Skip Navigation
Digest of Education Statistics
2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 410. Eighth-grade students' perceptions about mathematics and hours spent on leisure activities, by country: 2003
Country or other jurisdiction Index of students' self-confidence in learning mathematics (SCM)1  Average hours spent each day2 
High SCM Medium SCM Low SCM Watching
TV or videos
Playing computer games Playing or talking with friends Doing
jobs at home
Playing sports Reading
for enjoyment
Using
the Internet
Working
at a paid job
Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Armenia 41 (1.1) 505 (4.0) 40 (1.0) 468 (3.7) 19 (0.9) 462 (4.1) 1.8 (0.03) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Australia 50 (1.7) 542 (4.5) 31 (1.1) 483 (3.7) 19 (1.2) 451 (6.4) 2.0 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.7 (0.04) 1.0 (0.02) 1.6 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02) 1.3 (0.04) 0.4 (0.03)
Bahrain 44 (0.9) 437 (2.0) 38 (0.9) 379 (2.4) 18 (0.6) 366 (3.2) 2.0 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02) 1.6 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02) 1.5 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.4 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02)
Belgium (Flemish) 45 (0.9) 556 (3.2) 30 (0.7) 526 (3.0) 25 (0.8) 518 (3.5) 2.1 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 1.9 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.6 (0.03) 0.5 (0.01) 1.3 (0.03) 0.2 (0.02)
Botswana 38 (0.9) 390 (2.8) 45 (0.8) 361 (2.5) 17 (0.8) 352 (3.4) 1.4 (0.03) 0.5 (0.02) 2.1 (0.04) 2.3 (0.03) 1.5 (0.02) 1.8 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03)
                                                         
Bulgaria 33 (1.3) 519 (5.5) 39 (1.4) 467 (4.2) 28 (1.2) 445 (4.8) 2.5 (0.04) 1.1 (0.04) 2.6 (0.05) 1.5 (0.03) 1.2 (0.04) 0.7 (0.03) 1.0 (0.04) 0.3 (0.02)
Chile 35 (0.9) 427 (3.9) 42 (0.7) 369 (3.4) 23 (0.7) 361 (3.9) 2.2 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 2.3 (0.02) 1.5 (0.02) 1.8 (0.03) 0.6 (0.01) 0.7 (0.02) 0.3 (0.02)
Chinese Taipei 26 (1.0) 661 (4.1) 30 (0.7) 593 (5.1) 44 (1.1) 534 (4.0) 1.7 (0.03) 1.4 (0.04) 1.4 (0.03) 0.7 (0.01) 1.0 (0.02) 1.0 (0.02) 1.4 (0.04) 0.2 (0.01)
Cyprus 46 (0.8) 503 (2.0) 32 (0.8) 437 (2.2) 22 (0.7) 407 (3.6) 2.1 (0.03) 1.3 (0.02) 2.1 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 1.7 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.2 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02)
Egypt 58 (1.0) 437 (3.3) 35 (0.9) 383 (3.7) 7 (0.4) 374 (5.3) 0.8 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 0.8 (0.02) 1.3 (0.03) 1.1 (0.02) 1.0 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02)
                                                         
England3  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Estonia 41 (0.9) 569 (3.2) 32 (0.7) 520 (3.1) 28 (0.8) 489 (3.5) 2.3 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 2.8 (0.03) 1.1 (0.02) 1.4 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02) 1.5 (0.04) 0.4 (0.02)
Ghana (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 0.7 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 1.2 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.3 (0.02) 1.7 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03)
Hong Kong, SAR4  30 (0.9) 627 (2.9) 38 (0.7) 581 (4.1) 33 (0.9) 556 (4.0) 2.3 (0.03) 2.0 (0.04) 1.6 (0.03) 0.7 (0.01) 1.0 (0.02) 1.1 (0.02) 2.0 (0.03) 0.1 (0.01)
Hungary 44 (1.0) 574 (3.3) 32 (1.0) 507 (3.9) 24 (0.8) 479 (3.9) 2.1 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 2.2 (0.03) 1.1 (0.02) 1.5 (0.03) 0.8 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03) 0.2 (0.02)
                                                         
Indonesia 27 (1.1) 420 (6.6) 59 (0.8) 408 (4.5) 15 (0.9) 416 (4.7) 1.5 (0.03) 0.5 (0.02) 1.3 (0.03) 2.2 (0.03) 1.1 (0.02) 1.1 (0.02) 0.3 (0.02) 0.8 (0.03)
Iran, Islamic Republic of 35 (0.9) 447 (3.5) 49 (0.8) 399 (2.6) 16 (0.7) 377 (3.4) 1.6 (0.03) 0.4 (0.02) 1.4 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.4 (0.04) 1.0 (0.02) 0.2 (0.02) 0.7 (0.05)
Israel 59 (1.2) 526 (3.5) 30 (0.9) 461 (3.8) 11 (0.7) 451 (5.7) 2.5 (0.04) 1.9 (0.03) 2.3 (0.03) 1.4 (0.03) 1.6 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.8 (0.04) 0.6 (0.02)
Italy 46 (0.9) 521 (3.3) 29 (0.9) 466 (3.6) 25 (1.0) 439 (3.4) 1.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 2.6 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.9 (0.02)
Japan 17 (0.6) 634 (3.1) 38 (0.7) 580 (2.7) 45 (0.8) 538 (2.3) 2.7 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 1.6 (0.04) 0.6 (0.01) 1.3 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.1 (0.01)
                                                         
Jordan 49 (1.2) 463 (4.7) 38 (1.0) 400 (3.7) 13 (0.7) 390 (4.4) 1.5 (0.03) 0.9 (0.03) 1.2 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 1.2 (0.03) 0.9 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03) 0.6 (0.03)
Korea, Republic of5  30 (0.7) 650 (2.8) 36 (0.6) 592 (2.5) 34 (0.8) 534 (2.3) 1.7 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 0.7 (0.01) 0.7 (0.02) 0.6 (0.01) 1.7 (0.03) 0.1 (0.01)
Latvia 34 (1.0) 555 (3.4) 33 (0.9) 499 (3.2) 33 (1.0) 473 (3.4) 2.4 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 2.8 (0.03) 1.6 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03) 0.5 (0.02)
Lebanon 43 (1.4) 462 (3.6) 44 (1.1) 416 (3.1) 13 (0.7) 403 (4.4) 1.8 (0.04) 1.3 (0.03) 1.6 (0.04) 1.3 (0.03) 1.6 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 1.0 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03)
Lithuania 36 (1.0) 552 (3.1) 37 (0.9) 486 (2.8) 26 (0.9) 456 (2.7) 2.1 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 2.6 (0.04) 1.6 (0.04) 1.1 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.03) 0.3 (0.02)
                                                         
Macedonia, Republic of 33 (1.0) 482 (4.0) 37 (1.0) 418 (4.7) 31 (1.0) 424 (3.9) 2.3 (0.04) 1.3 (0.03) 2.2 (0.03) 1.6 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 0.9 (0.03) 0.7 (0.03)
Malaysia 39 (1.2) 546 (4.2) 45 (1.0) 490 (3.7) 16 (0.7) 471 (4.4) 2.1 (0.04) 0.8 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.7 (0.02) 1.1 (0.02) 1.2 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.3 (0.02)
Moldova, Republic of 30 (1.2) 494 (5.0) 50 (0.9) 451 (4.5) 20 (1.1) 441 (5.3) 1.9 (0.04) 0.7 (0.03) 2.0 (0.04) 2.2 (0.06) 1.3 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 0.7 (0.03) 0.5 (0.03)
Morocco (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 1.3 (0.04) 2.3 (0.06) 1.3 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) (†) (†) (†)
Netherlands 45 (1.4) 557 (4.4) 33 (1.0) 527 (4.7) 23 (1.0) 511 (4.8) 2.1 (0.05) 1.2 (0.04) 2.0 (0.05) 0.8 (0.02) 1.7 (0.04) 0.5 (0.02) 1.5 (0.04) 0.8 (0.05)
                                                         
New Zealand 43 (1.4) 534 (6.4) 36 (1.1) 475 (5.4) 21 (0.9) 452 (4.1) 2.1 (0.04) 1.0 (0.04) 1.8 (0.05) 1.0 (0.02) 1.5 (0.03) 0.7 (0.03) 1.3 (0.04) 0.6 (0.03)
Norway 46 (1.1) 502 (2.0) 32 (0.8) 445 (2.9) 21 (0.8) 405 (3.4) 2.2 (0.03) 1.2 (0.03) 2.7 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 1.2 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02)
Palestinian National Authority 43 (1.0) 428 (3.9) 41 (0.9) 370 (2.9) 16 (0.6) 355 (3.6) 1.2 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 1.3 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 0.5 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03)
Philippines 29 (0.7) 405 (6.1) 59 (0.7) 369 (4.8) 12 (0.5) 366 (6.5) 1.6 (0.04) 0.6 (0.02) 1.7 (0.03) 1.9 (0.03) 1.4 (0.02) 1.2 (0.02) 0.5 (0.03) 0.8 (0.04)
Romania 30 (1.2) 533 (4.6) 45 (1.1) 465 (4.5) 25 (0.9) 442 (5.4) 2.0 (0.04) 0.9 (0.03) 2.1 (0.03) 1.7 (0.05) 1.3 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 0.8 (0.04) 0.5 (0.04)
                                                         
Russian Federation 43 (1.1) 548 (3.0) 30 (0.8) 492 (4.1) 27 (0.8) 466 (4.6) 2.0 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 2.5 (0.04) 1.6 (0.03) 1.3 (0.02) 1.1 (0.03) 0.4 (0.02) 0.2 (0.02)
Saudi Arabia 41 (1.4) 361 (4.8) 43 (1.1) 321 (5.4) 16 (0.9) 303 (5.8) 1.6 (0.05) 1.1 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 1.5 (0.04) 1.2 (0.04) 0.9 (0.02) 0.8 (0.05) 0.8 (0.03)
Scotland 52 (1.5) 524 (3.9) 32 (1.0) 477 (3.8) 15 (0.9) 456 (5.0) 2.2 (0.03) 1.4 (0.04) 2.7 (0.03) 0.8 (0.02) 1.7 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 1.4 (0.03) 0.5 (0.03)
Serbia 44 (1.1) 530 (2.8) 26 (0.7) 458 (3.2) 30 (1.1) 422 (3.4) 2.1 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 2.1 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 1.7 (0.03) 0.8 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03) 0.3 (0.02)
Singapore 39 (0.8) 639 (3.0) 34 (0.7) 594 (3.9) 27 (0.7) 571 (4.6) 2.3 (0.02) 1.4 (0.02) 1.7 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 1.4 (0.02) 0.9 (0.02) 1.6 (0.02) 0.2 (0.02)
                                                         
Slovak Republic 40 (1.1) 556 (3.7) 35 (1.0) 487 (3.9) 25 (1.0) 462 (4.1) 2.5 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 2.8 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.9 (0.04) 0.9 (0.02) 0.6 (0.03) 0.4 (0.02)
Slovenia 40 (0.9) 533 (3.2) 39 (1.0) 474 (2.5) 20 (0.9) 453 (2.8) 2.2 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 2.0 (0.03) 1.2 (0.03) 1.7 (0.03) 0.8 (0.02) 1.1 (0.03) 0.4 (0.02)
South Africa 37 (0.9) 300 (8.3) 48 (0.9) 242 (3.9) 15 (0.8) 255 (9.9) 1.5 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02) 2.0 (0.03) 1.8 (0.03) 1.6 (0.02) 1.6 (0.03) 0.8 (0.02) 0.8 (0.02)
Sweden 49 (1.3) 534 (2.6) 36 (0.9) 477 (3.1) 16 (0.9) 446 (3.4) 2.1 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 2.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02) 1.6 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 1.7 (0.04) 0.4 (0.02)
Tunisia 44 (1.0) 436 (2.7) 36 (0.8) 399 (2.5) 20 (0.9) 384 (2.2) 1.4 (0.02) 0.8 (0.03) 1.5 (0.02) 1.9 (0.03) 1.5 (0.02) 1.3 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02)
United States 51 (0.8) 534 (3.3) 29 (0.6) 483 (3.5) 20 (0.6) 461 (3.6) 2.2 (0.03) 1.1 (0.02) 2.4 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02) 1.8 (0.02) 0.7 (0.01) 1.8 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02)
— Not available.
† Not applicable.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
1 Index based on students' responses to four statements about mathematics: 1) I usually do well in mathematics; 2) Mathematics is more difficult for me than for many of my classmates (reverse scored); 3) Mathematics is not one of my strengths (reverse scored); 4) I learn things quickly in mathematics. Average is computed across the four items based on a 4-point scale: 1. Agree a lot; 2. Agree a little; 3. Disagree a little; 4. Disagree a lot. Students showing positive attitudes a little or a lot of the time across the four statements were assigned to the high level. Students showing negative attitudes a little or a lot of the time across the four statements were assigned to the low level. Students showing mixed attitudes across the four statements were assigned to the middle level.
2 Number of hours based on: No time = 0; Less than 1 hour = 0.5; 1–2 hours = 1.5; More than 2, but less than 4 hours = 3; 4 or more hours = 4.5. Activities are not necessarily exclusive; students may have reported engaging in more than one activity at the same time.
3 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
4 SAR = Special Administrative Region.
5 Korea tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2003, at the beginning of the next school year.
NOTE: Data are for eighth grade or equivalent in most countries. Possible scores range from 0 to 1,000. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2003, TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report, by Ina V. S. Mullis et al. (This table was prepared April 2005.)

2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest