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Digest of Education Statistics: 2014
Digest of Education Statistics: 2014

NCES 2016-006
April 2016


Table 220.40. Fall 2010 first-time kindergartners' reading, mathematics, and science scale scores, by selected child, family, and school characteristics: Fall 2010, spring 2011, and spring 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, family, or school characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distribution of children Mean reading score1 Mean mathematics score2 Mean science score3
Kindergarten First grade, spring 2012 Kindergarten First grade, spring 2012 Kinder-garten, spring 2011 First grade, spring 2012
Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Fall 2010 Spring 2011
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total 3,765   (31.3) 100.0   (†) 37.4 (0.23) 49.9 (0.31) 69.9 (0.31) 30.6 (0.27) 43.5 (0.31) 63.1 (0.31) 21.2 (0.14) 26.8 (0.17)
                                             
Sex of child                                            
Male 1,921   (22.2) 51.0   (0.45) 37.0 (0.26) 49.1 (0.34) 68.7 (0.37) 30.8 (0.33) 43.6 (0.36) 63.6 (0.39) 21.2 (0.15) 27.0 (0.19)
Female 1,843   (23.9) 49.0   (0.45) 38.0 (0.25) 50.8 (0.33) 71.2 (0.33) 30.4 (0.29) 43.5 (0.31) 62.7 (0.32) 21.1 (0.16) 26.6 (0.19)
                                             
Age of child at kindergarten entry, fall 2010                                            
Less than 5 years old 142   (18.3) 3.8   (0.49) 35.0 (0.56) 45.8 (0.75) 65.9 (0.91) 26.0 (0.61) 38.4 (0.73) 57.8 (0.84) 19.2 (0.38) 24.7 (0.41)
5 years old to 5 1/2 years old 1,594   (28.2) 42.3   (0.57) 36.1 (0.27) 48.4 (0.35) 68.6 (0.37) 28.2 (0.32) 41.4 (0.36) 61.1 (0.39) 20.2 (0.17) 25.7 (0.21)
More than 5 1/2 years old to 6 years old 1,681   (26.6) 44.7   (0.66) 38.4 (0.27) 51.1 (0.33) 71.0 (0.37) 32.3 (0.31) 45.1 (0.33) 64.7 (0.34) 21.9 (0.14) 27.6 (0.19)
More than 6 years old 347   (16.5) 9.2   (0.44) 40.2 (0.43) 53.2 (0.56) 72.9 (0.52) 35.4 (0.57) 47.8 (0.63) 67.4 (0.56) 22.7 (0.29) 28.9 (0.31)
                                             
Race/ethnicity of child                                            
White 1,957   (66.6) 52.0   (1.67) 38.8 (0.30) 51.7 (0.38) 72.4 (0.36) 33.1 (0.34) 46.2 (0.38) 66.7 (0.34) 23.2 (0.14) 29.0 (0.16)
Black 491   (43.5) 13.1   (1.16) 36.0 (0.32) 47.6 (0.55) 67.0 (0.68) 27.0 (0.34) 38.5 (0.37) 56.7 (0.46) 18.6 (0.30) 23.6 (0.36)
Hispanic 934   (46.2) 24.8   (1.24) 34.5 (0.26) 46.5 (0.30) 65.5 (0.44) 26.3 (0.30) 39.7 (0.35) 58.3 (0.49) 18.3 (0.19) 23.8 (0.23)
Asian 157   (23.8) 4.2   (0.63) 42.2 (0.62) 54.5 (0.73) 74.2 (0.79) 35.8 (0.62) 47.4 (0.45) 67.8 (0.48) 19.8 (0.22) 26.6 (0.28)
Pacific Islander 29   (4.9) 0.8   (0.13) 36.1 (1.59) 49.0 (1.93) 70.0 (1.86) 30.1 (1.78) 44.9 (2.28) 62.1 (2.06) 18.9 (0.87) 24.8 (1.10)
American Indian/Alaska Native 42 ! (19.6) 1.1 ! (0.52) 34.4 (0.54) 45.7 (0.79) 67.2 (1.02) 27.4 (1.06) 41.3 (1.06) 61.4 (1.28) 21.7 (0.91) 27.1 (1.07)
Two or more races 154   (9.3) 4.1   (0.24) 39.2 (0.62) 51.7 (0.75) 71.4 (0.88) 32.5 (0.60) 45.2 (0.70) 64.2 (0.86) 22.5 (0.31) 28.4 (0.38)
                                             
How often child exhibited positive learning
    behaviors, fall 20104
                                           
Never 50   (5.3) 1.4   (0.15) 29.3 (0.48) 37.1 (0.78) 51.8 (1.22) 18.5 (0.67) 28.8 (0.90) 45.1 (1.23) 16.5 (0.51) 20.5 (0.62)
Sometimes 915   (23.7) 25.3   (0.52) 33.4 (0.29) 44.7 (0.35) 63.3 (0.44) 25.3 (0.34) 37.9 (0.38) 56.8 (0.45) 19.3 (0.18) 24.3 (0.22)
Often 1,716   (27.0) 47.5   (0.70) 37.4 (0.23) 50.3 (0.35) 70.9 (0.34) 31.0 (0.32) 44.3 (0.36) 64.2 (0.35) 21.4 (0.16) 27.3 (0.17)
Very often 933   (28.7) 25.8   (0.69) 41.8 (0.38) 55.3 (0.46) 75.9 (0.39) 35.7 (0.38) 48.7 (0.39) 68.8 (0.38) 23.0 (0.15) 29.0 (0.23)
                                             
Primary type of nonparental care arrangement                                            
prior to kindergarten entry5                                            
No regular nonparental arrangement 747   (31.8) 20.6   (0.84) 35.7 (0.32) 48.1 (0.42) 67.7 (0.46) 28.1 (0.38) 41.6 (0.40) 60.8 (0.40) 20.0 (0.18) 25.7 (0.22)
Home-based care                                            
Relative care 555   (18.6) 15.3   (0.50) 35.6 (0.30) 48.5 (0.37) 68.4 (0.46) 28.3 (0.38) 41.6 (0.39) 61.4 (0.46) 20.5 (0.21) 26.2 (0.27)
Nonrelative care 228   (15.1) 6.3   (0.41) 37.8 (0.46) 51.0 (0.63) 72.5 (0.53) 32.6 (0.59) 45.8 (0.70) 66.4 (0.59) 22.5 (0.29) 28.3 (0.33)
Center-based care 2,007   (41.2) 55.4   (1.04) 38.6 (0.25) 50.9 (0.35) 71.0 (0.35) 32.0 (0.30) 44.6 (0.35) 64.1 (0.35) 21.6 (0.17) 27.3 (0.20)
Multiple arrangements 88   (6.7) 2.4   (0.18) 38.8 (0.53) 51.8 (0.79) 72.0 (0.88) 32.2 (0.56) 44.9 (0.72) 65.9 (0.68) 22.6 (0.39) 28.6 (0.38)
                                             
Parents' employment status, fall 20106                                            
Two parents                                            
Both employed full time 878   (26.2) 26.1   (0.73) 39.4 (0.26) 52.4 (0.33) 72.8 (0.35) 33.3 (0.32) 46.3 (0.37) 66.2 (0.37) 22.3 (0.15) 28.2 (0.17)
One employed full time, one part time 563   (19.7) 16.7   (0.53) 39.2 (0.44) 52.4 (0.50) 73.2 (0.53) 33.3 (0.49) 46.4 (0.47) 66.5 (0.47) 22.6 (0.18) 28.7 (0.23)
One employed full time, one looking for work 143   (10.3) 4.2   (0.30) 36.4 (0.55) 49.2 (0.78) 68.4 (0.86) 29.4 (0.62) 42.3 (0.67) 62.3 (0.70) 20.6 (0.38) 26.3 (0.40)
One employed full time, one not in labor force 799   (28.5) 23.7   (0.82) 38.0 (0.39) 50.4 (0.50) 70.6 (0.55) 31.2 (0.44) 44.2 (0.46) 64.2 (0.47) 21.6 (0.20) 27.3 (0.24)
Other combination 205   (13.1) 6.1   (0.36) 35.9 (0.54) 48.0 (0.64) 66.6 (0.74) 27.5 (0.46) 41.1 (0.49) 59.9 (0.73) 19.7 (0.25) 25.2 (0.33)
Single parent                                            
Employed full time 361   (17.6) 10.7   (0.52) 35.8 (0.34) 47.7 (0.48) 67.7 (0.58) 28.1 (0.39) 40.6 (0.50) 60.2 (0.55) 19.9 (0.27) 25.3 (0.31)
Employed part time 130   (8.1) 3.9   (0.24) 34.9 (0.39) 47.0 (0.57) 67.6 (0.70) 27.7 (0.57) 40.0 (0.65) 59.9 (0.81) 20.2 (0.33) 25.6 (0.34)
Looking for work 102   (9.0) 3.0   (0.27) 33.2 (0.52) 44.7 (0.78) 62.9 (1.21) 24.8 (0.63) 37.0 (0.56) 55.3 (1.10) 18.9 (0.46) 24.1 (0.56)
Not in labor force 120   (10.9) 3.5   (0.33) 34.4 (0.50) 45.5 (0.61) 64.1 (0.88) 25.8 (0.62) 39.0 (0.79) 56.7 (0.91) 19.4 (0.40) 24.4 (0.56)
No parent in household 67   (5.9) 2.0   (0.18) 33.7 (0.54) 45.1 (0.71) 64.7 (1.15) 24.9 (0.71) 37.6 (0.81) 55.3 (1.24) 19.7 (0.45) 24.2 (0.57)
                                             
Parents' highest level of education7                                            
Less than high school 298   (17.4) 7.9   (0.47) 31.2 (0.33) 42.5 (0.38) 60.1 (0.50) 22.0 (0.44) 35.6 (0.51) 53.5 (0.51) 16.2 (0.21) 21.0 (0.25)
High school completion 725   (20.3) 19.3   (0.51) 34.0 (0.26) 45.9 (0.33) 65.2 (0.43) 26.2 (0.34) 39.0 (0.32) 58.3 (0.35) 19.0 (0.18) 24.4 (0.19)
Some college/vocational 1,342   (30.8) 35.8   (0.77) 36.4 (0.21) 49.0 (0.34) 69.4 (0.31) 29.7 (0.29) 42.6 (0.34) 62.3 (0.38) 21.1 (0.14) 26.7 (0.17)
Bachelor's degree 756   (27.8) 20.1   (0.71) 40.3 (0.31) 53.1 (0.36) 73.8 (0.39) 34.3 (0.29) 47.3 (0.34) 67.3 (0.34) 22.9 (0.16) 28.8 (0.21)
Any graduate education 633   (27.0) 16.9   (0.71) 43.1 (0.40) 56.1 (0.43) 76.5 (0.38) 37.1 (0.36) 49.9 (0.39) 69.9 (0.36) 24.0 (0.14) 30.3 (0.22)
                                             
Household type, fall 2010                                            
Two-parent household 2,662   (45.8) 76.6   (0.92) 38.4 (0.26) 51.2 (0.32) 71.4 (0.34) 31.9 (0.31) 45.0 (0.32) 64.8 (0.31) 21.8 (0.13) 27.6 (0.16)
Mother-only household 696   (29.8) 20.0   (0.85) 35.0 (0.25) 46.7 (0.38) 66.5 (0.49) 27.3 (0.33) 39.7 (0.37) 59.0 (0.45) 19.6 (0.25) 25.0 (0.29)
Father-only household 48   (4.5) 1.4   (0.13) 34.9 (0.69) 46.9 (1.07) 66.3 (1.25) 27.6 (0.74) 40.2 (0.89) 59.3 (1.20) 21.8 (0.45) 25.9 (0.53)
Other household type 67   (5.9) 1.9   (0.17) 33.7 (0.54) 45.1 (0.71) 64.7 (1.15) 24.9 (0.71) 37.6 (0.81) 55.3 (1.24) 19.7 (0.45) 24.2 (0.57)
                                             
Primary home language                                            
English 3,140   (40.0) 83.6   (0.70) 38.1 (0.23) 50.8 (0.33) 71.0 (0.32) 31.6 (0.27) 44.4 (0.32) 64.2 (0.32) 22.0 (0.14) 27.8 (0.18)
Non-English 567   (24.0) 15.1   (0.64) 34.0 (0.43) 45.5 (0.51) 64.5 (0.69) 25.4 (0.52) 38.9 (0.53) 57.8 (0.62) 16.4 (0.21) 22.0 (0.28)
Primary language not identified 48   (6.1) 1.3   (0.16) 34.9 (0.91) 46.8 (1.25) 65.7 (1.74) 27.9 (1.27) 40.3 (1.07) 58.2 (1.59) 18.1 (0.57) 23.8 (0.46)
                                             
Poverty status8                                            
Below poverty threshold 723   (31.8) 22.7   (0.95) 33.6 (0.27) 45.2 (0.34) 63.6 (0.43) 25.4 (0.37) 38.4 (0.41) 56.9 (0.45) 18.3 (0.23) 23.4 (0.28)
100 to 199 percent of poverty threshold 766   (20.7) 24.0   (0.61) 36.2 (0.23) 48.7 (0.43) 69.0 (0.48) 29.2 (0.35) 42.2 (0.42) 61.9 (0.46) 20.6 (0.19) 26.3 (0.23)
200 percent or more of poverty threshold 1,702   (41.8) 53.3   (1.16) 40.3 (0.28) 53.1 (0.34) 73.9 (0.33) 34.3 (0.30) 47.1 (0.35) 67.3 (0.33) 23.1 (0.13) 29.1 (0.15)
                                             
Socioeconomic status9                                            
Lowest 20 percent 694   (26.9) 18.5   (0.71) 32.4 (0.27) 43.6 (0.30) 62.0 (0.42) 23.7 (0.38) 36.8 (0.40) 55.3 (0.42) 17.4 (0.20) 22.5 (0.22)
Middle 60 percent 2,279   (34.5) 60.7   (0.73) 37.0 (0.19) 49.7 (0.31) 70.1 (0.30) 30.4 (0.26) 43.4 (0.31) 63.1 (0.31) 21.3 (0.13) 27.0 (0.16)
Highest 20 percent 782   (33.0) 20.8   (0.86) 43.1 (0.39) 56.1 (0.42) 76.5 (0.35) 37.1 (0.31) 49.9 (0.36) 70.1 (0.33) 24.1 (0.14) 30.4 (0.22)
                                             
School type                                            
Public 3,361   (23.4) 89.3   (0.25) 37.2 (0.25) 49.6 (0.34) 69.6 (0.34) 30.2 (0.30) 43.1 (0.33) 62.8 (0.34) 21.0 (0.16) 26.6 (0.19)
Private 404   (11.7) 10.7   (0.25) 39.9 (0.55) 52.3 (0.71) 72.8 (0.81) 34.1 (0.53) 47.3 (0.71) 66.3 (0.74) 22.9 (0.25) 28.5 (0.38)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
1 Reflects performance on questions measuring basic skills (print familiarity, letter recognition, beginning and ending sounds, rhyming words, and word recognition); vocabulary knowledge; and reading comprehension, including identifying information specifically stated in text (e.g., definitions, facts, and supporting details), making complex inferences from texts, and considering the text objectively and judging its appropriateness and quality. Possible scores for the reading assessment range from 0 to 100.
2 Reflects performance on questions on number sense, properties, and operations; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; data analysis, statistics, and probability (measured with a set of simple questions assessing children’s ability to read a graph); and prealgebra skills such as identification of patterns. Possible scores for the mathematics assessment range from 0 to 96.
3 Science was not assessed in the fall of kindergarten. Reflects performance on questions on physical sciences, life sciences, environmental sciences, and scientific inquiry. Possible scores for the science assessment range from 0 to 47.
4 Derived from child’s approaches to learning scale score in fall of the kindergarten year. This score is based on teachers' reports on how often students exhibit positive learning behaviors in seven areas: attentiveness, task persistence, eagerness to learn, learning independence, ability to adapt easily to changes in routine, organization, and ability to follow classroom rules. Possible scores range from 1 to 4, with higher scores indicating that a child exhibits positive learning behaviors more often. Fall 2010 scores were categorized into the four anchor points on the original scale--1 (never), 2 (sometimes), 3 (often), and 4 (very often)--by rounding the mean score to the nearest whole number.
5 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. “Multiple arrangements” refers to children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
6 Parents who reported working at least 35 hours per week are defined as employed full time, while those who reported working less than 35 hours per week are defined as employed part time. Those neither employed nor looking for work are not in the labor force.
7 Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a two-parent household, by the only parent in a single-parent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents.
8 Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
9 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations and household income at the time of data collection.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W4C4P_2T0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010-11 school year. Most of the children were in first grade in 2011-12, but 4 percent were in kindergarten or other grades (e.g., second grade, ungraded classrooms). Two parents may refer to two biological parents, two adoptive parents, or one biological/adoptive parent and one other parent/partner. Single parent refers to one biological or adoptive parent only. In households without parents, the guardian or guardians may be related or unrelated to the child. Estimates differ from previously published figures because scores were recalibrated to represent the kindergarten through first-grade assessment item pools and weights were adjusted to account for survey nonresponse at each data collection wave. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Kindergarten–First Grade Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared September 2014.)