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Digest of Education Statistics
2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 202.30. Number of children under 6 years old and not yet enrolled in kindergarten, percentage in center-based programs, average weekly hours in nonparental care, and percentage in various types of primary care arrangements, by selected child and family characteristics: 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child or family characteristic Number of children, ages 0 to 5 (in thousands) Percent in center-based programs2 Average hours per week in nonparental care3 Percentage distribution, by type of primary care arrangement1
Parental care only Nonparental care
Center-based care Nonrelative home-based care Relative Multiple arrange-ments4
Total In another home In child's home
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total children 21,674 (1.0) 34.3 (0.66) 30.0 (0.37) 39.6 (0.78) 28.2   (0.62) 11.1   (0.49) 7.8   (0.43) 3.4   (0.27) 19.6   (0.62) 1.4   (0.15)
Age                                                    
Under 1 year 4,794 (130.9) 11.0 (1.11) 29.1 (0.98) 54.1 (1.92) 9.1   (0.90) 11.6   (1.11) 7.2   (0.80) 4.4   (0.72) 24.1   (1.48) 1.2 ! (0.38)
1 year old 4,468 (114.7) 17.9 (1.25) 31.0 (0.94) 49.3 (1.86) 15.4   (1.14) 13.3   (1.17) 10.0   (1.16) 3.3   (0.54) 21.0   (1.36) 1.0   (0.25)
2 years old 4,167 (133.9) 26.5 (1.43) 32.2 (0.88) 42.6 (1.57) 20.4   (1.30) 14.1   (1.13) 10.2   (1.12) 4.0   (0.61) 21.3   (1.38) 1.5   (0.39)
3 years old 3,674 (89.8) 48.8 (1.47) 29.7 (0.75) 30.5 (1.43) 40.0   (1.42) 9.4   (0.87) 6.3   (0.61) 3.1   (0.69) 18.5   (1.25) 1.6   (0.31)
4 years old 3,508 (90.4) 70.6 (1.57) 28.5 (0.65) 19.8 (1.68) 58.4   (1.50) 6.6   (0.65) 4.8   (0.57) 1.8   (0.37) 13.2   (1.15) 1.9   (0.36)
5 years old 1,062 (59.6) 68.3 (3.48) 29.7 (1.42) 18.5 (2.38) 58.4   (3.43) 9.0   (2.09) 6.7   (1.91) 2.3 ! (0.92) 12.1   (1.85) 2.0 ! (0.90)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity of child and
      poverty status of household5
                                                   
White 10,893 (99.5) 35.5 (0.90) 29.2 (0.38) 38.3 (0.95) 29.3   (0.84) 13.9   (0.78) 9.6   (0.72) 4.3   (0.33) 17.2   (0.73) 1.3   (0.20)
Poor 1,544 (63.3) 16.7 (1.72) 27.7 (1.65) 62.5 (2.84) 14.3   (1.52) 6.0   (1.36) 4.1 ! (1.24) 2.0 ! (0.73) 16.8   (1.78) 0.4 ! (0.15)
Near-poor 2,190 (82.6) 26.5 (1.83) 27.2 (1.20) 49.7 (2.35) 20.9   (1.72) 6.9   (0.91) 4.8   (0.73) 2.1   (0.57) 21.3   (1.79) 1.1 ! (0.37)
Nonpoor 7,159 (69.5) 42.4 (1.14) 29.9 (0.45) 29.5 (1.18) 35.2   (1.03) 17.7   (1.05) 12.3   (0.99) 5.4   (0.47) 16.1   (0.82) 1.5   (0.27)
Black 2,890 (#) 42.1 (2.28) 32.9 (1.21) 31.1 (2.46) 34.2   (2.39) 8.5   (1.66) 5.9   (1.29) 2.6 ! (1.07) 24.6   (1.94) 1.5 ! (0.50)
Poor 1,245 (34.2) 34.5 (3.33) 34.4 (1.68) 39.1 (3.99) 26.7   (3.16) 7.7 ! (2.62) 4.7 ! (2.22)   (†) 25.2   (2.98) 1.3 ! (0.51)
Near-poor 729 (43.4) 44.0 (4.62) 33.4 (2.36) 29.2 (4.89) 36.3   (4.55) 8.2   (2.27) 7.2 ! (2.24)   (†) 24.8   (3.93)   (†)
Nonpoor 916 (24.9) 51.0 (3.92) 31.0 (2.34) 21.8 (3.32) 42.8   (4.39) 10.0 ! (3.45) 6.5 ! (2.29)   (†) 23.5   (3.34)   (†)
Hispanic 5,469 (1.0) 27.7 (1.15) 30.2 (0.80) 44.9 (1.62) 22.3   (1.13) 8.1   (0.97) 6.3   (0.71) 1.8   (0.54) 22.9   (1.58) 1.8   (0.44)
Poor 1,914 (42.0) 21.6 (1.81) 26.3 (1.54) 54.6 (2.57) 17.7   (1.78) 4.1   (0.80) 3.5   (0.75)   (†) 21.0   (2.40) 2.5 ! (0.94)
Near-poor 1,575 (56.1) 24.3 (2.24) 31.5 (1.64) 47.1 (3.32) 20.0   (2.15) 7.7   (1.80) 6.1   (1.52)   (†) 23.1   (2.47) 2.0 ! (0.68)
Nonpoor 1,980 (39.7) 36.3 (2.52) 32.0 (1.06) 33.8 (2.76) 28.4   (2.24) 12.3   (1.87) 9.2   (1.47) 3.1   (0.93) 24.6   (2.71) 0.9 ! (0.34)
Asian 1,030 (60.5) 37.3 (2.74) 28.8 (1.47) 44.9 (3.21) 32.9   (2.63) 5.2   (1.11) 3.1   (0.83) 2.1 ! (0.80) 15.7   (1.95) 1.3 ! (0.44)
Other6 1,393 (80.8) 31.5 (2.31) 29.1 (1.14) 42.9 (2.84) 26.9   (2.28) 11.1   (1.62) 6.5   (1.25) 4.7   (1.02) 18.1   (1.88) 1.0 ! (0.39)
                                                     
Number of parents in the
      household7
                                                   
Two parents 15,428 (139.0) 33.4 (0.73) 28.3 (0.36) 41.6 (0.87) 28.6   (0.68) 11.8   (0.61) 8.3   (0.55) 3.5   (0.27) 16.5   (0.68) 1.4   (0.18)
One parent 5,629 (131.2) 36.0 (1.36) 33.1 (0.79) 35.5 (1.55) 27.5   (1.31) 9.8   (1.00) 6.8   (0.84) 3.0   (0.62) 25.7   (1.36) 1.5   (0.31)
                                                     
Mother in household                                                    
Yes 19,989 (91.0) 33.9 (0.70) 29.6 (0.37) 40.0 (0.84) 28.3   (0.62) 11.4   (0.51) 8.2   (0.47) 3.2   (0.24) 18.9   (0.63) 1.4   (0.16)
No 1,685 (91.0) 38.4 (2.65) 34.3 (1.68) 34.6 (2.74) 27.6   (2.38) 8.0   (1.93) 3.2 ! (1.00) 4.9 ! (1.68) 27.6   (2.85) 2.2 ! (0.69)
                                                     
Mother's employment status8                                                    
Currently employed 10,801 (136.5) 43.1 (1.06) 32.2 (0.38) 17.9 (0.94) 34.9   (0.93) 18.1   (0.87) 13.7   (0.78) 4.4   (0.40) 26.9   (0.98) 2.2   (0.29)
35 or more hours per week 7,615 (148.0) 44.7 (1.25) 35.1 (0.44) 15.2 (1.13) 36.3   (1.13) 19.2   (0.99) 15.0   (0.93) 4.2   (0.46) 26.8   (1.14) 2.4   (0.38)
Less than 35 hours per week 3,186 (102.7) 39.4 (1.79) 24.6 (0.67) 24.5 (1.59) 31.4   (1.58) 15.3   (1.41) 10.5   (1.35) 4.8   (0.74) 27.0   (1.45) 1.7   (0.40)
Looking for work 1,478 (83.0) 26.8 (3.03) 29.4 (2.03) 55.1 (3.50) 22.2   (2.92) 3.8 ! (1.29) 2.4 ! (1.17) 1.4 ! (0.70) 18.5   (2.79)   (†)
Not in labor force 7,710 (130.4) 22.3 (0.93) 20.1 (0.70) 68.1 (1.15) 20.2   (0.90) 3.5   (0.40) 1.5   (0.32) 1.9   (0.33) 7.9   (0.77) 0.3 ! (0.12)
                                                     
Mother's highest education8                                                    
Less than high school 2,991 (71.5) 20.5 (1.83) 28.9 (1.69) 56.4 (2.74) 17.8   (1.75) 6.4   (1.40) 4.8   (1.27) 1.6 ! (0.59) 17.8   (2.06) 1.6 ! (0.65)
High school/GED 4,041 (96.1) 25.7 (1.75) 29.1 (1.11) 48.2 (2.24) 22.2   (1.68) 7.6   (1.32) 6.4   (1.26) 1.2 ! (0.39) 21.6   (1.68) 0.4 ! (0.16)
Vocational/technical or
      some college
4,084 (104.5) 31.4 (1.31) 28.6 (0.76) 42.7 (1.47) 26.0   (1.37) 9.2   (0.94) 7.4   (0.74) 1.8   (0.44) 20.4   (1.35) 1.7   (0.36)
Associate's degree 1,795 (80.2) 35.9 (2.30) 31.9 (1.14) 34.3 (2.49) 28.0   (2.04) 14.3   (1.96) 11.3   (1.85) 3.0   (0.77) 21.0   (2.04) 2.4 ! (0.77)
Bachelor's degree 5,056 (102.6) 43.4 (1.39) 29.4 (0.53) 31.3 (1.34) 36.1   (1.33) 14.3   (0.93) 9.9   (0.82) 4.4   (0.50) 17.3   (1.04) 1.1   (0.24)
Graduate/professional degree 2,022 (40.2) 49.7 (1.79) 31.0 (0.61) 21.2 (1.55) 41.2   (1.71) 21.1   (1.38) 11.2   (0.98) 9.8   (1.08) 14.7   (1.20) 1.8   (0.43)
                                                     
Language spoken most at home
      by mother8
                                                   
English 16,057 (127.9) 35.8 (0.83) 29.7 (0.35) 37.5 (0.91) 29.6   (0.75) 12.6   (0.63) 9.0   (0.57) 3.6   (0.26) 19.0   (0.67) 1.3   (0.15)
Non-English 3,932 (108.8) 26.1 (1.44) 28.9 (1.05) 50.3 (2.03) 22.7   (1.39) 6.6   (0.94) 4.9   (0.80) 1.7   (0.44) 18.7   (1.88) 1.7 ! (0.53)
                                                     
Mother's age when first became
      parent8
                                                   
Less than 18 1,628 (86.3) 28.9 (2.94) 31.3 (1.81) 48.3 (2.95) 23.3   (2.80) 5.5 ! (1.81) 4.9 ! (1.79)   (†) 21.8   (2.36) 1.1 ! (0.44)
18 or 19 2,285 (110.7) 24.3 (2.03) 30.7 (1.49) 49.2 (2.78) 20.3   (1.92) 7.4   (1.64) 5.9   (1.25) 1.6 ! (0.59) 22.5   (2.18) 0.6 ! (0.26)
20 or older 15,935 (142.3) 35.7 (0.78) 29.3 (0.39) 37.9 (0.89) 29.8   (0.68) 12.6   (0.58) 8.9   (0.53) 3.8   (0.29) 18.1   (0.60) 1.5   (0.19)
                                                     
Household income                                                    
$20,000 or less 3,955 (#) 24.6 (1.40) 29.7 (0.98) 52.0 (1.92) 19.3   (1.21) 6.7   (1.00) 4.5   (0.88) 2.2   (0.58) 20.6   (1.47) 1.4 ! (0.45)
$20,001 to $50,000 6,246 (1.0) 28.5 (1.20) 28.8 (0.80) 46.8 (1.46) 23.5   (1.18) 6.4   (0.62) 5.1   (0.54) 1.2   (0.28) 21.6   (1.18) 1.7   (0.29)
$50,001 to $75,000 3,881 (#) 34.3 (1.75) 29.4 (0.94) 38.7 (2.00) 28.9   (1.61) 10.4   (1.14) 8.6   (1.03) 1.8   (0.44) 20.9   (1.22) 1.0   (0.26)
$75,001 to $100,000 2,745 (#) 40.6 (1.86) 31.0 (0.98) 28.4 (1.89) 33.9   (1.73) 16.4   (1.66) 13.9   (1.64) 2.5   (0.63) 20.1   (1.73) 1.3 ! (0.46)
Over $100,000 4,847 (#) 45.9 (1.49) 31.2 (0.57) 27.3 (1.66) 37.8   (1.37) 18.5   (1.20) 9.8   (0.90) 8.8   (0.86) 14.9   (1.17) 1.5   (0.31)
                                                     
Poverty status of household5                                                    
Poor 5,213 (75.9) 23.7 (1.31) 29.0 (0.86) 53.2 (1.73) 19.5   (1.24) 5.7   (0.76) 3.9   (0.69) 1.7   (0.45) 20.3   (1.21) 1.3   (0.37)
Near-poor 4,996 (96.6) 28.1 (1.41) 29.5 (0.92) 46.3 (1.66) 23.0   (1.29) 6.8   (0.80) 5.2   (0.68) 1.6   (0.35) 22.4   (1.26) 1.6   (0.31)
Nonpoor 11,464 (56.5) 41.7 (0.96) 30.5 (0.44) 30.5 (1.02) 34.5   (0.83) 15.5   (0.78) 10.6   (0.69) 4.9   (0.41) 18.1   (0.82) 1.4   (0.20)
                                                     
Household size                                                    
2 or 3 persons 5,427 (96.1) 37.4 (1.13) 32.5 (0.60) 33.2 (1.33) 30.2   (1.08) 13.1   (0.79) 9.4   (0.66) 3.7   (0.51) 21.7   (0.95) 1.8   (0.26)
4 persons 7,435 (96.1) 38.0 (1.21) 28.5 (0.55) 36.1 (1.18) 32.2   (1.12) 12.6   (0.94) 9.4   (0.85) 3.2   (0.43) 18.3   (0.93) 0.9   (0.18)
5 persons 4,243 (107.2) 34.0 (1.46) 28.8 (0.91) 43.5 (1.72) 27.7   (1.29) 9.6   (1.22) 6.4   (1.03) 3.2   (0.58) 17.8   (1.40) 1.4   (0.41)
6 or more persons 4,569 (107.1) 24.7 (1.48) 30.5 (1.13) 49.4 (2.00) 19.9   (1.44) 7.8   (0.95) 4.5   (0.70) 3.3   (0.70) 21.0   (1.54) 1.9   (0.49)
                                                     
Locale                                                    
City 7,165 (154.8) 34.3 (1.16) 30.4 (0.66) 38.3 (1.42) 28.3   (1.12) 11.3   (0.90) 7.1   (0.68) 4.3   (0.56) 20.5   (1.25) 1.5   (0.25)
Suburban 7,682 (173.4) 35.7 (1.18) 29.7 (0.56) 38.2 (1.23) 29.8   (1.12) 10.6   (0.68) 7.4   (0.61) 3.2   (0.38) 20.0   (0.95) 1.4   (0.29)
Town 2,208 (119.2) 29.4 (1.80) 29.5 (1.19) 45.1 (2.10) 23.4   (1.86) 10.0   (1.13) 7.1   (0.97) 2.9   (0.79) 19.6   (1.81) 2.0 ! (0.67)
Rural 4,619 (121.6) 34.0 (1.58) 30.1 (0.66) 41.4 (1.50) 27.7   (1.42) 12.2   (1.19) 9.8   (1.00) 2.5   (0.46) 17.6   (1.04) 1.1   (0.23)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 A child's primary arrangement is the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week.
2 Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.
3 Mean hours per week per child, among preschool children enrolled in any type of nonparental care arrangement. For children with more than one arrangement, the hours of each weekly arrangement were summed to calculate the total amount of time in child care per week.
4 Children who spent an equal number of hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.
5 Poor children are those whose family incomes were below the Census Bureau’s poverty threshold in the year prior to data collection; near-poor children are those whose family incomes ranged from the poverty threshold to 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor children are those whose family incomes were at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold. The poverty threshold is a dollar amount that varies depending on a family’s size and composition and is updated annually to account for inflation. In 2011, for example, the poverty threshold for a family of four with two children was $22,811. Survey respondents are asked to select the range within which their income falls, rather than giving the exact amount of their income; therefore, the measure of poverty status is an approximation.
6 Includes persons of all other races and Two or more races.
7 Excludes children living apart from their parents.
8 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2012). (This table was prepared April 2015.)

2016 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest