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Digest of Education Statistics
2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 109. Percentage of children demonstrating specific cognitive and motor skills at about 2 years of age, by selected characteristics: 2003-04
Selected characteristic Percentage distribution of population1 Percent of children demonstrating specific mental skills2 Percent of children demonstrating specific physical skills2
Receptive vocabulary3 Expressive vocabulary4 Listening comprehension5 Matching/ discrimination6 Early counting7 Skillful walking8 Balance9 Fine motor control10 Uses stairs11 Alternating balance12 Motor planning13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Total 100.0 84.5 (0.38) 63.9 (0.53) 36.6 (0.42) 31.9 (0.39) 3.9 (0.14) 92.6 (0.20) 89.4 (0.33) 55.5 (0.48) 48.1 (0.41) 30.0 (0.47) 10.2 (0.21)
Sex of child                                                
Male 51.1 (0.21) 81.4 (0.56) 59.2 (0.76) 32.9 (0.58) 28.4 (0.53) 3.0 (0.16) 92.0 (0.26) 88.4 (0.43) 54.2 (0.52) 46.9 (0.44) 28.7 (0.47) 9.6 (0.20)
Female 48.9 (0.21) 87.8 (0.38) 68.8 (0.59) 40.6 (0.50) 35.5 (0.48) 4.8 (0.20) 93.2 (0.20) 90.5 (0.32) 56.8 (0.53) 49.3 (0.47) 31.3 (0.55) 10.9 (0.26)
                                                 
Race/ethnicity of child                                                
White 54.7 (0.60) 88.7 (0.40) 70.8 (0.63) 42.2 (0.52) 37.1 (0.49) 5.2 (0.21) 92.8 (0.23) 89.9 (0.38) 55.8 (0.58) 48.4 (0.50) 30.2 (0.59) 10.4 (0.26)
Black 13.4 (0.29) 79.4 (0.93) 55.7 (1.18) 29.9 (0.86) 25.5 (0.75) 2.2 (0.21) 93.3 (0.40) 90.6 (0.66) 58.0 (0.94) 50.2 (0.79) 32.5 (0.87) 11.2 (0.37)
Hispanic 24.5 (0.45) 78.3 (0.99) 53.7 (1.19) 28.2 (0.83) 24.1 (0.73) 1.9 (0.16) 91.6 (0.42) 87.9 (0.69) 53.5 (0.76) 46.3 (0.65) 28.2 (0.66) 9.4 (0.27)
Asian 2.7 (0.10) 82.6 (1.24) 62.0 (1.41) 35.4 (0.94) 30.7 (0.83) 3.7 (0.27) 92.4 (0.40) 89.2 (0.66) 54.8 (0.92) 47.5 (0.73) 29.3 (0.77) 9.9 (0.29)
Pacific Islander 0.2 (0.05) 78.9 (4.10) 54.2 (5.76) 27.8 (4.24) 23.2 (3.56) 1.1 (0.36) 92.8 (1.32) 90.0 (2.26) 54.0 (3.94) 46.5 (2.95) 27.3 (3.18) 8.9 (1.21)
American Indian/Alaska Native 0.5 (0.06) 74.9 (4.02) 49.9 (4.18) 25.5 (2.70) 21.7 (2.24) 1.4 (0.28) 92.3 (0.71) 89.0 (1.30) 55.0 (1.16) 47.8 (0.92) 29.8 (1.07) 10.2 (0.46)
More than one race 3.9 (0.29) 85.0 (0.98) 64.5 (1.60) 37.0 (1.36) 32.2 (1.35) 3.7 (0.57) 92.4 (0.53) 89.1 (0.92) 54.5 (1.30) 47.2 (1.07) 28.9 (1.19) 9.7 (0.53)
                                                 
Age of child                                                
22 months 2.0 (0.30) 78.1 (2.15) 53.1 (2.77) 28.4 (2.34) 24.5 (2.31) 2.9 (1.01) 90.9 (1.68) 86.5 (2.78) 53.4 (3.05) 46.5 (2.70) 29.2 (2.77) 10.6 (1.58)
23 months 42.3 (1.22) 81.9 (0.54) 60.1 (0.66) 33.4 (0.47) 28.8 (0.41) 2.9 (0.13) 92.2 (0.27) 88.7 (0.45) 54.3 (0.59) 47.0 (0.49) 28.8 (0.53) 9.7 (0.22)
24 months 42.0 (1.02) 86.5 (0.42) 66.9 (0.65) 39.1 (0.56) 34.3 (0.54) 4.6 (0.23) 92.9 (0.22) 90.0 (0.37) 56.1 (0.57) 48.6 (0.48) 30.4 (0.57) 10.4 (0.25)
25 months 13.7 (0.54) 87.4 (0.58) 68.3 (0.91) 40.3 (0.78) 35.4 (0.77) 5.0 (0.35) 93.0 (0.35) 90.2 (0.56) 57.5 (0.79) 50.0 (0.68) 32.4 (0.81) 11.4 (0.40)
                                                 
Primary type of care arrangement14                                                 
No regular nonparental arrangement 50.8 (0.75) 83.4 (0.50) 62.0 (0.70) 34.8 (0.56) 30.2 (0.52) 3.3 (0.17) 92.2 (0.26) 88.8 (0.43) 54.5 (0.55) 47.2 (0.47) 29.0 (0.52) 9.7 (0.22)
Home-based care                                                
Relative care15  18.6 (0.63) 83.2 (0.70) 61.6 (1.04) 34.7 (0.84) 30.1 (0.78) 3.6 (0.29) 92.7 (0.30) 89.7 (0.49) 55.8 (0.79) 48.3 (0.67) 30.1 (0.77) 10.3 (0.35)
Nonrelative care16  14.5 (0.57) 86.7 (0.72) 67.7 (1.00) 39.8 (0.81) 34.8 (0.76) 4.4 (0.29) 93.3 (0.27) 90.6 (0.46) 57.1 (0.73) 49.5 (0.63) 31.5 (0.74) 10.8 (0.35)
Center-based care17  15.6 (0.51) 87.5 (0.69) 69.4 (0.99) 41.6 (0.84) 36.7 (0.82) 5.5 (0.47) 93.0 (0.31) 90.2 (0.50) 56.9 (0.70) 49.5 (0.61) 31.8 (0.74) 11.2 (0.37)
Multiple arrangements18  0.5 (0.09) 81.7 (5.66) 63.1 (7.07) 38.0 (5.92) 33.8 (5.68) 6.2 (2.87) 91.3 (1.70) 87.1 (2.97) 52.4 (3.41) 45.8 (2.92) 27.9 (3.29) 9.8 (1.62)
                                                 
Parents' highest level of education                                                
Less than high school 12.2 (0.38) 76.5 (0.97) 50.4 (1.28) 25.4 (0.92) 21.5 (0.78) 1.2 (0.13) 91.2 (0.43) 87.2 (0.71) 52.7 (0.84) 45.6 (0.69) 27.4 (0.71) 9.0 (0.28)
High school completion 26.6 (0.50) 81.9 (0.61) 58.8 (0.86) 32.0 (0.66) 27.4 (0.61) 2.5 (0.17) 92.4 (0.31) 89.2 (0.50) 55.2 (0.69) 47.8 (0.59) 29.7 (0.65) 10.0 (0.27)
Some college/vocational 28.3 (0.52) 84.5 (0.61) 64.1 (0.86) 36.7 (0.70) 31.8 (0.66) 3.6 (0.21) 92.6 (0.29) 89.4 (0.49) 55.6 (0.67) 48.2 (0.57) 30.2 (0.64) 10.4 (0.29)
Bachelor's degree 17.5 (0.46) 88.5 (0.66) 71.0 (1.11) 42.5 (0.99) 37.4 (0.98) 5.3 (0.47) 93.2 (0.31) 90.5 (0.52) 56.6 (0.79) 49.1 (0.67) 30.9 (0.78) 10.7 (0.37)
Graduate degree 15.4 (0.39) 90.4 (0.60) 74.7 (0.93) 46.5 (0.79) 41.4 (0.78) 7.1 (0.37) 93.0 (0.36) 90.2 (0.61) 56.5 (0.80) 48.9 (0.68) 30.8 (0.77) 10.6 (0.35)
                                                 
Poverty status19                                                 
Below poverty threshold 23.0 (0.80) 78.7 (0.85) 54.6 (1.11) 29.0 (0.81) 24.8 (0.72) 2.1 (0.18) 91.8 (0.32) 88.1 (0.53) 54.1 (0.70) 46.8 (0.60) 28.8 (0.67) 9.6 (0.28)
At or above poverty threshold 77.0 (0.80) 86.2 (0.37) 66.7 (0.53) 38.9 (0.44) 34.0 (0.42) 4.4 (0.18) 92.8 (0.21) 89.8 (0.35) 55.9 (0.53) 48.4 (0.45) 30.3 (0.51) 10.4 (0.23)
                                                 
Socioeconomic status20                                                 
Lowest 20 percent 19.0 (0.53) 77.3 (0.87) 51.6 (1.11) 26.4 (0.81) 22.5 (0.71) 1.6 (0.20) 91.7 (0.34) 88.0 (0.57) 53.6 (0.74) 46.4 (0.63) 28.2 (0.68) 9.4 (0.28)
Middle 60 percent 60.4 (0.75) 84.5 (0.48) 63.9 (0.68) 36.4 (0.55) 31.5 (0.51) 3.5 (0.17) 92.5 (0.24) 89.4 (0.40) 55.5 (0.59) 48.1 (0.51) 30.0 (0.58) 10.2 (0.26)
Highest 20 percent 20.5 (0.55) 91.1 (0.44) 75.4 (0.80) 46.7 (0.70) 41.5 (0.70) 7.0 (0.38) 93.4 (0.24) 90.8 (0.41) 57.2 (0.65) 49.5 (0.55) 31.5 (0.64) 10.9 (0.29)
1 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population between 22 and 25 months of age with data on primary care arrangements.
2 Based on assessments collected using the Bayley Short Form Research Edition (BSF-R), a shortened field method of administering the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II (BSID-II) (Bayley 1993). The scores are fully equated with the BSID-II. The proficiency probabilities indicate mastery of a specific skill or ability within mental or physical domains.
3 Ability to recognize and understand spoken words or to indicate a named object by pointing.
4 Verbal expressiveness using gestures, words, and sentences.
5 Ability to understand actions depicted by a story, in pictures, or by verbal instructions.
6 Ability to match objects by their properties (e.g., color) or differentiate one object from another.
7 Knowledge of counting words, knowledge of ordinality, and understanding of simple quantities.
8 Ability to walk independently.
9 Ability to maintain balance when changing position.
10 Ability to use fine motor control with hands, such as grasping a pencil or holding a piece of paper while scribbling.
11 Ability to walk up and down stairs, with and without alternating feet.
12 Ability to maintain balance when changing position or when in motion, such as jumping.
13 Ability to anticipate, regulate, and execute motor movements, such as being able to attempt to replicate the motions of others.
14 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
15 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
16 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
17 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, including Head Start.
18 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
19 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
20 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W2R0. Estimates pertain to children assessed between 22 months and 25 months of age. Children younger than 22 months (less than 1 percent of the survey population) and children older than 25 months (approximately 9 percent of the survey population) are excluded from this table. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, Longitudinal 9-month-2-year Restricted-Use Data File and Longitudinal 9-month-Preschool Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared September 2007.)

2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest