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Digest of Education Statistics
2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 116. Mean mathematics and science scale scores and specific mathematics skills of fall 1998 first-time kindergartners, by time of assessment and selected characteristics: Selected years, fall 1998 through spring 2004
Selected characteristic Mathematics Science
Mean scale score Score gain, fall 1998 to spring 2004 Percentage of children with specific skills, fifth grade, spring 2004 Mean scale score Score gain, spring 2002 to spring 2004
Kindergarten First grade Third grade, spring 2002 Fifth grade, spring 2004 Place value Rate and measurement Fractions
Fall 1998 Spring 1999 Fall 1999 Spring 2000 Third grade, spring 2002 Fifth grade, spring 2004
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Total 23 (0.3) 34 (0.4) 41 (0.6) 58 (0.6) 93 (1.0) 114 (1.0) 91 (0.8) 77 (1.7) 46 (1.7) 15 (1.1) 46 (0.6) 58 (0.7) 13 (0.4)
Sex                                                    
Male 24 (0.4) 35 (0.5) 42 (0.8) 60 (0.9) 97 (1.1) 118 (1.1) 94 (1.0) 83 (1.9) 52 (2.0) 20 (1.6) 48 (0.6) 61 (0.7) 13 (0.4)
Female 23 (0.4) 33 (0.6) 40 (0.6) 57 (0.7) 89 (1.3) 110 (1.3) 88 (1.0) 72 (2.1) 40 (2.1) 11 (1.3) 43 (0.9) 55 (0.9) 12 (0.6)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity                                                    
White 25 (0.3) 36 (0.5) 43 (0.5) 62 (0.7) 98 (0.8) 119 (0.8) 94 (0.7) 84 (1.3) 54 (1.5) 19 (1.3) 49 (0.7) 62 (0.5) 13 (0.5)
Black 19 (0.5) 28 (0.7) 33 (0.8) 49 (1.0) 78 (1.8) 99 (2.2) 80 (1.9) 55 (4.0) 19 (2.0) 3 (0.8) 35 (1.1) 47 (1.3) 12 (0.5)
Hispanic 22 (0.7) 32 (0.9) 39 (0.9) 56 (1.1) 93 (1.7) 112 (2.0) 90 (1.6) 77 (3.0) 42 (3.8) 12 (2.5) 43 (1.2) 56 (1.2) 13 (0.7)
Asian/Pacific Islander 23 (2.2) 32 (3.7) 41 (3.4) 56 (5.4) 88 (8.6) 116 (5.8) 93 (3.8) 75 (11.2) 47 (11.7) 18 (5.8) 43 (5.5) 58 (4.9) 15 (1.4)
Other 21 (2.8) 31 (2.9) 38 (3.9) 54 (3.2) 87 (8.6) 106 (8.1) 86 (5.6) 65 (14.1) 38 (10.1) 13 (5.3) 41 (4.4) 52 (5.3) 12 (1.1)
                                                     
Parents' highest level of education1                                                     
Less than high school 16 (0.6) 24 (1.1) 29 (1.2) 44 (1.8) 71 (2.0) 90 (2.8) 74 (2.4) 40 (4.3) 13 (2.6) 2 (1.0) 34 (1.8) 43 (1.8) 9 (1.4)
High school 21 (0.6) 30 (0.7) 36 (0.9) 53 (1.2) 85 (1.6) 107 (1.7) 86 (1.2) 66 (3.0) 32 (2.4) 6 (1.2) 41 (1.2) 54 (1.2) 13 (0.4)
Some college 22 (0.4) 33 (0.6) 40 (0.7) 58 (0.8) 94 (1.3) 114 (1.2) 92 (1.0) 80 (2.1) 44 (2.3) 12 (1.6) 45 (0.7) 58 (0.8) 13 (0.5)
Bachelor's or higher 28 (0.8) 39 (0.8) 48 (1.0) 66 (1.1) 103 (1.3) 125 (1.3) 96 (1.1) 91 (1.5) 66 (2.6) 29 (2.8) 51 (1.0) 64 (0.8) 13 (0.5)
                                                     
Socioeconomic status1                                                     
Lowest 20 percent 17 (0.5) 25 (0.7) 30 (0.9) 45 (1.2) 73 (1.6) 93 (2.1) 76 (1.7) 44 (3.3) 15 (1.5) 2 (0.7) 33 (1.1) 45 (1.2) 11 (0.8)
Middle 60 percent 23 (0.4) 33 (0.5) 40 (0.6) 58 (0.8) 93 (1.2) 114 (1.1) 91 (0.9) 78 (1.9) 44 (2.2) 12 (1.3) 45 (0.7) 58 (0.7) 13 (0.4)
Highest 20 percent 29 (0.9) 40 (1.0) 47 (1.3) 67 (1.4) 106 (1.2) 127 (1.1) 98 (1.0) 94 (0.8) 70 (2.6) 32 (3.4) 53 (1.0) 66 (0.7) 13 (0.7)
                                                     
Number of family risk factors1,2                                                     
No risks 26 (0.4) 36 (0.5) 44 (0.7) 63 (0.8) 99 (0.9) 120 (0.9) 95 (0.8) 87 (1.4) 58 (1.8) 21 (1.5) 49 (0.7) 62 (0.6) 13 (0.4)
One risk 21 (0.4) 31 (0.7) 38 (0.8) 54 (0.9) 90 (1.4) 108 (1.2) 87 (0.9) 69 (2.2) 32 (2.3) 7 (1.0) 43 (0.8) 56 (0.9) 13 (0.7)
Two or more risks 18 (0.6) 26 (0.6) 31 (0.9) 47 (1.1) 75 (2.1) 96 (2.5) 78 (2.0) 49 (4.1) 19 (2.6) 4 (0.9) 34 (1.2) 45 (1.5) 11 (0.7)
                                                     
Kindergarten program type                                                    
Half-day program 24 (0.4) 34 (0.5) 41 (0.6) 60 (0.7) 96 (0.9) 118 (0.8) 94 (0.7) 84 (1.3) 52 (1.7) 18 (1.5) 48 (0.7) 61 (0.5) 13 (0.5)
Full-day program 23 (0.6) 34 (0.7) 40 (1.0) 58 (1.1) 91 (1.8) 111 (1.7) 88 (1.3) 72 (2.6) 41 (2.8) 13 (1.5) 44 (1.1) 56 (1.1) 13 (0.4)
                                                     
School type across all waves of the study                                                    
Public school all years 23 (0.4) 33 (0.5) 40 (0.6) 57 (0.7) 92 (1.3) 113 (1.2) 90 (0.9) 75 (1.9) 44 (1.9) 14 (1.2) 45 (0.8) 57 (0.8) 13 (0.4)
Private school all years 29 (0.9) 40 (1.1) 48 (1.3) 68 (1.6) 101 (1.8) 123 (1.6) 93 (1.0) 90 (2.3) 62 (3.6) 19 (3.1) 49 (1.1) 64 (1.0) 14 (0.5)
Change in school type during study 25 (1.3) 35 (1.7) 44 (2.2) 61 (2.3) 95 (2.9) 118 (2.9) 93 (2.1) 84 (4.0) 52 (5.2) 21 (4.2) 48 (2.1) 60 (1.9) 12 (1.2)
1 Status during kindergarten year.
2 Family risk factors included living below the federal poverty level, primary home language was not English, mother's highest education was less than a high school diploma/GED, and living in a single-parent household. Values range from 0 to 4.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Estimates reflect the sample of children assessed in English in all assessment years. ECLS-K was not administered in 2000–01, when most of the children in the sample were in second grade. Most of the children were in first grade in 1999–2000, but 5 percent were in kindergarten or other grades (e.g., second grade, ungraded classrooms); most were in third grade in 2001–02, but 11 percent were in second grade or other grades (e.g., fourth grade, ungraded classrooms); most were in fifth grade in 2003–04, but 14 percent were in fourth grade or other grades (e.g., sixth grade). Mathematics scale ranges from 0 to 153. Science scale ranges from 0 to 92. Data were calculated using C1_6FC0 weight and therefore differ from previously published figures. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (ECLS-K), Longitudinal Kindergarten–Third Grade Public-Use Data File, fall 1998, spring 1999, fall 1999, spring 2000, and spring 2002, and Fifth-Grade Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared September 2006.)

2008 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest