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Digest of Education Statistics: 2008
Digest of Education Statistics: 2008

NCES 2009-020
March 2009


Table 46. Percentage distribution of children at about 2 and 4 years of age, by type of child care arrangement and selected child and family characteristics: 2003–04 and 2005–06
Selected characteristic Children at about 2 years of age in 2003–04 Children at about 4 years of age in 2005–06
Percentage distribution
of children1 
Percentage distribution by primary type of care arrangement2  Percentage distribution
of children7 
Percentage distribution by primary type of care arrangement2 
No regular nonparental arrangement Home-based care Center-based care5  Multiple arrangements6  No regular nonparental arrangement Home-based care Center-based care5  Multiple arrangements6 
Relative care3  Nonrelative care4  Relative care3  Nonrelative care4  Total Head Start Other than Head Start
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Total 100.0 (†) 50.6 (0.74) 18.6 (0.62) 14.6 (0.51) 15.8 (0.50) 0.5 (0.10) 100.0 (†) 20.0 (0.65) 13.1 (0.61) 7.6 (0.32) 57.5 (0.80) 12.7 (0.64) 44.8 (0.71) 1.9 (0.21)
Sex of child                                                        
Male 51.2 (0.08) 50.0 (0.96) 19.1 (0.79) 14.3 (0.61) 16.3 (0.65) 0.3 (0.07) 51.2 (0.11) 19.3 (0.80) 13.1 (0.79) 7.5 (0.51) 58.0 (0.99) 12.9 (0.80) 45.1 (1.02) 2.1 (0.33)
Female 48.8 (0.08) 51.1 (1.01) 18.0 (0.78) 14.9 (0.71) 15.2 (0.63) 0.8 (0.19) 48.8 (0.11) 20.7 (0.90) 13.1 (0.86) 7.6 (0.52) 56.9 (1.00) 12.4 (0.74) 44.5 (0.91) 1.7 (0.20)
                                                         
Race/ethnicity of child                                                        
White 53.8 (0.53) 50.7 (1.07) 14.9 (0.88) 17.0 (0.75) 16.8 (0.73) 0.5 (0.13) 53.8 (0.59) 17.9 (0.98) 11.0 (0.74) 9.2 (0.49) 60.1 (1.04) 6.8 (0.61) 53.3 (1.00) 1.9 (0.28)
Black 13.7 (0.24) 37.1 (1.39) 26.0 (1.54) 12.0 (1.30) 24.1 (1.15) 0.8 (0.24) 13.8 (0.26) 16.0 (1.37) 13.9 (1.49) 4.3 (0.73) 62.4 (2.08) 25.4 (1.97) 37.1 (1.87) 3.3 (0.66)
Hispanic 25.3 (0.38) 57.4 (1.39) 21.4 (1.14) 11.6 (0.94) 9.2 (0.94) 0.4 (0.20) 25.1 (0.42) 27.2 (1.37) 15.9 (1.14) 6.2 (0.78) 49.4 (1.58) 18.6 (1.22) 30.9 (1.65) 1.2 (0.29)
Asian 2.7 (0.09) 55.5 (2.24) 23.8 (1.44) 10.9 (1.06) 9.4 (1.39) 0.5 (0.25) 2.6 (0.09) 17.5 (1.75) 16.0 (1.41) 3.4 (0.67) 60.7 (2.06) 5.5 (0.90) 55.3 (2.16) 2.3 (1.05)
Pacific Islander 0.2 (0.04) 73.5 (9.77) 23.5 (9.83) (†) (†) (†) 0.2 (0.05) 22.3 (6.82) 45.0 (14.27) (†) 19.9 (7.94) 5.0 (3.24) 14.9 (6.47) (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 0.5 (0.06) 56.7 (3.20) 17.7 (3.16) 11.8 (3.90) 13.7 (2.77) (†) 0.5 (0.05) 20.0 (2.41) 14.0 (2.07) 5.3 (1.46) 59.6 (3.58) 31.1 (4.72) 28.5 (5.63) 1.1 (0.95)
More than one race 3.8 (0.28) 46.7 (3.01) 18.9 (1.89) 13.5 (2.25) 19.8 (2.23) 1.2 (0.64) 4.0 (0.28) 17.8 (2.13) 17.5 (2.44) 8.9 (2.06) 53.9 (3.41) 12.2 (2.33) 41.7 (3.27) 1.8 (0.85)
                                                         
Age of child                                                        
22 or fewer months 1.9 (0.29) 58.6 (4.73) 21.0 (4.62) 11.0 (3.41) 9.4 (2.77) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
23 months 38.3 (1.22) 54.1 (1.16) 17.0 (0.93) 13.6 (0.91) 14.5 (0.85) 0.7 (0.16) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
24 months 38.0 (0.89) 49.1 (1.02) 18.5 (0.95) 15.6 (0.80) 16.6 (0.87) 0.2 (0.10) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
25 months 12.4 (0.46) 44.8 (1.91) 23.1 (1.44) 14.7 (1.40) 16.8 (1.44) 0.5 (0.31) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
26 or more months 9.4 (0.59) 47.6 (2.37) 18.6 (1.82) 14.8 (1.40) 17.9 (1.60) 1.1 (0.54) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Less than 48 months (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 16.4 (0.57) 27.3 (1.63) 13.9 (1.48) 8.7 (0.95) 48.0 (1.76) 10.6 (1.24) 37.4 (1.90) 2.2 (0.55)
48 to 52 months (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 38.1 (0.55) 19.9 (1.01) 13.0 (0.87) 8.3 (0.60) 56.8 (1.29) 12.0 (0.79) 44.8 (1.31) 2.0 (0.37)
53 to 57 months (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 36.5 (0.57) 16.5 (0.93) 13.1 (0.83) 6.7 (0.52) 62.2 (1.32) 14.4 (1.01) 47.8 (1.22) 1.5 (0.25)
58 or more months (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 9.0 (0.41) 20.9 (2.00) 12.0 (1.66) 6.3 (1.09) 58.1 (2.84) 12.0 (1.66) 46.1 (2.52) 2.7 (0.74)
                                                         
Mother's employment status                                                        
Full-time (35 hours or more) 34.6 (0.73) 15.6 (0.89) 30.4 (1.10) 26.0 (0.86) 27.1 (0.97) 0.8 (0.21) 39.4 (0.72) 8.5 (0.73) 18.5 (1.01) 13.4 (0.71) 57.4 (1.21) 11.4 (0.94) 46.1 (1.05) 2.1 (0.31)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 20.2 (0.63) 35.4 (1.53) 26.4 (1.53) 20.5 (1.37) 16.7 (1.23) 1.1 (0.34) 19.7 (0.54) 13.4 (1.06) 15.9 (1.30) 8.5 (1.04) 59.3 (1.84) 10.1 (1.10) 49.2 (1.91) 2.9 (0.56)
Looking for work 6.3 (0.35) 71.1 (2.30) 11.5 (1.58) 3.8 (0.95) 13.4 (2.02) 0.1 (0.14) 5.8 (0.30) 28.5 (2.55) 12.6 (2.15) 2.1 (0.94) 54.7 (2.86) 24.3 (2.88) 30.4 (3.01) 2.0 (0.83)
Not in labor force 38.4 (0.78) 86.8 (0.75) 4.8 (0.48) 2.9 (0.35) 5.4 (0.46) (†) 34.3 (0.76) 35.6 (1.31) 4.6 (0.52) 1.5 (0.26) 57.3 (1.31) 13.7 (0.97) 43.7 (1.27) 1.0 (0.30)
No mother in household 0.4 (0.10) 21.3 (6.88) 30.9 (8.20) 17.7 (8.58) 30.1 (9.47) (†) 0.8 (0.12) 9.6 (4.50) 36.0 (7.05) 9.5 (4.19) 41.1 (7.47) 14.4 (5.29) 26.7 (6.56) 3.8 (2.78)
                                                         
Parents' highest level of education                                                        
Less than high school 12.8 (0.37) 67.6 (1.96) 17.5 (1.43) 6.8 (1.08) 7.6 (0.93) 0.4 (0.24) 10.4 (0.37) 34.0 (2.10) 16.5 (1.80) 4.0 (1.07) 43.4 (2.63) 22.2 (2.12) 21.2 (2.06) 2.1 (0.80)
High school completion 27.3 (0.45) 50.1 (1.32) 23.0 (1.17) 12.4 (0.91) 14.1 (0.84) 0.4 (0.16) 25.0 (0.58) 22.6 (1.23) 17.1 (1.14) 6.7 (0.64) 51.7 (1.69) 21.4 (1.37) 30.3 (1.35) 2.0 (0.31)
Some college/vocational 28.2 (0.49) 46.8 (1.53) 21.5 (1.21) 15.1 (0.93) 15.9 (0.94) 0.7 (0.20) 31.6 (0.63) 20.6 (1.18) 14.9 (0.99) 7.3 (0.57) 55.5 (1.47) 13.0 (1.05) 42.5 (1.28) 1.7 (0.33)
Bachelor's degree 16.9 (0.46) 48.6 (1.15) 14.3 (1.17) 17.7 (1.17) 18.7 (1.15) 0.7 (0.23) 16.8 (0.45) 16.0 (1.57) 8.4 (1.02) 8.1 (0.93) 65.7 (1.88) 3.3 (0.75) 62.4 (1.98) 1.8 (0.48)
Any graduate education 14.9 (0.35) 46.0 (1.92) 10.6 (1.05) 20.7 (1.57) 22.4 (1.49) 0.4 (0.16) 16.2 (0.36) 9.7 (0.83) 6.2 (0.90) 11.2 (1.16) 70.8 (1.57) 2.0 (0.52) 68.8 (1.67) 2.0 (0.51)
                                                         
Poverty status8                                                         
Below poverty threshold 23.9 (0.75) 61.8 (1.40) 18.0 (1.15) 7.8 (0.79) 11.7 (0.92) 0.7 (0.24) 24.8 (0.63) 27.6 (1.28) 15.0 (1.19) 4.4 (0.54) 51.0 (1.61) 26.3 (1.45) 24.7 (1.18) 2.0 (0.40)
At or above poverty threshold 76.1 (0.75) 47.0 (0.90) 18.7 (0.68) 16.7 (0.62) 17.1 (0.60) 0.5 (0.11) 75.2 (0.63) 17.4 (0.71) 12.5 (0.64) 8.6 (0.39) 59.6 (0.85) 8.2 (0.57) 51.4 (0.86) 1.9 (0.22)
                                                         
Socioeconomic status9                                                         
Lowest 20 percent 20.0 (0.51) 65.5 (1.51) 17.0 (1.25) 7.2 (0.82) 9.9 (0.76) 0.4 (0.18) 20.0 (0.52) 30.5 (1.27) 15.0 (1.34) 5.0 (0.68) 47.1 (1.80) 24.7 (1.56) 22.4 (1.46) 2.3 (0.57)
Middle 60 percent 60.0 (0.71) 47.2 (0.99) 21.8 (0.83) 14.9 (0.66) 15.4 (0.58) 0.6 (0.15) 60.0 (0.67) 19.6 (0.88) 15.0 (0.81) 7.4 (0.49) 56.2 (1.10) 12.5 (0.81) 43.7 (0.91) 1.8 (0.23)
Highest 20 percent 20.0 (0.48) 45.7 (1.68) 10.3 (0.84) 20.8 (1.50) 22.7 (1.44) 0.5 (0.21) 20.0 (0.47) 10.3 (0.93) 5.5 (0.73) 10.7 (0.90) 71.6 (1.39) 1.0 (0.23) 70.6 (1.42) 1.9 (0.42)
† Not applicable.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
1 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population with data on primary care arrange-ments.
2 Primary type of care arrangement is the type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
3 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
4 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
5 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, including Head Start.
6 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
7 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population between 44 and 65 months of age with data on primary care arrangements.
8 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a house-hold's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
9 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Data are based on a representative sample of children born in 2001. Estimates for children at about 2 years of age weighted by W2R0. Estimates for children at about 4 years of age weighted by W3R0. Race categories exclude persons of His-panic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and suppression of cells that do not meet standards. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, 9-month–Preschool Restricted-Use Data File and Electronic Codebook. (This table was prepared February 2008.)