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Digest of Education Statistics
2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 409. Average size and scores of eighth-grade mathematics classes and Index of Teachers' Emphasis on Mathematics Homework (EMH), by country: 2003
Country or other jurisdiction Overall average class size Percentage distribution and mean scores of mathematics classes, by average class size Index of Teachers' Emphasis on Mathematics Homework (EMH)1 
1 to 24 students 25 to 32 students 33 to 40 students 41 or more students High EMH2  Medium EMH3  Low EMH4 
Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score Percent Mean score
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
International average 30   (0.1) 29 (0.5) 461 (1.9) 35 (0.5) 473 (1.4) 24 (0.5) 470 (2.1) 13 (0.3) 448 (1.7) 30   (0.5) 473 (1.4) 51 (0.6) 469 (0.9) 19 (0.4) 453 (1.7)
Armenia 27 5  (0.9) 39 (4.4) 474 (5.6) 43 (4.3) 485 (5.0) 7 (1.8) 460 (9.9) 11 (2.8) 462 (8.4) 65 6  (4.6) 481 (4.2) 31 (4.7) 474 (6.6) 4 (2.1) 467 (11.5)
Australia 26   (0.5) 31 (4.2) 482 (9.4) 65 (4.7) 518 (5.9) 4 (2.2) 492 (14.2) # (†) (†) 10   (3.0) 544 (19.7) 56 (4.1) 518 (5.9) 34 (3.8) 475 (9.5)
Bahrain 32   (0.1) 6 (0.7) 451 (5.8) 52 (2.7) 402 (2.1) 40 (2.6) 395 (3.5) 3 (#) 412 (3.8) 15   (2.5) 389 (6.1) 72 (3.7) 404 (2.3) 14 (3.1) 396 (8.7)
Belgium (Flemish) 20   (0.3) 90 (2.3) 538 (3.3) 10 (2.3) 553 (10.5) # (†) (†) # (†) (†) 9   (2.5) 555 (6.5) 30 (3.8) 555 (5.8) 60 (3.9) 529 (5.6)
Botswana 37   (0.4) 1 (0.7) (†) 14 (2.6) 392 (9.1) 60 (4.3) 360 (3.7) 25 (4.1) 362 (4.1) 44   (4.6) 364 (4.0) 49 (4.5) 368 (4.0) 7 (2.5) 379 (7.0)
                                                                 
Bulgaria 22   (0.5) 64 (4.2) 468 (4.9) 32 (3.9) 503 (8.0) 3 (2.4) 423 (5.0) 1 (#) (†) 53   (4.2) 483 (6.1) 38 (4.2) 467 (7.7) 9 (2.5) 469 (15.6)
Chile 35   (0.4) 9 (1.5) 385 (17.0) 22 (2.6) 384 (8.1) 47 (3.6) 390 (5.7) 23 (3.0) 389 (6.9) 10   (2.2) 401 (14.9) 49 (3.6) 388 (5.1) 40 (3.3) 383 (5.5)
Chinese Taipei 37   (0.4) 4 (1.5) 598 (28.9) 14 (2.8) 567 (11.5) 65 (4.0) 575 (4.7) 17 (3.2) 636 (8.7) 29   (3.9) 602 (8.6) 39 (3.9) 588 (6.3) 32 (3.9) 570 (7.6)
Cyprus 26   (0.1) 21 (1.9) 463 (3.2) 79 (1.9) 460 (2.0) # (†) (†) # (†) (†) 35   (3.1) 455 (3.2) 65 (3.1) 462 (2.3) # (†) (†)
Egypt 38   (0.6) 3 (1.2) 422 (13.8) 9 (2.1) 428 (11.3) 61 (4.1) 403 (4.3) 27 (3.7) 407 (7.5) 23   (3.3) 401 (8.6) 57 (3.8) 409 (4.8) 20 (3.2) 406 (8.1)
                                                                 
England7   ‡ 8  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) ‡  6  (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Estonia 27   (0.5) 32 (3.4) 523 (5.1) 41 (4.2) 530 (4.3) 27 (3.8) 550 (5.4) # (†) (†) 12   (2.3) 540 (9.9) 78 (3.2) 532 (3.3) 9 (2.5) 518 (14.1)
Ghana 37 5  (1.0) 16 (2.7) 232 (7.4) 18 (3.1) 249 (8.9) 29 (4.0) 292 (9.0) 37 (4.7) 289 (9.1) 48   (5.0) 271 (7.9) 37 (5.0) 275 (7.1) 15 (3.0) 284 (10.2)
Hong Kong, SAR9,10  39   (0.3) 3 (1.1) 504 (28.1) 6 (1.6) 513 (21.3) 49 (4.1) 575 (5.7) 43 (4.1) 612 (4.7) 26   (3.7) 598 (6.0) 50 (4.6) 593 (6.0) 24 (4.0) 566 (10.0)
Hungary 22   (0.4) 64 (3.9) 522 (4.2) 35 (4.0) 540 (6.5) 2 (0.9) (†) # (†) (†) 8   (2.0) 532 (8.9) 90 (2.2) 530 (3.5) 2 (0.9) (†)
                                                                 
Indonesia11  40   (0.5) 3 (1.7) 413 (8.6) 10 (2.8) 366 (20.0) 38 (4.1) 413 (8.3) 48 (4.3) 421 (6.7) 45   (3.9) 421 (7.4) 45 (4.4) 402 (9.4) 10 (2.6) 412 (15.3)
Iran, Islamic Republic of 29   (0.4) 23 (2.9) 397 (5.7) 50 (4.0) 413 (4.5) 25 (3.3) 420 (6.0) 3 (1.4) 431 (13.7) 63   (4.4) 417 (3.2) 26 (4.0) 406 (7.2) 12 (2.8) 399 (9.3)
Israel12  34 5  (0.4) 9 (2.2) 512 (18.3) 23 (3.7) 500 (9.2) 64 (4.5) 490 (4.9) 4 (1.7) 531 (4.5) 50   (3.8) 501 (5.4) 44 (4.1) 500 (6.1) 6 (1.7) 438 (17.8)
Italy 22   (0.3) 78 (3.1) 483 (3.4) 22 (3.1) 488 (8.3) # (†) (†) # (†) (†) 71   (3.5) 482 (3.2) 25 (3.2) 489 (8.4) 4 (1.5) 480 (11.2)
Japan 35   (0.2) 3 (1.2) 561 (6.1) 18 (2.6) 557 (4.5) 78 (2.6) 571 (2.7) 1 (1.0) (†) 7   (2.2) 583 (23.4) 29 (3.8) 573 (6.9) 64 (3.9) 567 (2.5)
                                                                 
Jordan 35   (0.7) 14 (2.8) 430 (9.4) 26 (3.6) 424 (13.3) 32 (4.4) 417 (5.9) 28 (3.8) 428 (7.4) 30   (3.8) 422 (5.5) 55 (4.4) 430 (6.3) 14 (2.8) 410 (8.6)
Korea, Republic of13  37 8  (0.4) 1 (0.9) (†) 20 (3.0) 569 (4.6) 57 (4.6) 594 (2.9) 22 (3.5) 600 (7.0) 9 14  (2.1) 582 (10.8) 31 (3.6) 589 (4.7) 60 (3.5) 591 (3.5)
Latvia 24   (0.7) 52 (3.5) 497 (4.4) 42 (3.4) 519 (5.5) 3 (1.0) 527 (20.3) 3 (1.7) 506 (12.6) 17   (2.9) 523 (8.8) 75 (3.8) 505 (3.5) 9 (2.6) 500 (11.7)
Lebanon 29   (0.9) 32 (3.9) 429 (6.0) 44 (4.8) 429 (5.1) 16 (3.1) 443 (10.4) 8 (3.1) 464 (8.7) 49   (4.6) 433 (4.6) 45 (4.4) 436 (5.8) 6 (1.9) 401 (13.1)
Lithuania12  25   (0.3) 39 (3.2) 486 (4.2) 61 (3.2) 510 (3.0) # (†) (†) # (†) (†) 13   (2.7) 512 (7.7) 76 (3.6) 501 (3.4) 11 (2.6) 477 (11.3)
                                                                 
Macedonia, Republic of12  28   (0.4) 24 (3.5) 439 (9.2) 58 (4.3) 435 (5.9) 17 (3.6) 429 (13.7) 1 (1.0) (†) 22   (3.3) 450 (8.1) 66 (3.9) 428 (5.2) 12 (2.6) 432 (13.8)
Malaysia 37   (0.4) 1 (0.7) (†) 18 (3.3) 514 (11.0) 56 (4.4) 503 (5.1) 25 (3.5) 515 (8.8) 60   (4.5) 508 (5.0) 34 (4.2) 515 (8.5) 5 (1.9) 466 (10.1)
Moldova, Republic of 24 5  (0.5) 56 (4.5) 449 (6.0) 38 (4.6) 460 (7.0) 5 (2.5) 485 (25.2) 1 (0.6) (†) 43 6  (4.8) 451 (6.1) 52 (5.0) 463 (7.9) 5 (1.9) 468 (10.1)
Morocco11,15    (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 54 14  (6.2) 391 (5.9) 37 (6.4) 383 (5.2) 9 (4.1) 389 (11.1)
Netherlands9  26   (0.3) 33 (3.9) 514 (9.4) 66 (4.1) 546 (5.8) 1 (1.0) (†) # (†) (†) 7   (2.4) 550 (15.3) 82 (3.7) 541 (4.9) 11 (3.1) 495 (14.1)
                                                                 
New Zealand 27   (0.4) 22 (3.0) 469 (8.9) 72 (4.1) 500 (5.7) 6 (3.2) 538 (17.8) # (†) (†) 7   (2.1) 479 (15.6) 67 (4.1) 510 (6.6) 25 (4.2) 471 (5.3)
Norway 25   (0.3) 34 (3.8) 467 (4.3) 65 (3.6) 460 (3.5) 1 (0.7) (†) 1 (0.7) (†) 25   (3.4) 460 (6.5) 46 (4.3) 465 (3.8) 29 (4.3) 455 (5.0)
Palestinian National Authority 39   (0.6) 6 (2.0) 398 (20.0) 17 (2.8) 393 (7.4) 27 (3.9) 394 (8.9) 50 (3.7) 385 (4.2) 30   (4.0) 389 (6.4) 58 (4.3) 391 (4.6) 12 (2.5) 388 (14.9)
Philippines 54   (0.7) 1 (0.6) (†) 1 (0.7) (†) 7 (2.0) 448 (23.4) 91 (2.1) 372 (5.4) 24   (4.0) 358 (10.9) 61 (4.8) 384 (7.1) 15 (3.7) 377 (19.1)
Romania 24   (0.5) 51 (4.5) 469 (6.7) 46 (4.5) 480 (7.4) 3 (1.4) 534 (34.7) 1 (#) (†) 78   (3.3) 478 (5.5) 21 (3.3) 463 (10.1) 1 (0.7) (†)
                                                                 
Russian Federation 24   (0.6) 47 (4.2) 500 (5.1) 47 (3.6) 515 (5.0) 6 (3.4) 533 (11.0) # (†) (†) 56   (3.5) 514 (4.3) 43 (3.5) 499 (4.7) 1 (0.5) (†)
Saudi Arabia 28   (0.9) 36 (5.3) 333 (7.5) 26 (4.8) 340 (8.1) 29 (5.8) 330 (5.6) 8 (3.0) 325 (4.1) 14   (3.0) 331 (8.9) 69 (3.9) 332 (4.6) 17 (3.0) 346 (15.0)
Scotland9  27 5  (0.5) 33 (3.9) 457 (7.2) 56 (4.4) 520 (6.2) 11 (3.4) 548 (10.1) 1 (0.7) (†) 3   (1.7) 549 (10.6) 45 (4.6) 527 (5.7) 51 (4.5) 477 (6.2)
Serbia11  26   (0.4) 38 (3.7) 464 (4.4) 51 (4.0) 483 (3.8) 11 (2.9) 489 (8.2) # (†) (†) 34   (4.1) 474 (4.9) 45 (4.3) 481 (4.5) 22 (3.7) 470 (5.6)
Singapore 38   (0.2) 2 (0.6) (†) 8 (1.6) 613 (18.0) 63 (2.7) 606 (5.0) 26 (2.5) 607 (5.7) 59   (2.4) 620 (4.2) 33 (2.5) 592 (6.6) 8 (1.3) 563 (13.1)
                                                                 
Slovak Republic 25   (0.4) 42 (4.6) 498 (4.7) 53 (4.7) 512 (5.4) 5 (1.8) 543 (19.7) # (†) (†) 5   (1.5) 510 (12.4) 79 (2.9) 511 (4.0) 16 (2.7) 492 (6.3)
Slovenia 22   (0.3) 70 (4.1) 491 (3.0) 30 (4.1) 500 (4.1) # (†) (†) # (†) (†) 13   (2.9) 490 (9.2) 85 (3.1) 495 (2.5) 3 (1.0) 473 (9.7)
South Africa 45 8  (1.3) 4 (1.2) 309 (35.8) 14 (3.0) 290 (23.8) 30 (3.7) 265 (11.7) 52 (4.1) 249 (8.7) 26 6  (3.4) 266 (9.2) 54 (3.9) 267 (9.6) 20 (3.3) 250 (9.1)
Sweden 21   (0.4) 71 (3.6) 491 (3.3) 27 (3.7) 522 (5.5) 1 (1.0) (†) # (†) (†) 17   (2.8) 503 (7.0) 25 (3.2) 506 (6.0) 59 (3.7) 494 (4.0)
Tunisia 34   (0.3) 1 (1.0) (†) 26 (3.3) 404 (3.6) 71 (3.5) 412 (3.2) 2 (1.1) (†) 12   (2.5) 423 (9.1) 84 (3.0) 407 (2.2) 4 (1.6) 442 (11.3)
United States15  24 5  (0.4) 56 (2.9) 504 (3.9) 39 (2.7) 510 (5.1) 4 (1.2) 531 (16.4) 1 (0.7) (†) 27   (2.5) 531 (8.0) 62 (2.9) 504 (3.8) 11 (2.2) 471 (9.5)
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
1 Index based on teachers' responses to two questions about how often they usually assign mathematics homework and how many minutes of mathematics homework they usually assign.
2 High EMH indicates the assignment of more than 30 minutes of homework in about half of the lessons or more.
3 Medium level includes all possible combinations of responses not included in the high or low level categories (see below for details on the low level).
4 Low level indicates no assignment or the assignment of less than 30 minutes of homework in about half the lessons or less.
5 Class size data available for at least 70 but less than 85 percent of students, with missing data having not been explicitly accounted for in the analysis.  
6 EMH data available for at least 70 but less than 85 percent of students, with missing data having not been explicitly accounted for in the analysis.
7 Did not satisfy guidelines for sample participation rates.
8 Class size data available for at least 50 but less than 70 percent of students, with missing data having not been explicitly accounted for in the analysis.
9 Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
10 SAR = Special Administrative Region.
11 National Desired Population does not cover all of International Desired Population.
12 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Desired Population.
13 Korea tested the same cohort of students as other countries, but later in 2003, at the beginning of the next school year.
14 EMH data available for at least 50 but less than 70 percent of students, with missing data having not been explicitly accounted for in the analysis.
15 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
NOTE: Background data provided by teachers. Data are for eighth grade or equivalent in most countries. Possible scores range from 0 to 1,000. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2003, TIMSS 2003 International Mathematics Report, by Ina V.S. Mullis et al. (This table was prepared April 2005.)

2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest