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Digest of Education Statistics: 2014
Digest of Education Statistics: 2014

NCES 2016-006
April 2016


Table 401.10. Federal support and estimated federal tax expenditures for education, by category: Selected fiscal years, 1965 through 2014
[In millions of dollars]
Fiscal year Total
on-budget support,
off-budget support, and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation
On-budget support1 Off-budget support and nonfederal funds generated by federal legislation Estimated federal tax expendi-tures for educa-tion2
Total Elementary and secondary Post-secondary Other educa-tion3 Research at educational institutions Total Off-budget support Nonfederal funds
Direct Loan Program4 Federal Family Education Loan Program5 Perkins Loans6 Income Contingent Loans7 Leveraging Educational Assistance Partner-ships8 Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grants9 Work-Study Aid10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Current dollars
1965 $5,354.7 $5,331.0 $1,942.6 $1,197.5 $374.7 $1,816.3   $23.7 $16.1   $7.6  
1970 13,359.1 12,526.5 5,830.4 3,447.7 964.7 2,283.6   832.6 $770.0 21.0   41.6  
1975 24,691.5 23,288.1 10,617.2 7,644.0 1,608.5 3,418.4   1,403.4 1,233.0 35.7 $20.0   114.7   $8,605.0
1980 39,349.5 34,493.5 16,027.7 11,115.9 1,548.7 5,801.2   4,856.0 4,598.0 31.8 76.8   149.4   13,320.0
                                     
1985 47,753.4 39,027.9 16,901.3 11,174.4 2,107.6 8,844.6   8,725.5 8,467.0 21.4 76.0   161.1   19,105.0
1986 48,357.3 39,962.9 17,049.9 11,283.6 2,620.0 9,009.4   8,394.4 8,142.0 20.2 72.7   159.5   20,425.0
1987 50,724.6 41,194.7 17,535.7 10,300.0 2,820.4 10,538.6   9,529.8 9,272.0 20.9 $0.6 76.0   160.4   20,830.0
1988 54,078.7 43,454.4 18,564.9 10,657.5 2,981.6 11,250.5   10,624.3 10,380.0 20.6 0.5 72.8   150.4   17,025.0
1989 59,537.4 48,269.6 19,809.5 13,269.9 3,180.3 12,009.8   11,267.8 10,938.0 20.4 0.5 71.9 $22.0   215.0   17,755.0
                                     
1990 62,811.5 51,624.3 21,984.4 13,650.9 3,383.0 12,606.0   11,187.2 10,826.0 15.0 0.5 59.2 48.8   237.7   19,040.0
1991 70,375.6 57,599.5 25,418.0 14,707.4 3,698.6 13,775.4   12,776.1 12,372.0 17.3 0.5 63.5 87.7   235.0   18,995.0
1992 74,481.1 60,483.1 27,926.9 14,387.4 3,992.0 14,176.9   13,998.0 13,568.0 17.3 0.5 72.0 97.2   242.9   19,950.0
1993 84,741.5 67,740.6 30,834.3 17,844.0 4,107.2 14,955.1   17,000.8 16,524.0 29.3 72.4 184.6   190.5   21,010.0
1994 92,781.5 68,254.2 32,304.4 16,177.1 4,483.7 15,289.1   24,527.3 $813.0 23,214.0 52.7 72.4 184.6   190.5   22,630.0
                                     
1995 95,810.8 71,639.5 33,623.8 17,618.1 4,719.7 15,677.9   24,171.2 5,161.0 18,519.0 52.7 63.4 184.6   190.5   24,600.0
1996 96,833.0 71,327.4 34,391.5 15,775.5 4,828.0 16,332.3   25,505.6 8,357.0 16,711.0 31.1 31.4 184.6   190.5   26,340.0
1997 103,259.8 73,731.8 35,478.9 15,959.4 5,021.2 17,272.4   29,528.0 9,838.0 19,163.0 52.7 50.0 184.6   239.7   28,125.0
1998 107,810.5 76,909.2 37,486.2 15,799.6 5,148.5 18,475.0   30,901.3 10,400.1 20,002.5 45.0 25.0 194.3   234.4   29,540.0
1999 113,417.2 82,863.6 39,937.9 17,651.2 5,318.0 19,956.5   30,553.6 9,953.0 20,107.0 33.3 25.0 195.9   239.4   37,360.0
                                     
2000 119,541.6 85,944.2 43,790.8 15,008.7 5,484.6 21,660.1   33,597.4 10,347.0 22,711.0 33.3 50.0 199.7   256.4   39,475.0
2001 130,668.5 94,846.5 48,530.1 14,938.3 5,880.0 25,498.1   35,822.0 10,635.0 24,694.0 25.0 80.0 184.0   204.0   41,460.0
2002 150,034.5 109,211.5 52,754.1 22,964.2 6,297.7 27,195.5   40,823.0 11,689.0 28,606.0 25.0 104.0 192.0   207.0  
2003 170,671.5 124,374.5 59,274.2 29,499.7 6,532.5 29,068.1   46,297.0 11,969.0 33,791.0 33.0 103.0 202.0   199.0  
2004 185,176.7 132,420.7 62,653.2 32,433.0 6,576.8 30,757.7   52,756.0 12,840.0 39,266.0 33.0 102.0 244.0   271.0  
                                     
2005 204,702.2 147,873.2 68,957.7 38,587.3 6,908.5 33,419.7   56,829.0 12,930.0 43,284.0 0.0 101.0 246.0   268.0  
200611 226,978.7 166,495.7 70,948.2 57,757.7 7,074.5 30,715.2   60,483.0 12,677.0 47,307.0 0.0 100.0 205.0   194.0  
2007 210,536.0 145,698.0 70,735.9 37,465.3 7,214.9 30,281.9   64,838.0 13,022.0 51,320.0 0.0 100.0 205.0   191.0  
2008 220,336.9 144,338.9 71,272.6 36,386.3 7,882.2 28,797.8   75,998.0 18,213.0 57,296.0 0.0 98.0 201.0   190.0  
200912 368,349.6 271,297.6 172,660.8 53,085.4 8,853.7 36,697.7   97,052.0 29,738.0 66,778.0 0.0 98.0 201.0   237.0  
                                     
2010 288,009.7 183,199.7 86,681.8 50,197.8 9,326.7 36,993.3   104,810.0 84,703.0 19,618.0 0.0 98.0 201.0   190.0  
2011 292,976.2 183,669.9 76,118.9 64,400.2 11,133.7 32,017.1   109,306.3 108,926.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 195.0   185.0  
2012 294,677.2 189,846.6 78,227.1 70,053.8 9,389.5 32,176.2   104,830.6 104,450.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 195.0   185.0  
2013 285,034.3 183,367.5 79,131.2 62,784.2 9,727.8 31,724.3 13 101,666.8 101,255.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 230.4 13 180.5 13
2014 279,429.8 179,342.4 80,072.3 56,953.7 9,454.9 32,861.6 13 100,087.4 99,647.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 244.9 13 195.2 13
  Constant fiscal year 2014 dollars14
1965 $37,324.5 $37,159.2 $13,540.5 $8,347.1 $2,611.5 $12,660.1   $165.3 $112.3   $53.0  
1970 76,151.7 71,405.7 33,235.7 19,653.1 5,499.3 13,017.6   4,746.0 $4,389.3 119.6   237.1  
1975 99,141.4 93,506.6 42,630.2 30,692.4 6,458.4 13,725.6   5,634.8 4,950.8 143.2 $80.3   460.5   $34,550.9
1980 107,755.7 94,457.9 43,890.6 30,440.0 4,241.1 15,886.2   13,297.7 12,591.3 87.0 210.3   409.1   36,475.8
                                     
1985 96,208.9 78,629.6 34,051.2 22,513.1 4,246.2 17,819.2   17,579.3 17,058.5 43.1 153.1   324.6   38,490.9
1986 95,401.5 78,840.6 33,636.9 22,260.8 5,168.9 17,774.1   16,560.9 16,062.9 39.9 143.4   314.7   40,295.4
1987 97,288.0 79,010.1 33,632.9 19,755.0 5,409.4 20,212.7   18,277.9 17,783.4 40.1 $1.1 145.8   307.6   39,951.2
1988 100,326.0 80,616.0 34,441.2 19,771.7 5,531.4 20,871.7   19,710.1 19,256.8 38.3 0.9 135.1   279.0   31,584.5
1989 106,369.5 86,238.3 35,391.7 23,708.0 5,682.0 21,456.7   20,131.1 19,541.8 36.4 1.0 128.5 $39.3   384.1   31,721.1
                                     
1990 108,998.9 89,585.4 38,150.2 23,688.9 5,870.7 21,875.7   19,413.5 18,786.7 26.1 0.9 102.7 84.7   412.5   33,040.7
1991 116,717.5 95,528.5 42,155.7 24,392.2 6,134.1 22,846.5   21,189.1 20,518.9 28.8 0.8 105.4 145.5   389.7   31,503.1
1992 119,057.6 96,681.8 44,641.0 22,998.1 6,381.1 22,661.6   22,375.8 21,688.4 27.7 0.9 115.1 155.4   388.3   31,890.0
1993 131,554.0 105,161.6 47,867.7 27,701.3 6,376.1 23,216.5   26,392.4 25,652.1 45.4 112.4 286.6   295.8   32,616.3
1994 141,459.1 104,063.6 49,252.8 24,664.3 6,836.1 23,310.5   37,395.4 $1,239.5 35,393.2 80.3 110.4 281.5   290.5   34,502.8
                                     
1995 141,939.4 106,130.8 49,812.2 26,100.5 6,992.0 23,226.1   35,808.6 7,645.8 27,435.1 78.0 93.9 273.5   282.3   36,443.8
1996 140,511.6 103,501.2 49,904.6 22,891.4 7,005.8 23,699.4   37,010.5 12,126.6 24,248.9 45.1 45.6 267.9   276.4   38,221.2
1997 146,845.5 104,853.8 50,454.4 22,695.8 7,140.6 24,563.0   41,991.7 13,990.6 27,251.6 74.9 71.1 262.5   340.9   39,996.5
1998 151,939.7 108,389.9 52,830.1 22,266.7 7,255.9 26,037.2   43,549.9 14,657.1 28,190.0 63.4 35.2 273.8   330.3   41,631.4
1999 157,847.9 115,325.1 55,583.4 24,566.0 7,401.3 27,774.3   42,522.8 13,852.0 27,983.8 46.3 34.8 272.6   333.2   51,995.6
                                     
2000 162,343.2 116,716.3 59,470.0 20,382.6 7,448.3 29,415.5   45,626.9 14,051.7 30,842.6 45.2 67.9 271.2   348.2   53,608.9
2001 172,835.6 125,453.7 64,190.8 19,758.9 7,777.5 33,726.4   47,381.9 14,066.9 32,662.8 33.1 105.8 243.4   269.8   54,839.3
2002 195,207.1 142,093.1 68,637.4 29,878.3 8,193.8 35,383.6   53,114.1 15,208.3 37,218.7 32.5 135.3 249.8   269.3  
2003 215,957.8 157,376.3 75,002.2 37,327.2 8,265.8 36,781.1   58,581.5 15,144.9 42,757.2 41.8 130.3 255.6   251.8  
2004 228,333.3 163,282.2 77,255.0 39,991.7 8,109.6 37,925.9   65,051.1 15,832.4 48,417.2 40.7 125.8 300.9   334.2  
                                     
2005 243,961.4 176,233.3 82,182.9 45,987.8 8,233.5 39,829.2   67,728.1 15,409.8 51,585.3 0.0 120.4 293.2   319.4  
200611 261,498.9 191,817.3 81,738.5 66,541.9 8,150.4 35,386.6   69,681.6 14,605.0 54,501.7 0.0 115.2 236.2   223.5  
2007 236,318.1 163,540.1 79,398.2 42,053.3 8,098.4 33,990.2   72,778.0 14,616.7 57,604.6 0.0 112.2 230.1   214.4  
2008 238,968.7 156,544.3 77,299.4 39,463.1 8,548.7 31,233.0   82,424.4 19,753.1 62,141.0 0.0 106.3 218.0   206.1  
200912 398,738.4 293,679.6 186,905.3 57,464.9 9,584.1 39,725.2   105,058.8 32,191.4 72,287.2 0.0 106.1 217.6   256.6  
                                     
2010 308,104.0 195,981.5 92,729.6 53,700.1 9,977.4 39,574.3   112,122.6 90,612.7 20,986.7 0.0 104.8 215.0   203.3  
2011 307,372.3 192,694.9 79,859.1 67,564.7 11,680.8 33,590.4   114,677.3 114,278.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 204.6   194.1  
2012 303,451.4 195,499.4 80,556.4 72,139.7 9,669.0 33,134.2   107,952.0 107,560.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 200.8   190.5  
2013 289,473.3 186,223.2 80,363.6 63,762.0 9,879.3 32,218.4 13 103,250.1 102,832.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 234.0 13 183.3 13
2014 279,429.8 179,342.4 80,072.3 56,953.7 9,454.9 32,861.6 13 100,087.4 99,647.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 244.9 13 195.2 13
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
1On-budget support includes federal funds for education programs tied to appropriations. Excludes federal support for medical education benefits under Medicare in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Benefits excluded because data before fiscal year (FY) 1990 are not available. This program existed since Medicare began, but was not available as a separate budget item until FY 1990. Excluded amounts range from an estimated $4,440,000,000 in FY 1990 to an estimated $11,330,000,000 in FY 2014.
2Losses of tax revenue attributable to provisions of the federal income tax laws that allow a special exclusion, exemption, or deduction from gross income or provide a special credit, preferential rate of tax, or a deferral of tax liability affecting individual or corporate income tax liabilities.
3Other education includes libraries, museums, cultural activities, and miscellaneous research.
4The William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program (commonly referred to as the Direct Loan Program) provides students with the same benefits they were eligible to receive under the Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, but provides loans to students through federal capital rather than through private lenders.
5The Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL) Program, formerly known as the Guaranteed Student Loan Program, provided student loans guaranteed by the federal government and disbursed to borrowers. After June 30, 2010, no new FFEL loans have been originated; all new loans are originated through the Direct Loan Program.
6Student loans created from institutional matching funds (since 1993 one-third of federal capital contributions). Excludes repayments of outstanding loans.
7Student loans created from institutional matching funds (one-ninth of federal contributions). This was a demonstration project that involved only 10 institutions and had unsubsidized interest rates. Program repealed in fiscal year 1992.
8Formerly the State Student Incentive Grant Program. Starting in fiscal year 2000, amounts under $30.0 million have required dollar-for-dollar state matching contributions, while amounts over $30.0 million have required two-to-one state matching contributions.
9Institutions award grants to undergraduate students, and the federal share of such grants may not exceed 75 percent of the total grant.
10Employer contributions to student earnings are generally one-third of federal allocation.
11The increase in postsecondary expenditures in 2006 resulted primarily from an accounting adjustment.
12All education funds from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) are included in the FY 2009 row of this table. Most of these funds had a 2-year availability, meaning that they were available for the Department of Education to obligate during FY 2009 and FY 2010.
13Estimated.
14Data adjusted by the federal budget composite deflator, as reported in the U.S. Office of Management and Budget's Budget of the U.S. Government, Historical Tables, Fiscal Year 2015.
NOTE: To the extent possible, federal education funds data represent outlays rather than obligations. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Budget Service, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, unpublished tabulations. U.S. Office of Management and Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government, Appendix, fiscal years 1967 through 2015. National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, fiscal years 1967 through 2014. (This table was prepared February 2015.)