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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.35. Primary child care arrangements of 4- and 5-year-old children who are not yet enrolled in kindergarten, by race/ethnicity, poverty status, and mother's highest level of education: Selected years, 1995 through 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Year and primary child care arrangement Total Race/ethnicity Poverty status1 Mother's highest level of education2
White Black Hispanic Asian/Pacific Islander Other3 Poor Near-poor Nonpoor Less than high school High school/GED Vocational/ technical or some college Associate's degree Bachelor's or higher degree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
1995                                                                                    
Percent of all children 100.0   (†) 69.2   (1.09) 14.8   (0.79) 10.8   (0.53) 2.4   (0.36) 2.9   (0.46) 25.9   (1.11) 22.5   (1.11) 51.7   (1.28) 12.3   (0.97) 35.3   (1.31) 21.7   (1.10) 7.8   (0.68) 22.9   (0.95)
                                                                                     
Percent in all types
      of care
100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Parental care only 21.7   (1.09) 20.9   (1.27) 15.8   (3.24) 33.7   (2.55) 15.5 ! (5.61) 30.0   (7.78) 28.4   (3.03) 32.1   (2.52) 13.8   (1.16) 40.2   (3.32) 26.2   (2.11) 18.9   (2.16) 17.4   (2.87) 9.0   (1.51)
Nonparental care 78.3   (1.09) 79.1   (1.27) 84.2   (3.24) 66.3   (2.55) 84.5   (5.61) 70.0   (7.78) 71.6   (3.03) 67.9   (2.52) 86.2   (1.16) 59.8   (3.32) 73.8   (2.11) 81.1   (2.16) 82.6   (2.87) 91.0   (1.51)
Primary arrangement4                                                                                    
Center-based care5 55.1   (1.08) 55.0   (1.38) 59.7   (4.21) 44.3   (2.69) 73.7   (7.32) 58.3   (9.02) 51.4   (3.10) 45.4   (2.73) 61.0   (1.72) 41.2   (3.88) 50.0   (2.07) 57.5   (1.85) 57.7   (4.30) 67.4   (2.58)
Nonrelative care 11.0   (0.86) 12.7   (1.02) 7.8   (1.71) 6.6   (1.72)   (†)   (†) 5.8   (1.18) 9.4   (1.27) 14.3   (1.25) 5.7   (1.69) 9.5   (1.15) 11.1   (1.64) 13.5   (3.15) 14.8   (1.94)
Relative care 10.8   (0.70) 10.0   (0.75) 14.2   (2.82) 14.7   (1.86) 7.1 ! (3.49)   (†) 11.8   (1.94) 12.3   (1.59) 9.7   (0.93) 11.6   (2.61) 12.1   (0.94) 12.1   (1.87) 10.6   (2.74) 7.1   (1.20)
Multiple arrangements6 1.4 ! (0.48) 1.4 ! (0.48)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†)   (†) 0.8 ! (0.38) 1.2   (0.33)   (†) 2.2 ! (0.93)   (†)   (†) 1.7 ! (0.60)
                                                                                     
2001                                                                                    
Percent of all children 100.0   (†) 62.6   (0.89) 14.5   (0.82) 17.1   (0.73) 2.2   (0.41) 3.7   (0.47) 23.6   (1.26) 20.6   (1.15) 55.8   (1.21) 10.2   (0.67) 32.7   (1.44) 23.8   (1.23) 7.0   (0.66) 26.3   (1.20)
                                                                                     
Percent in all types
      of care
100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Parental care only 20.5   (1.00) 20.3   (1.32) 10.6   (2.45) 31.6   (2.35) 22.6 ! (7.97) 10.7 ! (4.34) 25.1   (2.69) 30.0   (2.60) 15.1   (1.35) 35.0   (3.90) 25.0   (2.28) 17.3   (1.98) 14.0   (3.86) 13.3   (1.94)
Nonparental care 79.5   (1.00) 79.7   (1.32) 89.4   (2.45) 68.4   (2.35) 77.4   (7.97) 89.3   (4.34) 74.9   (2.69) 70.0   (2.60) 84.9   (1.35) 65.0   (3.90) 75.0   (2.28) 82.7   (1.98) 86.0   (3.86) 86.7   (1.94)
Primary arrangement4                                                                                    
Center-based care5 56.2   (1.17) 57.3   (1.48) 63.4   (3.66) 44.1   (2.42) 59.6   (9.47) 62.4   (6.73) 47.4   (3.00) 50.8   (2.33) 61.9   (1.74) 42.6   (3.71) 49.5   (2.64) 59.3   (2.74) 68.0   (4.08) 66.0   (2.68)
Nonrelative care 9.6   (0.72) 11.5   (1.03) 4.3 ! (1.70) 8.4   (1.59)   (†) 8.5 ! (3.71) 5.2   (1.17) 8.3   (1.48) 12.0   (1.07) 7.0   (1.92) 8.6   (1.39) 8.3   (1.40) 9.7 ! (3.03) 13.1   (1.67)
Relative care 12.1   (0.95) 10.1   (0.99) 17.4   (3.64) 13.8   (1.98) 12.6 ! (5.47) 17.0 ! (5.95) 19.5   (3.28) 8.7   (2.02) 10.2   (0.95) 12.5   (3.10) 15.5   (2.02) 12.5   (1.79) 7.8   (2.32) 6.7   (1.26)
Multiple arrangements6 1.6   (0.40) 0.7 ! (0.32)   (†) 2.1 ! (0.76)   (†)   (†) 2.9 ! (1.31)   (†) 0.8 ! (0.24)   (†) 1.3 ! (0.61) 2.6 ! (1.27)   (†) 0.9 ! (0.40)
                                                                                     
2005                                                                                    
Percent of all children 100.0   (†) 57.9   (1.14) 14.1   (1.02) 19.1   (0.94) 3.2   (0.58) 5.7   (0.65) 22.2   (1.15) 25.9   (1.48) 51.9   (1.42) 9.3   (0.89) 31.6   (1.61) 20.7   (1.44) 7.4   (0.68) 31.1   (1.25)
                                                                                     
Percent in all types
      of care
100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Parental care only 21.1   (1.37) 19.3   (1.69) 13.8   (3.72) 32.6   (2.91) 14.7 ! (5.84) 21.2   (6.06) 25.8   (3.40) 29.7   (2.77) 14.7   (1.60) 36.2   (4.03) 27.4   (3.35) 22.5   (2.94) 14.7   (3.87) 11.2   (1.57)
Nonparental care 78.9   (1.37) 80.7   (1.69) 86.2   (3.72) 67.4   (2.91) 85.3   (5.84) 78.8   (6.06) 74.2   (3.40) 70.3   (2.77) 85.3   (1.60) 63.8   (4.03) 72.6   (3.35) 77.5   (2.94) 85.3   (3.87) 88.8   (1.57)
Primary arrangement4                                                                                    
Center-based care5 59.2   (1.34) 60.2   (1.86) 66.1   (4.75) 49.7   (3.00) 70.2   (8.60) 57.5   (6.98) 51.8   (3.98) 48.4   (3.21) 67.7   (1.96) 50.6   (3.84) 48.4   (3.15) 57.1   (3.02) 65.7   (5.07) 72.4   (2.17)
Nonrelative care 5.5   (0.89) 7.3   (1.29) 2.6 ! (1.14) 3.2   (0.80) 3.6 ! (1.70) 2.8 ! (1.32) 4.7 ! (2.14) 3.0   (0.75) 7.1   (1.26)   (†) 5.2 ! (1.64) 5.1   (1.48) 9.5   (2.63) 6.1   (1.52)
Relative care 12.0   (1.16) 10.7   (1.20) 15.7 ! (4.72) 13.6   (2.22)   (†) 12.0 ! (4.59) 16.0   (3.18) 15.1   (2.98) 8.8   (1.12) 9.6 ! (3.27) 15.9   (2.42) 13.9   (2.62) 6.5 ! (2.68) 8.8   (1.52)
Multiple arrangements6 2.2   (0.44) 2.4   (0.51) 1.8 ! (0.86) 0.9 ! (0.40)   (†)   (†)   (†) 3.8   (1.07) 1.7   (0.38)   (†) 3.0 ! (0.94) 1.5 ! (0.66) 3.5 ! (1.73) 1.5   (0.44)
                                                                                     
2012                                                                                    
Percent of all children 100.0   (†) 50.6   (1.50) 14.6   (1.05) 23.9   (1.26) 5.2   (0.55) 5.7   (0.68) 22.9   (1.22) 23.6   (1.28) 53.5   (1.30) 16.9   (1.44) 21.3   (1.17) 21.8   (1.28) 8.1   (0.84) 31.9   (1.16)
                                                                                     
Percent in all types
      of care
100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†) 100.0   (†)
Parental care only 19.5   (1.43) 18.5   (1.83) 15.3   (3.50) 24.3   (3.38) 19.4   (5.00) 18.9   (5.51) 29.0   (2.87) 23.9   (2.66) 13.5   (1.96) 35.1   (5.53) 23.5   (3.23) 22.0   (2.23) 15.0   (3.11) 7.7   (1.12)
Nonparental care 80.5   (1.43) 81.5   (1.83) 84.7   (3.50) 75.7   (3.38) 80.6   (5.00) 81.1   (5.51) 71.0   (2.87) 76.1   (2.66) 86.5   (1.96) 64.9   (5.53) 76.5   (3.23) 78.0   (2.23) 85.0   (3.11) 92.3   (1.12)
Primary arrangement4                                                                                    
Center-based care5 58.4   (1.32) 58.5   (1.82) 65.3   (4.10) 52.9   (3.60) 67.0   (5.41) 55.6   (6.52) 49.4   (3.05) 51.4   (3.04) 65.4   (1.88) 45.9   (5.65) 51.9   (3.68) 54.2   (2.93) 63.4   (4.02) 71.1   (1.88)
Nonrelative care 7.2   (0.72) 9.7   (1.19) 2.4 ! (0.93) 5.5   (1.47)   (†)   (†) 5.2 ! (1.67) 5.9   (1.46) 8.6   (1.04)   (†) 7.9   (1.98) 6.4   (1.33) 7.3 ! (2.24) 9.8   (1.36)
Relative care 13.0   (0.96) 11.3   (1.14) 16.3   (3.17) 14.4   (2.36) 10.2 ! (3.64) 15.4 ! (4.69) 14.9   (2.19) 15.6   (2.78) 11.0   (1.37) 12.3   (3.01) 16.4   (2.63) 15.2   (2.26) 9.7   (2.45) 9.3   (1.35)
Multiple arrangements6 1.9   (0.33) 1.9   (0.44)   (†) 2.9 ! (1.04)   (†)   (†) 1.5 ! (0.54) 3.2 ! (1.09) 1.5   (0.37)   (†)   (†) 2.2   (0.61) 4.6 ! (1.72) 2.2   (0.63)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau’s poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family’s size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2011, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $22,811. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
2 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
3 Includes persons of all other races and Two or more races.
4 A child's primary arrangement is the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week.
5 Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.
6 Refers to children who spent an equal number of hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.
NOTE: While National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) administrations prior to 2012 were administered via telephone with an interviewer, NHES:2012 used self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaires that were mailed to respondents. Measurable differences in estimates between 2012 and prior years could reflect actual changes in the population, or the changes could be due to the mode change from telephone to mail. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:1995, 2001, 2005, and 2012). (This table was prepared November 2014.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest