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Digest of Education Statistics
2015 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 201.10. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 1869-70 through 2012-13
Selected characteristic 1869-70 1879-80 1889-90 1899-1900 1909-10 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1979-80 1989-90 1999-2000 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                            
Total population (in thousands)1 38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   225,055   246,819   279,040   304,094   306,772   309,347   311,722   314,112  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1 11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,043   44,947   52,811   53,833   53,890   53,933   53,791   53,732  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent of total
      population
30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.3   18.2   18.9   17.7   17.6   17.4   17.3   17.1  
                                                             
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary
      schools (in thousands)2
7,562 3 9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   49,266   49,361   49,484   49,522   49,771  
Prekindergarten through grade 8 (in thousands) 7,481 3 9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,152   33,486   34,286   34,409   34,625   34,773   35,018  
Grades 9-12 (in thousands) 80 3 110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,390   13,371   14,980   14,952   14,860   14,749   14,753  
                                                             
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3 19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.2   16.1   16.0   15.9   15.8  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3 65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   91.5   91.6   91.8   92.1   92.6  
                                                             
Percent of total enrollment in grades 9-12 1.1 3 1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   30.4   30.3   30.0   29.8   29.6  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   3,039   3,128   3,144   3,149   3,169  
                                                             
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   46,173   45,919   46,119   46,400   46,568  
Total number of days attended by pupils
      enrolled (in millions)
539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4   7,858   8,264   8,199   8,235   8,298   8,357  
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4   94.3         93.9    
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4   179.4   179.0   178.6   178.6   178.8   179.5  
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4   169.2         167.9    
                                                             
Total full-time-equivalent (FTE) instructional
      staff (in thousands)
  678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   4,278   4,279   4,151   4,134   4,158  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                    
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137   160   168   165   166   169  
Teachers, teacher aides, librarians, and
      guidance counselors (in thousands)5
201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3,682   4,118   4,111   3,986   3,967   3,989  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4 711 4 782 4              
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4 1,484 4 1,518 4              
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4 32.4 4 34.0 4              
  Amounts in current dollars
Total revenues and expenditures                                                            
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548   $372,944   $592,422   $596,391   $604,229   $597,885   $603,687  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   56,670   75,998   75,549   60,921   55,863  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   276,526   258,864   266,786   269,043   273,102  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   259,226   261,529   261,893   267,921   274,723  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                            
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   9.6   12.7   12.5   10.2   9.3  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   46.7   43.4   44.2   45.0   45.2  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   43.8   43.9   43.3   44.8   45.5  
                                                             
Total expenditures for public schools
      (in millions)
$63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770   $381,838   $610,326   $607,018   $604,356   $601,994   $606,490  
Current expenditures6   114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7 34,218 7 86,984 7 188,229 7 323,889 7 518,923 7 524,715 7 527,291 7 527,207 7 535,665 7
Capital outlay8   26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   65,890   56,715   50,969   48,793   45,474  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   17,049   17,232   17,934   17,804   17,247  
Other current expenditures9   3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10 2,983   5,457   8,464   8,356   8,161   8,189   8,103  
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                            
Current expenditures6   81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7 84.1 7 90.6 7 88.5 7 84.8 7 85.0 7 86.4 7 87.2 7 87.6 7 88.3 7
Capital outlay8   18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   10.8   9.3   8.4   8.1   7.5  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.8   2.8   3.0   3.0   2.8  
Other current expenditures9   0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10 1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.3  
                                                             
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures
      per pupil and per capita
                                                           
Annual salary of classroom teachers11 $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $54,319   $55,202   $55,623   $55,418   $56,103  
Personal income per member of labor force1   1,734 1,333 3,446 5,897   9,913   19,800   37,297   57,319   81,032   78,465   81,079   86,283   89,789  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
      population
2   2 2 3 5 10 19 18 39 88   202   426   862   1,368   2,007   1,979   1,954   1,931   1,931  
National income per capita1   773 630 1,609 2,584   4,467   9,990   19,375   29,832   40,868   39,528   41,182   42,834   44,767  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   14 17 28 53 87 88 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   11,239   11,427   11,433   11,362   11,503  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14 16   13 17 20 33 64 108 106 260 471   955   2,491   5,547   8,589   13,033   13,035   12,926   12,796   12,846  
National income per pupil in ADA13   4,430 3,743 10,770 14,152   21,450   58,717   126,516   190,026   269,155   264,075   276,233   287,762   301,966  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
      ADA6,13,15
  0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73     41.22   62.79   64.00   64.03   63.53   64.10  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13 0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95     47.90   72.83   73.02   72.39   71.56   71.60  
  Amounts in constant 2014-15 dollars16
Annual salary of classroom teachers11   $10,817 $19,634 $24,404 $30,081 $40,234   $54,046   $48,687   $58,467   $58,448   $59,891   $60,281   $59,545   $57,637   $57,394  
Personal income per member of labor force1   23,982 22,569 34,439 47,503   62,108   60,362   69,520   80,134   89,344   85,685   86,796   89,738   91,856  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
      population
  123 263 303 391 707   1,266   1,300   1,607   1,913   2,213   2,161   2,091   2,009   1,975  
National income per capita1    10,687 10,663 16,077 20,818   27,985   30,455   36,115   41,707   45,060   43,165   44,086   44,549   45,798  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   662 1,199 1,492 2,102 3,022   5,112   6,926   9,282   10,337   12,391   12,478   12,240   11,817   11,768  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14   794 1,500 1,791 2,602 3,794   5,983   7,593   10,339   12,008   14,370   14,235   13,837   13,308   13,142  
National income per pupil in ADA13   61,251 63,388 107,631 113,989   134,396   179,008   235,821   265,663   296,764   288,372   295,711   299,285   308,916  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
      ADA6,13,15
  4.1 6.9 8.5 11.7 17.0   28.6   38.8     53.6   69.2   69.9   68.5   66.1   65.6  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13   5.0 8.7 10.2 14.6 21.3   33.5   42.5     62.2   80.3   79.7   77.5   74.4   73.3  
—Not available.
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909-10 to 1959-60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869-70 through 1959-60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment. Total counts of ungraded students were prorated to prekindergarten through grade 8 and grades 9 through 12 based on prior reports.
3 Data for 1870-71.
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5 Prior to 1919-20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6 Prior to 1919-20, includes interest on school debt.
7 Because of the modification of the scope of "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959-60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
8 Beginning in 1969-70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959-60, also includes community services, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.
11 Prior to 1959-60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959-60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959-60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1869-70 through 1909-10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919-20 through 1949-50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959-60 and 1969-70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979-80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Questionnaire," 1999-2000, 2007-08, and 2011-12; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989-90 through 2013-14, and "National Public Education Financial Survey," 1989-90 through 2012-13. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, retrieved September 15, 2015, from http://www.census.gov/popest/data/national/asrh/2014/index.html. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://www.bea.gov/itable/. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, retrieved January 29, 2016, from http://stats.bls.gov/cps/tables.htm#empstat. (This table was prepared January 2016.)

2015 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest