1) 423   (32.7) 505   (44.4)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.6 (0.97) 42.5 (1.01) 12.9 (0.72) 49.3 (1.12) 14.0 (0.75) 25.5 (0.84) 5.1   (0.38) 6.1   (0.55)
                                         
Percent in nonparental
     arrangements2
77.9 (1.02) 72.7 (1.32) 81.8 (1.62) 83.1 (2.32) 78.7 (1.41) 83.5 (2.97) 73.7 (2.24) 79.5   (3.76) 74.8   (4.21)
Relative care 26.2 (0.98) 27.9 (1.45) 25.1 (1.44) 24.6 (2.72) 24.0 (1.17) 30.2 (3.23) 29.3 (2.12) 21.7   (3.50) 26.6   (3.92)
Nonrelative care 13.3 (0.75) 15.4 (1.09) 11.0 (0.88) 13.9 (2.41) 16.1 (1.20) 11.4 (2.18) 10.8 (1.16) 5.9   (1.57) 12.1   (2.77)
Center-based programs3 60.6 (1.05) 48.8 (1.47) 70.6 (1.57) 68.3 (3.48) 63.0 (1.54) 68.0 (3.10) 51.5 (2.12) 67.8   (3.98) 55.5   (4.57)
Percent with parental care
     only
22.1 (1.02) 27.3 (1.32) 18.2 (1.62) 16.9 (2.32) 21.3 (1.41) 16.5 (2.97) 26.3 (2.24) 20.5   (3.76) 25.2   (4.21)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 Includes persons of all other races and Two or more races.
2 The total percentage of children who participated in nonparental arrangements. Counts each child only once, even if the child participated in more than one type of nonparental care.
3 Center-based programs include day care centers, nursery schools, prekindergartens, preschools, and Head Start programs.
NOTE: While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Education Survey, Parent Survey, and Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECE-NHES:1991; Parent-NHES:1999; ECPP-NHES:1995, 2001, 2005, and 2012). (This table was prepared September 2014.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest