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Digest of Education Statistics
2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 380. Federal obligations for research, development, and R&D plant, by performers, fields of science, and category of obligation: Fiscal years 1999 through 2007

[In millions of current dollars]
Performers, fields of science,
and category of obligation
Actual Estimated
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Percent change, 2006 to 2007
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total obligations for research, development, and R&D plant $77,386.6 $77,356.1 $84,003.0 $90,157.7 $97,927.9 $105,370.7 $112,994.6 $116,872.6 $116,416.5 -0.4
Research and development obligations 75,340.8 72,863.2 79,933.2 85,853.0 93,661.3 101,376.5 109,223.5 113,315.7 112,829.7 -0.4
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  18,084.7 17,149.8 20,219.8 21,044.8 22,861.6 22,423.2 24,125.4 25,521.5 24,741.5 -3.1
Industrial firms 31,901.6 27,735.5 27,006.2 29,538.2 33,852.7 39,214.6 44,112.5 46,106.2 46,502.1 0.9
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 1,328.1 1,100.9 1,186.6 1,351.1 1,507.6 1,543.1 1,612.1 1,500.0 1,477.8 -1.5
Universities and colleges 14,959.1 16,815.1 19,587.9 21,290.1 22,693.5 24,169.7 24,841.5 25,332.2 24,968.5 -1.4
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 3,896.5 4,053.2 4,617.7 4,641.2 4,754.2 5,400.9 5,686.1 5,888.9 6,136.3 4.2
Other nonprofit institutions 3,608.8 4,216.6 5,138.8 5,739.1 5,706.7 5,623.7 5,910.0 5,956.3 5,751.6 -3.4
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 913.3 1,231.5 1,269.1 1,404.8 1,352.8 1,443.2 1,649.2 1,724.4 1,949.2 13.0
State and local governments 357.5 224.0 450.6 452.2 400.0 880.1 660.8 657.1 663.8 1.0
Foreign 291.3 336.7 456.5 391.6 532.4 677.9 625.8 629.1 639.1 1.6
Performers                    
                     
Research obligations 33,527.5 38,470.5 44,713.7 48,006.7 51,071.8 53,357.8 53,738.2 54,963.5 55,089.2 0.2
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  8,685.8 9,449.6 11,130.9 11,857.4 12,419.6 12,085.2 12,349.9 12,634.0 12,674.5 0.3
Industrial firms 4,579.8 4,801.2 5,262.3 5,786.8 6,042.4 6,782.7 6,456.4 6,960.7 6,786.3 -2.5
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 879.3 700.3 822.3 937.3 1,103.5 1,131.6 1,082.0 1,006.8 977.6 -2.9
Universities and colleges 13,203.8 16,015.9 18,657.1 20,285.4 21,676.5 22,699.1 23,156.0 23,447.0 23,361.4 -0.4
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 2,554.1 2,773.2 3,096.3 3,219.4 3,272.6 3,687.3 3,743.4 3,821.2 4,065.8 6.4
Other nonprofit institutions 2,806.7 3,719.8 4,577.9 4,723.0 5,196.3 5,216.4 5,295.8 5,364.6 5,341.2 -0.4
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 469.5 696.1 739.4 749.6 779.0 795.5 907.8 996.9 1,154.1 15.8
State and local governments 232.4 162.5 308.7 275.5 305.8 532.9 376.8 358.8 356.5 -0.6
Foreign 116.1 152.0 118.9 172.3 276.1 427.0 370.2 373.4 371.8 -0.4
Fields of science                    
Life sciences 15,422.5 17,964.7 23,057.3 25,476.8 27,772.2 27,728.5 28,127.8 28,402.0 27,810.6 -2.1
Psychology 632.6 1,626.7 741.9 905.9 1,104.4 1,854.9 1,891.8 1,900.7 1,911.7 0.6
Physical sciences 4,066.2 4,787.9 4,600.8 4,983.2 5,021.6 5,211.1 5,493.7 5,564.3 5,647.6 1.5
Environmental sciences 3,095.3 3,328.8 3,251.7 3,418.3 3,740.9 3,741.6 3,502.6 3,649.1 3,635.7 -0.4
Mathematics and computer sciences 1,980.6 2,205.6 2,610.6 2,630.7 1,104.4 2,949.4 2,983.4 3,064.6 3,181.9 3.8
Engineering 6,263.4 6,346.4 8,197.0 8,274.9 8,405.1 8,866.4 8,552.9 8,975.8 9,487.4 5.7
Social sciences 854.9 1,050.3 1,008.6 1,038.5 1,025.8 1,089.6 1,097.1 1,202.6 1,215.3 1.1
Other sciences 1,212.1 1,160.2 1,245.8 1,278.4 1,329.3 1,916.3 2,088.9 2,204.4 2,198.9 -0.3
                     
Basic research obligations 17,443.7 19,569.8 21,958.1 23,668.3 24,751.4 26,120.7 27,140.3 27,679.8 28,264.4 2.1
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  3,255.2 3,621.8 4,193.8 4,460.0 4,662.1 4,671.6 4,772.7 4,987.8 4,846.4 -2.8
Industrial firms 1,082.8 1,356.5 917.1 1,231.9 1,279.6 1,969.4 2,051.0 2,161.5 2,211.1 2.3
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 313.4 171.3 175.1 239.6 312.8 292.2 270.1 269.7 269.1 -0.2
Universities and colleges 9,107.1 10,056.7 11,792.2 12,668.2 13,151.8 13,398.5 13,989.9 14,028.8 14,272.5 1.7
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 1,565.5 1,674.0 1,762.1 1,805.2 1,827.8 2,005.8 2,021.2 2,137.8 2,364.3 10.6
Other nonprofit institutions 1,650.0 1,985.3 2,441.7 2,531.7 2,703.9 2,746.1 2,914.2 2,896.3 2,927.9 1.1
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 354.9 521.6 540.5 563.4 582.1 606.8 670.7 734.5 897.7 22.2
State and local governments 61.4 75.7 71.5 71.5 85.4 197.9 235.9 244.3 253.6 3.8
Foreign 53.4 106.9 64.0 96.8 146.1 232.3 214.6 219.2 221.8 1.2
Fields of science                    
Life sciences 9,197.1 10,049.0 12,835.5 14,024.1 14,765.3 14,490.0 15,247.6 15,432.1 15,321.9 -0.7
Psychology 347.3 817.8 292.9 464.6 543.8 979.2 1,040.1 1,046.4 1,055.8 0.9
Physical sciences 3,089.8 3,470.6 3,327.1 3,405.9 3,454.0 3,662.6 3,738.7 3,777.5 4,042.7 7.0
Environmental sciences 1,615.7 1,838.4 1,663.0 1,833.3 1,899.5 2,022.9 1,966.1 2,002.5 2,058.0 2.8
Mathematics and computer sciences 734.9 798.3 957.8 998.7 1,120.2 1,239.1 1,228.4 1,238.9 1,361.2 9.9
Engineering 1,639.7 1,764.2 1,911.5 1,864.9 1,913.1 2,271.7 2,300.5 2,516.4 2,733.5 8.6
Social sciences 246.5 308.0 278.4 361.7 352.8 419.3 391.4 398.7 401.7 0.7
Other sciences 572.5 523.6 691.7 715.2 702.7 1,035.9 1,227.5 1,267.3 1,289.7 1.8
                     
Applied research obligations 16,083.7 18,900.7 22,755.6 24,338.4 26,320.4 27,237.1 26,597.9 27,283.7 26,824.8 -1.7
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  5,430.6 5,827.8 6,937.2 7,397.4 7,757.5 7,413.6 7,577.2 7,646.2 7,828.1 2.4
Industrial firms 3,497.0 3,444.6 4,345.2 4,554.9 4,762.8 4,813.3 4,405.4 4,799.2 4,575.3 -4.7
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 565.8 528.9 647.2 697.7 790.7 839.3 811.9 737.2 708.5 -3.9
Universities and colleges 4,096.7 5,959.2 6,864.9 7,617.2 8,524.7 9,300.6 9,166.1 9,418.2 9,088.9 -3.5
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 988.6 1,099.2 1,334.2 1,414.1 1,444.8 1,681.6 1,722.2 1,683.4 1,701.5 1.1
Other nonprofit institutions 1,156.7 1,734.5 2,136.2 2,191.3 2,492.5 2,470.3 2,381.6 2,468.4 2,413.3 -2.2
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 114.6 174.5 198.9 186.2 197.0 188.7 237.1 262.4 256.4 -2.3
State and local governments 171.0 86.9 237.1 204.0 220.4 335.0 140.9 114.5 102.9 -10.2
Foreign 62.8 45.1 54.9 75.6 130.0 194.7 155.6 154.2 150.0 -2.7
Fields of science                    
Life sciences 6,225.3 7,915.7 10,221.8 11,452.7 13,007.0 13,238.5 12,880.2 12,970.0 12,488.7 -3.7
Psychology 285.3 808.9 449.0 441.3 560.6 875.6 851.6 854.3 855.9 0.2
Physical sciences 976.4 1,317.3 1,273.6 1,577.4 1,567.6 1,548.6 1,755.0 1,786.8 1,604.9 -10.2
Environmental sciences 1,479.5 1,490.3 1,588.6 1,585.0 1,841.4 1,718.7 1,536.5 1,646.5 1,577.8 -4.2
Mathematics and computer sciences 1,245.7 1,407.3 1,652.8 1,632.0 1,552.2 1,710.3 1,754.9 1,825.7 1,820.7 -0.3
Engineering 4,623.7 4,582.2 6,285.5 6,410.0 6,492.0 6,594.7 6,252.5 6,459.4 6,753.9 4.6
Social sciences 608.3 742.3 730.2 676.9 673.0 670.3 705.8 803.9 813.7 1.2
Other sciences 639.6 636.6 554.1 563.3 626.6 880.5 861.4 937.2 909.2 -3.0
                     
Development obligations 41,813.1 34,392.7 35,219.5 37,846.3 42,589.5 48,018.7 55,485.3 58,352.3 57,740.5 -1.0
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  9,398.9 7,700.2 9,088.9 9,187.4 10,442.0 10,338.0 11,775.5 12,887.5 12,067.0 -6.4
Industrial firms 27,321.8 22,934.4 21,744.0 23,751.4 27,810.3 32,431.8 37,656.1 39,145.5 39,715.7 1.5
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 448.8 400.6 364.3 413.7 404.1 411.6 530.1 493.2 500.1 1.4
Universities and colleges 1,755.3 799.3 930.8 1,004.7 1,017.0 1,470.6 1,685.6 1,885.2 1,607.1 -14.8
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 1,342.3 1,279.9 1,521.4 1,421.8 1,481.6 1,713.5 1,942.8 2,067.7 2,070.5 0.1
Other nonprofit institutions 802.0 496.8 560.8 1,016.1 510.3 407.4 614.1 591.7 410.4 -30.6
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 443.7 535.4 529.7 655.2 573.7 647.7 741.5 727.5 795.1 9.3
State and local governments 125.1 61.5 141.9 176.7 94.1 347.2 284.1 298.4 307.3 3.0
Foreign 175.2 184.7 337.6 219.2 256.3 250.9 255.6 255.7 267.3 4.5
                     
R&D plant obligations 2,045.8 4,492.8 4,069.8 4,304.7 4,266.5 3,994.2 3,771.1 3,556.9 3,586.8 0.8
Performers                    
Federal intramural1  483.3 573.3 520.4 414.8 609.7 961.3 859.3 817.9 698.3 -14.6
Industrial firms 544.7 2,814.6 2,179.8 2,524.9 1,817.0 1,442.0 1,381.4 1,466.9 1,540.8 5.0
FFRDCs2  administered by industrial firms 172.8 27.6 41.8 109.1 145.7 188.3 125.7 87.8 21.0 -76.1
Universities and colleges 141.2 213.5 284.7 241.1 686.9 354.3 423.0 294.5 336.7 14.3
FFRDCs2  administered by universities and colleges 615.5 613.8 615.9 583.3 578.4 603.9 558.3 515.2 595.0 15.5
Other nonprofit institutions 12.2 55.5 27.9 29.1 70.7 164.5 134.6 126.0 138.2 9.6
FFRDCs2  administered by nonprofit institutions 70.7 193.5 357.5 388.8 333.9 252.4 218.0 197.5 202.8 2.7
State and local governments 5.3 0.9 1.4 2.0 0.8 15.8 55.2 34.7 36.5 5.2
Foreign 0.1 40.4 11.7 23.4 11.7 15.6 16.5 17.6 7.0
— Not available.
1 Includes costs associated with the administration of intramural and extramural programs by federal personnel as well as actual intramural performance.
2 Federally funded research and development centers.
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Totals do not include the U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
SOURCE: National Science Foundation, Federal Funds for Research and Development, 1997 through 2007. (This table was prepared October 2008.)
 

2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest