Skip Navigation
Digest of Education Statistics
2014 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 106.30. Amount and percentage distribution of direct general expenditures of state and local governments, by function: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2011-12
Function 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 2000-01 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  Amount (in millions of current dollars)
Total direct general expenditures $150,674 $407,449 $908,108 $1,621,757 $2,259,364 $2,401,417 $2,495,901 $2,537,892 $2,579,509 $2,587,317
Education and public libraries 60,174 147,649 313,744 571,374 784,936 837,582 862,819 871,109 872,969 880,642
Education 59,413 145,784 309,302 563,572 774,170 826,061 851,689 860,118 862,271 869,196
Public libraries 761 1,865 4,442 7,802 10,766 11,521 11,130 10,991 10,699 11,447
                     
Social services and income maintenance 30,376 92,555 214,919 396,086 583,532 619,237 661,111 689,435 729,846 731,695
Public welfare 18,226 54,121 130,402 257,380 384,634 404,198 432,428 456,200 490,645 485,588
Hospitals and health 11,205 36,101 81,110 134,010 193,885 209,904 223,180 227,285 233,018 240,153
Social insurance administration 945 2,276 3,250 4,359 3,983 4,055 4,570 5,157 5,256 5,116
Veterans’ services 57 157 337 1,031 1,080 933 794 927 838
                     
Transportation1 19,819 39,231 75,410 130,422 171,653 181,607 184,166 187,073 183,282 187,292
                     
Public safety 9,416 31,233 79,932 146,544 202,969 216,471 225,735 224,346 225,202 225,532
Police and fire protection 7,531 21,283 46,568 84,554 120,690 128,768 135,904 137,106 138,147 139,377
Correction 1,885 7,393 27,356 52,370 68,030 72,753 75,096 73,100 73,243 72,577
Protective inspection and regulation 2,557 6,008 9,620 14,250 14,951 14,735 14,139 13,812 13,578
                     
Environment and housing 11,832 35,223 76,167 124,203 179,645 191,828 196,750 198,223 200,491 195,513
Natural resources, parks, and                    
recreation 5,191 13,239 28,505 50,082 66,180 70,380 71,714 68,680 67,053 66,413
Housing and community development 2,554 7,086 16,648 27,402 46,593 51,071 49,885 53,923 56,284 53,141
Sewerage and sanitation 4,087 14,898 31,014 46,718 66,872 70,378 75,152 75,620 77,154 75,959
                     
Governmental administration 6,703 20,001 48,461 85,910 119,385 125,789 128,350 126,719 123,851 123,932
Financial administration 2,271 7,230 16,995 30,007 39,745 40,350 40,576 40,241 39,351 38,984
General control2 4,432 12,771 31,466 55,903 79,640 85,439 87,775 86,479 84,500 84,948
                     
Interest on general debt 5,089 17,131 52,234 73,836 93,658 101,008 104,449 105,715 108,478 109,118
                     
Other direct general expenditures 7,265 24,426 47,242 93,382 123,585 127,895 132,521 135,273 135,388 133,592
  Amount (in millions of constant 2013-14 dollars)3
Total direct general expenditures $891,208 $1,105,185 $1,593,337 $2,176,333 $2,600,564 $2,665,307 $2,732,031 $2,751,369 $2,741,438 $2,671,466
Education and public libraries 355,918 400,490 550,485 766,761 903,474 929,623 944,448 944,383 927,770 909,284
Education 351,417 395,432 542,691 756,291 891,082 916,836 932,265 932,467 916,400 897,465
Public libraries 4,501 5,059 7,794 10,470 12,392 12,787 12,183 11,916 11,370 11,819
                     
Social services and income maintenance 179,668 251,051 377,090 531,531 671,654 687,284 723,657 747,427 775,663 755,493
Public welfare 107,803 146,800 228,799 345,394 442,720 448,615 473,339 494,573 521,445 501,381
Hospitals and health 66,275 97,922 142,313 179,836 223,164 232,970 244,295 246,403 247,646 247,964
Social insurance administration 5,589 6,174 5,702 5,849 4,584 4,500 5,002 5,590 5,586 5,283
Veterans’ services 155 275 452 1,186 1,199 1,022 860 985 865
                     
Transportation1 117,226 106,412 132,312 175,021 197,576 201,564 201,589 202,809 194,788 193,384
                     
Public safety 55,694 84,718 140,246 196,657 233,621 240,259 247,091 243,217 239,339 232,867
Police and fire protection 44,544 57,729 81,707 113,468 138,916 142,918 148,761 148,639 146,819 143,910
Correction 11,149 20,053 47,998 70,279 78,303 80,747 82,201 79,249 77,841 74,937
Protective inspection and regulation 6,936 10,541 12,910 16,402 16,594 16,129 15,328 14,679 14,020
                     
Environment and housing 69,984 95,541 133,640 166,675 206,774 212,908 215,364 214,897 213,077 201,872
Natural resources, parks, and                    
recreation 30,704 35,910 50,014 67,209 76,174 78,114 78,498 74,457 71,263 68,573
Housing and community development 15,106 19,220 29,210 36,773 53,630 56,683 54,604 58,459 59,817 54,870
Sewerage and sanitation 24,174 40,410 54,416 62,694 76,970 78,111 82,261 81,981 81,998 78,429
                     
Governmental administration 39,647 54,252 85,028 115,287 137,414 139,612 140,493 137,378 131,626 127,963
Financial administration 13,433 19,611 29,819 40,268 45,747 44,784 44,414 43,625 41,821 40,252
General control2 26,214 34,641 55,209 75,019 91,667 94,828 96,079 93,753 89,804 87,711
                     
Interest on general debt 30,100 46,467 91,648 99,085 107,802 112,107 114,331 114,607 115,288 112,667
                     
Other direct general expenditures 42,971 66,254 82,889 125,315 142,249 141,949 145,059 146,651 143,887 137,937
  Percentage distribution
Total direct general expenditures 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Education and public libraries 39.9 36.2 34.5 35.2 34.7 34.9 34.6 34.3 33.8 34.0
Education 39.4 35.8 34.1 34.8 34.3 34.4 34.1 33.9 33.4 33.6
Public libraries 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
                     
Social services and income maintenance 20.2 22.7 23.7 24.4 25.8 25.8 26.5 27.2 28.3 28.3
Public welfare 12.1 13.3 14.4 15.9 17.0 16.8 17.3 18.0 19.0 18.8
Hospitals and health 7.4 8.9 8.9 8.3 8.6 8.7 8.9 9.0 9.0 9.3
Social insurance administration 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Veterans’ services # # # # # # # # #
                     
Transportation1 13.2 9.6 8.3 8.0 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.4 7.1 7.2
                     
Public safety 6.2 7.7 8.8 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 8.8 8.7 8.7
Police and fire protection 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4 5.4
Correction 1.3 1.8 3.0 3.2 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.8
Protective inspection and regulation 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5
                     
Environment and housing 7.9 8.6 8.4 7.7 8.0 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.8 7.6
Natural resources, parks, and                    
recreation 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.7 2.6 2.6
Housing and community development 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.7 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1
Sewerage and sanitation 2.7 3.7 3.4 2.9 3.0 2.9 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.9
                     
Governmental administration 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.1 5.0 4.8 4.8
Financial administration 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 1.5 1.5
General control2 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4 3.3 3.3
                     
Interest on general debt 3.4 4.2 5.8 4.6 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2
                     
Other direct general expenditures 4.8 6.0 5.2 5.8 5.5 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.2 5.2
†Not applicable.  
#Rounds to zero.  
1As of 2006-07, no longer includes transit subsidies.  
2Includes judicial and legal expenditures, expenditures on general public buildings, and other governmental administration expenditures.  
3Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI), prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Excludes monies paid by states to the federal government. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Governmental Finances. Retrieved January 13, 2015, from http://www.census.gov/govs/local/. (This table was prepared January 2015.)

2014 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest