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Digest of Education Statistics: 2015
Digest of Education Statistics: 2015

NCES 2016-014
December 2016


Table 604.10. Average literacy and numeracy scale scores of 25- to 65-year-olds, by sex, age group, highest level of educational attainment, and country or other education system: 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system1 Total population of 25- to 65-year-olds Sex Age group Highest level of educational attainment2
Male Female 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 54 55 to 65 Less than high school completion High school completion Associate's degree Bachelor's or higher degree
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Literacy scale score3 
OECD average4 271 (0.2) 273 (0.3) 270 (0.2) 284 (0.4) 279 (0.3) 268 (0.3) 255 (0.3) 235 (0.5) 268 (0.3) 286 (0.5) 302 (0.3)
                                             
Austria 268 (0.8) 270 (1.1) 266 (1.0) 280 (1.5) 275 (1.7) 266 (1.4) 250 (1.6) 239 (2.1) 268 (0.9) 282 (2.2) 305 (1.7)
Canada 273 (0.6) 274 (0.9) 271 (0.9) 285 (1.3) 279 (1.4) 268 (1.3) 260 (1.1) 219 (2.1) 265 (1.1) 278 (1.2) 300 (1.0)
Czech Republic 273 (1.0) 274 (1.3) 271 (1.5) 287 (1.8) 275 (2.0) 266 (1.7) 262 (2.0) 242 (3.4) 269 (1.0) 293 (4.6) 303 (2.5)
Denmark 270 (0.7) 270 (1.1) 269 (0.9) 282 (1.7) 281 (1.6) 266 (1.4) 252 (1.1) 234 (2.1) 264 (1.2) 286 (1.3) 298 (1.5)
England (UK) 274 (1.1) 275 (1.4) 273 (1.4) 280 (2.1) 279 (1.6) 271 (1.8) 265 (2.0) 241 (1.6) 273 (1.5) 283 (2.4) 302 (1.9)
                                             
Estonia 273 (0.8) 273 (1.2) 274 (0.9) 286 (1.7) 278 (1.2) 269 (1.4) 261 (1.5) 244 (2.0) 267 (1.0) 276 (1.5) 298 (1.4)
Finland 286 (0.8) 284 (1.4) 287 (1.2) 309 (1.7) 299 (2.1) 284 (1.8) 260 (1.4) 245 (2.8) 276 (1.4) 294 (1.5) 318 (1.6)
Flanders (Belgium) 274 (0.9) 277 (1.1) 270 (1.1) 291 (1.8) 282 (1.6) 272 (1.6) 255 (1.6) 232 (2.0) 265 (1.2) 294 (1.6) 313 (1.7)
France 259 (0.6) 260 (0.9) 259 (0.8) 278 (1.4) 267 (1.3) 254 (1.2) 242 (1.3) 224 (1.3) 258 (0.9) 287 (1.4) 297 (1.2)
Germany 268 (1.0) 271 (1.2) 265 (1.3) 281 (1.8) 275 (1.6) 264 (1.7) 254 (1.7) 220 (3.0) 262 (1.1) 280 (2.3) 301 (1.6)
                                             
Ireland 266 (1.0) 267 (1.3) 264 (1.2) 276 (1.5) 271 (1.8) 259 (2.1) 251 (1.8) 232 (1.8) 266 (1.5) 279 (1.9) 301 (1.7)
Italy 249 (1.1) 249 (1.6) 248 (1.4) 260 (2.2) 253 (1.9) 249 (1.8) 233 (2.2) 231 (1.6) 263 (1.3) (†) 282 (1.6)
Japan 296 (0.7) 297 (1.0) 294 (1.0) 309 (1.7) 307 (1.0) 297 (1.5) 273 (1.6) 260 (2.6) 287 (1.0) 304 (1.4) 320 (1.1)
Korea, Republic of 269 (0.6) 273 (0.9) 264 (0.9) 290 (1.2) 278 (1.2) 259 (1.4) 244 (1.4) 230 (1.7) 265 (1.0) 282 (1.4) 297 (1.3)
Netherlands 282 (0.8) 286 (1.2) 278 (1.0) 298 (2.0) 294 (1.8) 277 (1.7) 261 (1.6) 246 (1.7) 283 (1.3) 293 (3.4) 312 (1.3)
                                             
Northern Ireland (UK) 268 (2.1) 271 (2.7) 265 (2.0) 278 (2.9) 274 (2.3) 262 (2.6) 255 (3.2) 239 (2.6) 270 (2.6) 280 (3.3) 303 (2.9)
Norway 279 (0.7) 281 (1.1) 277 (1.1) 289 (1.8) 288 (1.6) 277 (1.5) 262 (1.5) 251 (1.8) 271 (1.4) 288 (3.1) 303 (1.1)
Poland 264 (0.7) 260 (1.1) 267 (1.0) 277 (1.5) 268 (1.9) 259 (1.7) 249 (1.7) 227 (2.6) 254 (1.0) (†) 297 (1.3)
Slovak Republic 273 (0.7) 273 (1.0) 274 (0.9) 278 (1.4) 278 (1.4) 270 (1.3) 266 (1.3) 238 (1.9) 275 (0.9) (†) 295 (1.4)
Spain 250 (0.8) 253 (1.1) 248 (1.2) 263 (1.5) 260 (1.3) 248 (1.5) 227 (1.9) 225 (1.3) 258 (1.4) 266 (2.1) 288 (1.3)
                                             
Sweden 278 (0.8) 280 (1.2) 276 (1.2) 290 (1.9) 287 (1.8) 276 (1.7) 262 (1.3) 238 (2.2) 277 (1.2) 294 (2.4) 309 (1.4)
United States 269 (1.1) 270 (1.3) 269 (1.4) 275 (2.0) 273 (1.8) 266 (1.7) 263 (1.5) 211 (2.7) 259 (1.4) 282 (2.8) 302 (1.7)
                                             
Non-OECD education systems                                            
Cyprus5 269 (0.9) 269 (1.3) 270 (1.1) 275 (1.7) 270 (1.5) 270 (1.7) 261 (1.6) 248 (1.9) 266 (1.2) 273 (2.0) 290 (1.5)
Russian Federation6 275 (3.0) 274 (3.3) 277 (3.1) 273 (4.1) 278 (3.9) 277 (3.7) 275 (3.9) 248 (7.5) 272 (4.2) 276 (2.8) 282 (3.1)
  Numeracy scale score3 
OECD average4 268 (0.2) 275 (0.3) 262 (0.3) 279 (0.4) 275 (0.4) 266 (0.4) 253 (0.4) 227 (0.5) 265 (0.3) 283 (0.9) 303 (0.4)
                                             
Austria 274 (0.9) 281 (1.3) 267 (1.1) 282 (1.7) 281 (2.0) 274 (1.7) 257 (1.7) 237 (2.3) 276 (1.1) 292 (2.6) 315 (1.8)
Canada 265 (0.8) 273 (1.0) 257 (1.0) 276 (1.4) 272 (1.5) 260 (1.4) 251 (1.4) 206 (2.5) 255 (1.2) 271 (1.5) 295 (1.0)
Czech Republic 275 (1.0) 280 (1.5) 270 (1.4) 288 (1.8) 277 (1.8) 272 (2.2) 263 (2.0) 235 (3.3) 271 (1.0) 287 (6.1) 313 (2.5)
Denmark 279 (0.8) 285 (1.4) 273 (1.0) 287 (1.9) 290 (1.6) 277 (1.6) 265 (1.2) 241 (2.4) 275 (1.3) 295 (1.4) 309 (1.8)
England (UK) 263 (1.1) 270 (1.4) 256 (1.6) 267 (2.2) 269 (1.9) 259 (1.9) 257 (1.9) 226 (1.9) 262 (1.5) 271 (3.0) 295 (2.2)
                                             
Estonia 272 (0.6) 276 (1.0) 269 (0.9) 284 (1.7) 275 (1.1) 269 (1.4) 259 (1.3) 236 (1.8) 265 (0.9) 275 (1.4) 300 (1.3)
Finland 282 (0.8) 286 (1.3) 277 (1.2) 302 (2.1) 292 (2.2) 279 (2.0) 260 (1.3) 244 (2.8) 271 (1.3) 291 (1.6) 314 (1.7)
Flanders (Belgium) 280 (0.9) 289 (1.2) 271 (1.3) 295 (1.9) 289 (1.8) 280 (1.9) 260 (1.6) 235 (1.9) 272 (1.2) 300 (1.5) 323 (1.8)
France 252 (0.7) 258 (1.0) 247 (1.0) 269 (1.5) 262 (1.6) 246 (1.4) 234 (1.5) 208 (1.3) 251 (1.0) 287 (1.7) 299 (1.4)
Germany 271 (1.1) 280 (1.4) 262 (1.4) 282 (1.8) 279 (2.0) 268 (1.9) 256 (1.9) 210 (3.4) 264 (1.2) 287 (2.5) 310 (1.7)
                                             
Ireland 255 (1.0) 261 (1.4) 249 (1.3) 266 (1.7) 260 (1.7) 250 (2.1) 238 (2.3) 218 (2.2) 254 (1.6) 274 (2.1) 294 (1.9)
Italy 246 (1.1) 253 (1.6) 240 (1.4) 262 (2.3) 251 (1.9) 244 (2.0) 229 (2.2) 225 (1.5) 265 (1.5) (†) 280 (2.1)
Japan 289 (0.8) 296 (1.2) 282 (1.1) 297 (1.6) 297 (1.3) 291 (1.7) 273 (1.6) 247 (2.5) 281 (1.3) 291 (1.3) 319 (1.2)
Korea, Republic of 260 (0.7) 266 (1.0) 254 (1.1) 281 (1.4) 271 (1.5) 251 (1.4) 232 (1.7) 215 (1.9) 256 (1.0) 275 (1.6) 293 (1.5)
Netherlands 279 (0.8) 288 (1.3) 270 (1.1) 293 (1.8) 287 (2.1) 277 (1.7) 262 (1.7) 243 (1.9) 281 (1.2) 292 (3.5) 310 (1.3)
                                             
Northern Ireland (UK) 258 (1.8) 265 (2.2) 251 (2.0) 268 (2.9) 266 (2.4) 252 (2.1) 245 (3.1) 225 (2.9) 261 (2.1) 273 (3.0) 298 (2.4)
Norway 280 (0.9) 288 (1.3) 272 (1.2) 285 (2.0) 289 (1.9) 280 (1.7) 265 (1.7) 246 (2.2) 273 (1.5) 296 (3.7) 306 (1.3)
Poland 258 (1.0) 259 (1.5) 257 (1.0) 270 (1.5) 262 (2.2) 254 (2.1) 244 (1.9) 216 (3.1) 250 (1.2) (†) 290 (1.5)
Slovak Republic 275 (0.9) 277 (1.2) 274 (1.1) 279 (1.6) 281 (1.7) 275 (1.6) 265 (1.6) 226 (2.4) 278 (1.0) (†) 306 (1.5)
Spain 245 (0.7) 251 (1.1) 238 (1.1) 257 (1.3) 255 (1.3) 242 (1.6) 221 (1.7) 217 (1.3) 254 (1.5) 264 (2.4) 283 (1.3)
                                             
Sweden 279 (1.0) 286 (1.5) 272 (1.2) 288 (2.0) 286 (2.0) 276 (2.3) 268 (1.7) 237 (2.6) 277 (1.4) 297 (2.6) 311 (1.5)
United States 254 (1.2) 262 (1.3) 246 (1.5) 260 (2.2) 258 (1.9) 250 (2.1) 247 (1.8) 185 (3.1) 241 (1.5) 266 (3.1) 293 (1.7)
                                             
Non-OECD education systems                                            
Cyprus5 265 (0.9) 270 (1.2) 260 (1.3) 273 (2.0) 269 (1.6) 265 (1.8) 250 (1.8) 230 (2.3) 264 (1.4) 270 (2.1) 292 (1.6)
Russian Federation6 269 (2.8) 268 (3.3) 271 (3.0) 269 (4.2) 270 (3.6) 272 (3.2) 267 (3.9) 234 (8.5) 265 (4.0) 268 (2.6) 280 (3.0)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Most of the education systems represent complete countries, but three of them represent subnational entities: England (which is part of the United Kingdom), Flanders (which is part of Belgium), and Northern Ireland (which is part of the United Kingdom).
2 High school completion includes International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) 1997 levels 3 and 4, with the exception of ISCED level 3C short programs. ISCED 3C short programs do not correspond to high school completion in the United States and are included in the "less than high school completion" column in this table. The associate's degree data in this table refer to degrees classified as ISCED 1997 level 5B. The data for bachelor’s or higher degree refer to degrees classified as ISCED 1997 level 5A and as level 6.
3 Scale scores range from 0 to 500.
4 Refers to the mean of the data values for all reporting Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and subnational education systems, to which each country or subnational education system reporting data contributes equally, with the exception of England (UK) and Northern Ireland (UK), which contribute to the mean as a combined entity, England/Northern Ireland (UK).
5 Cyprus includes only the population under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus. For the educational attainment data (columns 9 through 12), the item response rate for Cyprus is below 85 percent; missing data have not been explicitly accounted for.
6 The Russian Federation does not include the population of the Moscow municipal region.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), 2012. (This table was prepared May 2016.)