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Digest of Education Statistics: 2008
Digest of Education Statistics: 2008

NCES 2009-020
March 2009


Table 112. Percentage of children demonstrating specific cognitive and motor skills at about 9 months of age, by child's age and selected characteristics: 2001–02
Age and selected characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distribution of children Percent of children who demonstrate skills
Specific cognitive abilities Specific motor abilities
Explores objects1  Explores purposefully2  Jabbers expressively3  Early problem solving4  Names objects5  Eye-hand coordination6  Sitting7  Prewalking8  Stands
alone9 
Skillful walking10  Balance11 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
8 through 10 months                                                    
Total 2,880 (39.2) 100.0 (†) 98.6 (0.06) 83.2 (0.54) 29.6 (0.57) 3.7 (0.13) 0.6 (0.03) 89.1 (0.26) 86.8 (0.24) 64.7 (0.60) 18.6 (0.50) 8.4 (0.21) 1.7 (0.09)
Sex of child                                                    
Male 1,459 (23.1) 50.6 (0.39) 98.6 (0.06) 82.7 (0.51) 28.8 (0.56) 3.5 (0.14) 0.6 (0.03) 89.3 (0.30) 87.0 (0.27) 65.1 (0.69) 18.5 (0.55) 8.3 (0.23) 1.7 (0.10)
Female 1,422 (22.0) 49.4 (0.39) 98.7 (0.09) 83.8 (0.68) 30.4 (0.71) 3.9 (0.18) 0.7 (0.05) 88.9 (0.36) 86.6 (0.33) 64.4 (0.78) 18.7 (0.67) 8.4 (0.29) 1.8 (0.14)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity of child                                                    
White 1,573 (28.6) 54.7 (0.61) 98.8 (0.07) 84.0 (0.68) 30.4 (0.72) 3.9 (0.17) 0.7 (0.04) 88.7 (0.37) 86.5 (0.34) 63.7 (0.82) 18.0 (0.66) 8.1 (0.27) 1.6 (0.10)
Black 381 (11.0) 13.3 (0.38) 98.1 (0.16) 80.8 (0.92) 27.9 (0.99) 3.4 (0.25) 0.6 (0.07) 91.1 (0.33) 88.6 (0.32) 69.8 (0.94) 22.9 (1.17) 10.4 (0.59) 2.6 (0.35)
Hispanic 716 (18.5) 24.9 (0.54) 98.5 (0.13) 82.9 (0.82) 29.0 (0.84) 3.4 (0.21) 0.6 (0.05) 88.4 (0.47) 86.1 (0.43) 63.4 (1.00) 17.0 (0.77) 7.8 (0.32) 1.6 (0.15)
Asian 77 (3.1) 2.7 (0.10) 98.8 (0.13) 83.3 (0.97) 28.2 (0.93) 3.1 (0.20) 0.5 (0.04) 89.4 (0.54) 87.1 (0.50) 65.0 (1.24) 18.1 (1.01) 8.1 (0.39) 1.6 (0.14)
Pacific Islander 6 (1.5) 0.2 (0.05) 98.9 (0.23) 81.8 (3.53) 23.7 (3.17) 2.0 (0.46) 0.3 (0.07) 95.4 (0.96) 93.0 (1.11) 79.9 (3.76) 34.6 (8.56) 15.0 (3.84) 3.9 (1.64)
American Indian/Alaska Native 10 (1.1) 0.4 (0.04) 98.4 (0.30) 80.3 (2.74) 27.3 (2.52) 3.4 (0.70) 0.6 (0.18) 90.2 (0.99) 87.8 (0.91) 66.7 (2.15) 19.6 (2.10) 8.5 (0.81) 1.5 (0.30)
More than one race 110 (9.2) 3.8 (0.31) 98.6 (0.15) 82.8 (1.30) 29.5 (1.56) 3.8 (0.57) 0.8 (0.22) 90.3 (0.91) 88.1 (0.85) 68.2 (2.13) 22.1 (2.03) 9.6 (0.79) 2.0 (0.31)
                                                     
Months of age                                                    
8 months 642 (32.8) 22.3 (0.99) 97.5 (0.14) 67.9 (1.04) 15.7 (0.53) 1.1 (0.09) 0.1 (0.02) 84.0 (0.52) 82.0 (0.46) 52.7 (1.08) 8.8 (0.63) 4.5 (0.22) 0.5 (0.05)
9 months 1,388 (28.3) 48.2 (0.76) 98.7 (0.06) 84.5 (0.43) 27.5 (0.44) 2.7 (0.09) 0.4 (0.02) 89.1 (0.32) 86.7 (0.30) 64.2 (0.74) 16.1 (0.55) 7.2 (0.21) 1.2 (0.07)
10 months 851 (24.2) 29.5 (0.90) 99.3 (0.07) 92.7 (0.33) 43.5 (0.74) 7.1 (0.27) 1.4 (0.08) 92.8 (0.26) 90.5 (0.25) 74.6 (0.63) 30.1 (0.85) 13.3 (0.42) 3.6 (0.25)
                                                     
Primary type of care arrangement12                                                     
No regular nonparental arrangement 1,458 (28.0) 50.6 (0.90) 98.5 (0.09) 82.4 (0.59) 28.7 (0.55) 3.4 (0.14) 0.6 (0.04) 88.2 (0.34) 86.0 (0.30) 63.1 (0.70) 17.7 (0.52) 8.0 (0.22) 1.6 (0.10)
Home-based care                                                    
Relative care13  760 (27.1) 26.4 (0.81) 98.8 (0.08) 84.3 (0.67) 30.6 (0.79) 3.9 (0.22) 0.7 (0.06) 90.3 (0.35) 87.9 (0.33) 67.4 (0.84) 20.4 (0.81) 9.2 (0.38) 2.0 (0.19)
Nonrelative care14  431 (17.3) 15.0 (0.53) 98.8 (0.08) 84.7 (0.80) 31.3 (0.99) 4.2 (0.29) 0.8 (0.08) 89.9 (0.45) 87.5 (0.45) 66.0 (1.13) 19.2 (1.34) 8.6 (0.57) 1.8 (0.23)
Center-based care15  211 (14.0) 7.3 (0.48) 98.6 (0.19) 82.8 (1.43) 29.3 (1.54) 3.5 (0.39) 0.6 (0.09) 89.0 (0.77) 86.7 (0.71) 64.0 (1.72) 18.0 (1.51) 8.3 (0.66) 1.9 (0.32)
Multiple arrangements16  21 (4.4) 0.7 (0.15) 98.3 (0.36) 78.6 (3.50) 25.0 (2.87) 2.7 (0.60) 0.4 (0.11) 87.1 (2.67) 84.9 (2.35) 61.6 (4.67) 13.6 (2.60) 6.2 (0.89) 0.8 (0.18)
                                                     
Parents' highest level of education                                                    
Less than high school 383 (12.2) 13.3 (0.41) 98.4 (0.11) 80.1 (0.87) 26.0 (0.79) 2.8 (0.20) 0.5 (0.06) 88.9 (0.63) 86.5 (0.58) 64.4 (1.22) 17.4 (0.97) 8.1 (0.42) 1.7 (0.20)
High school completion 737 (21.5) 25.6 (0.65) 98.4 (0.13) 82.6 (0.85) 29.2 (0.78) 3.6 (0.20) 0.7 (0.06) 89.6 (0.46) 87.3 (0.42) 66.9 (0.94) 20.7 (0.87) 9.1 (0.39) 1.9 (0.20)
Some college/vocational 811 (23.6) 28.2 (0.66) 98.7 (0.08) 84.4 (0.62) 30.8 (0.72) 3.9 (0.21) 0.7 (0.05) 90.0 (0.33) 87.7 (0.31) 66.7 (0.79) 20.6 (0.79) 9.2 (0.34) 2.0 (0.15)
Bachelor's degree 496 (16.3) 17.3 (0.54) 98.8 (0.07) 83.9 (0.59) 30.2 (0.70) 3.8 (0.20) 0.7 (0.05) 88.2 (0.48) 86.0 (0.42) 62.4 (1.07) 16.2 (0.86) 7.4 (0.34) 1.4 (0.12)
Any graduate education 447 (15.7) 15.6 (0.52) 98.8 (0.11) 84.1 (0.95) 30.5 (0.92) 3.9 (0.22) 0.7 (0.06) 87.5 (0.58) 85.4 (0.52) 60.5 (1.22) 15.2 (0.91) 7.0 (0.40) 1.3 (0.18)
                                                     
Poverty status17                                                     
Below poverty threshold 682 (23.0) 23.7 (0.74) 98.3 (0.14) 80.9 (0.75) 27.1 (0.79) 3.1 (0.21) 0.5 (0.05) 89.1 (0.47) 86.8 (0.43) 65.5 (0.98) 19.2 (0.86) 8.7 (0.42) 1.9 (0.24)
At or above poverty threshold 2,198 (37.2) 76.3 (0.74) 98.7 (0.07) 84.0 (0.58) 30.4 (0.63) 3.8 (0.15) 0.7 (0.04) 89.1 (0.27) 86.8 (0.25) 64.5 (0.66) 18.4 (0.56) 8.3 (0.23) 1.7 (0.10)
                                                     
Socioeconomic status18                                                     
Lowest 20 percent 553 (17.5) 19.2 (0.59) 98.3 (0.13) 81.1 (0.72) 27.2 (0.74) 3.1 (0.18) 0.5 (0.04) 89.1 (0.45) 86.7 (0.43) 65.3 (0.92) 18.5 (0.91) 8.4 (0.38) 1.8 (0.19)
Middle 60 percent 1,724 (37.3) 59.9 (0.83) 98.6 (0.08) 83.4 (0.64) 30.0 (0.67) 3.8 (0.18) 0.7 (0.05) 89.4 (0.31) 87.2 (0.29) 65.6 (0.74) 19.7 (0.68) 8.8 (0.28) 1.9 (0.12)
Highest 20 percent 603 (18.1) 20.9 (0.61) 98.8 (0.09) 84.8 (0.73) 30.6 (0.78) 3.8 (0.18) 0.6 (0.04) 88.0 (0.45) 85.8 (0.40) 61.6 (0.96) 15.6 (0.65) 7.1 (0.28) 1.3 (0.13)
                                                     
11 through 13 months                                                    
Total 839 (32.1) 100.0 (†) 99.7 (0.05) 97.3 (0.15) 67.9 (0.54) 22.5 (0.55) 8.2 (0.37) 97.1 (0.17) 95.6 (0.19) 89.0 (0.54) 62.5 (1.29) 34.9 (0.95) 19.1 (0.84)
Months of age                                                    
11 months 425 (19.6) 50.6 (1.54) 99.5 (0.10) 95.8 (0.28) 57.6 (0.77) 14.2 (0.59) 4.0 (0.33) 95.8 (0.28) 93.9 (0.29) 84.4 (0.86) 49.0 (1.74) 24.3 (1.05) 10.5 (0.77)
12 months 251 (14.9) 30.0 (1.29) 99.8 (0.03) 98.4 (0.13) 74.3 (0.83) 26.9 (0.94) 10.2 (0.65) 98.1 (0.21) 96.8 (0.26) 92.6 (0.71) 70.9 (2.09) 40.2 (1.65) 22.9 (1.50)
13 months 163 (12.1) 19.4 (1.16) 100.0 (0.01) 99.5 (0.08) 85.0 (0.62) 37.7 (1.04) 16.0 (0.87) 99.0 (0.27) 98.2 (0.30) 95.8 (0.85) 84.8 (2.24) 54.4 (1.81) 36.0 (1.83)
                                                     
14 through 22 months 257 (19.7) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (0.01) 99.5 (0.14) 90.0 (0.60) 58.4 (1.44) 40.8 (1.71) 99.5 (0.12) 99.1 (0.13) 98.3 (0.28) 94.1 (0.91) 74.0 (1.35) 61.7 (1.82)
† Not applicable.
1 Ability to explore objects, for example, reaching for and holding objects. The child may have no specific purpose except to play or discover.
2 Ability to explore objects with a purpose, such as to explore a bell to understand the source of the sound.
3 Measures proficiency in communication through diverse nonverbal sounds and gestures, such as vowel and vowel-consonant sounds.
4 Measures proficiency in engaging in early problem solving, such as using a tool to reach an out-of-reach toy or locating a hidden toy.
5 Measures proficiency in early communication skills, such as saying simple words like "mama" and "dada."
6 Measures proficiency in being able to use visual tracking to guide hand movements to pick up a small object.
7 Measures proficiency in ability to maintain control of the muscles used in sitting with and without support.
8 Measures proficiency in ability to engage in various prewalking types of mobility, with and without support, such as shifting weight from one foot to the other.
9 Measures proficiency in ability to walk with help and to stand independently.
10 Measures proficiency in being able to walk independently.
11 Measures proficiency in ability to maintain balance while shifting position.
12 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
13 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
14 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
15 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, excluding Head Start.
16 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
17 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
18 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: This table is based on a survey that sampled children born in 2001 and was designed to collect information about them for the first time when the children were about 9 months of age (i.e., 8 to 10 months). As shown in the table, some children were older than this, although only 6.5 percent were over 13 months of age. Estimates weighted by W1C0. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 9-month–Preschool Restricted-Use Data File and Electronic Codebook. (This table was prepared February 2008.)