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Digest of Education Statistics
2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 44. Child care arrangements of children at about 2 years of age, by type and quality of arrangement, and selected child and family characteristics: 2003-04
Selected characteristic Percentage distribution of population1 Percentage distribution by primary type of care arrangement2 Quality rating of primary type of care arrangement2
No regular nonparental arrangement Home-based care Center-based care5 Multiple arrangements6 Home-based relative care3,7 Home-based nonrelative care4,7 Center-based care5,8
Relative care3 Nonrelative care4 Low Medium High Low Medium High Low Medium High
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Total 100.0 (†) 50.8 (0.75) 18.6 (0.63) 14.5 (0.57) 15.6 (0.51) 0.5 (0.09) 45.6 (3.52) 50.1 (3.50) 4.3 (1.35) 21.7 (3.75) 69.3 (3.82) 9.0 (2.24) 9.6 (1.24) 67.2 (2.58) 23.2 (2.38)
Sex of child                                                            
Male 51.1 (0.21) 50.1 (1.00) 19.3 (0.79) 14.0 (0.68) 16.3 (0.68) 0.3 (0.08) 50.3 (4.46) 43.4 (4.47) 6.3 (2.23) 25.0 (5.71) 64.8 (6.26) 10.2 (3.59) 10.9 (2.17) 67.1 (3.80) 22.0 (3.30)
Female 48.9 (0.21) 51.6 (1.04) 17.9 (0.81) 15.0 (0.78) 14.9 (0.65) 0.6 (0.14) 39.8 (4.46) 58.3 (4.55) 1.9 (1.07) 19.1 (3.92) 72.8 (4.54) 8.1 (2.22) 8.3 (1.63) 67.3 (3.39) 24.3 (3.01)
                                                             
Race/ethnicity of child                                                            
White 54.7 (0.60) 50.8 (1.07) 14.9 (0.89) 17.0 (0.81) 16.8 (0.73) 0.5 (0.13) 23.7 (3.86) 68.2 (4.46) 8.1 (2.74) 16.3 (4.95) 74.4 (4.84) 9.3 (2.46) 7.7 (1.92) 68.5 (3.35) 23.8 (2.99)
Black 13.4 (0.29) 37.8 (1.49) 26.7 (1.60) 11.0 (1.25) 23.8 (1.10) 0.6 (0.28) 71.0 (6.97) 29.0 (6.97) (†) 50.0 (9.24) 40.9 (9.34) 9.0 (6.13) 15.7 (3.81) 61.9 (5.55) 22.4 (5.11)
Hispanic 24.5 (0.45) 58.2 (1.56) 21.6 (1.28) 11.5 (0.99) 8.6 (0.99) 0.2 (0.10) 64.1 (5.75) 33.9 (5.61) (†) 32.3 (7.53) 62.6 (8.13) (†) 8.8 (4.06) 68.3 (7.25) 23.0 (7.56)
Asian 2.7 (0.10) 55.6 (2.47) 23.2 (1.42) 11.2 (1.18) 9.5 (1.55) 0.5 (0.28) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
Pacific Islander 0.2 (0.05) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native 0.5 (0.06) 58.0 (3.05) 15.5 (2.68) 12.7 (4.39) 13.8 (2.82) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
More than one race 3.9 (0.29) 45.8 (3.03) 19.2 (1.98) 13.8 (2.41) 19.9 (2.22) 1.3 (0.69) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
                                                             
Age of child                                                            
22 months 2.0 (0.30) 57.9 (5.25) 22.7 (5.09) 9.2 (3.53) 10.2 (2.99) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
23 months 42.3 (1.22) 54.1 (1.16) 17.0 (0.93) 13.6 (0.91) 14.5 (0.85) 0.7 (0.16) 46.4 (4.53) 46.6 (4.61) 7.0 (2.17) 26.3 (6.98) 63.1 (6.92) 10.6 (4.62) 7.5 (2.09) 69.9 (4.11) 22.6 (4.01)
24 months 42.0 (1.02) 49.1 (1.02) 18.5 (0.95) 15.6 (0.80) 16.6 (0.87) 0.2 (0.10) 42.0 (4.59) 54.9 (4.61) 3.1 (1.84) 16.5 (3.78) 75.3 (4.15) 8.3 (2.22) 10.0 (2.37) 67.5 (3.33) 22.5 (2.56)
25 months 13.7 (0.54) 44.8 (1.91) 23.1 (1.44) 14.7 (1.40) 16.8 (1.44) 0.5 (0.31) 55.5 (6.60) 43.5 (6.62) (†) 23.0 (8.33) 68.6 (9.15) (†) 14.0 (3.55) 60.7 (5.40) 25.4 (5.47)
                                                             
Mother's employment status                                                            
Full-time (35 hours or more) 34.3 (0.76) 15.6 (0.94) 31.1 (1.13) 25.9 (0.94) 26.5 (1.05) 0.9 (0.22) 45.7 (4.10) 48.5 (4.23) 5.8 (2.11) 23.5 (4.02) 65.7 (4.71) 10.8 (3.14) 9.2 (1.50) 70.0 (3.15) 20.9 (2.85)
Part-time (less than 35 hours) 20.3 (0.69) 35.8 (1.53) 25.4 (1.58) 21.1 (1.51) 17.0 (1.26) 0.7 (0.24) 34.3 (5.46) 62.1 (5.66) 3.6 (1.87) 14.5 (5.34) 78.9 (5.92) 6.6 (2.94) 8.7 (3.06) 56.3 (5.45) 35.0 (5.13)
Looking for work 6.3 (0.33) 71.2 (2.28) 12.3 (1.67) 3.2 (0.89) 13.4 (2.02) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 9.0 (6.31) 69.8 (11.54) 21.2 (7.42)
Not in labor force 38.8 (0.82) 86.7 (0.80) 4.8 (0.50) 2.9 (0.37) 5.5 (0.50) 0.1 (0.06) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) 18.0 (6.83) 68.8 (8.60) 13.1 (7.23)
No mother in household 0.4 (0.10) 18.0 (6.78) 35.5 (9.23) 21.1 (9.91) 25.3 (10.40) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
                                                             
Parents' highest level of education                                                            
Less than high school 12.2 (0.38) 67.6 (2.03) 17.9 (1.55) 6.6 (1.14) 7.4 (0.94) 0.5 (0.28) 77.7 (5.59) 22.3 (5.59) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)
High school completion 26.6 (0.50) 50.8 (1.41) 23.1 (1.30) 11.7 (0.98) 14.0 (0.87) 0.4 (0.15) 55.4 (4.75) 44.2 (4.69) (†) 36.6 (8.25) 55.4 (8.05) 8.0 (3.92) 12.1 (3.26) 64.9 (6.09) 23.0 (4.87)
Some college/vocational 28.3 (0.52) 47.6 (1.53) 21.5 (1.26) 15.1 (1.03) 15.3 (1.01) 0.5 (0.20) 44.2 (5.05) 51.3 (4.94) 4.4 (2.27) 29.8 (4.54) 68.0 (4.55) 2.2 (0.55) 17.1 (3.18) 59.2 (4.87) 23.7 (4.28)
Bachelor's degree 17.5 (0.46) 49.2 (1.19) 14.4 (1.20) 17.5 (1.19) 18.4 (1.15) 0.6 (0.18) 20.8 (5.39) 75.7 (5.87) 3.5 (3.35) 14.3 (8.39) 68.9 (10.53) 16.8 (7.72) 4.8 (2.10) 70.6 (4.79) 24.6 (4.51)
Graduate degree 15.4 (0.39) 45.5 (2.02) 10.8 (1.11) 21.2 (1.64) 22.1 (1.49) 0.4 (0.17) 11.4 (4.91) 63.1 (9.38) 25.5 (8.40) 3.5 (2.36) 84.9 (4.19) 11.5 (3.82) 2.4 (1.03) 76.0 (4.08) 21.6 (4.03)
                                                             
Poverty status9                                                             
Below poverty threshold 23.0 (0.80) 62.0 (1.45) 18.6 (1.25) 7.0 (0.83) 12.0 (0.99) 0.4 (0.19) 73.6 (6.25) 26.4 (6.25) (†) 62.4 (11.36) 37.6 (11.36) (†) 15.0 (3.98) 60.8 (6.88) 24.2 (5.58)
At or above poverty threshold 77.0 (0.80) 47.5 (0.91) 18.6 (0.68) 16.8 (0.67) 16.7 (0.58) 0.5 (0.11) 36.8 (3.53) 57.6 (3.74) 5.7 (1.74) 17.5 (4.08) 72.6 (4.10) 10.0 (2.52) 8.5 (1.39) 68.5 (2.79) 22.9 (2.53)
                                                             
Socioeconomic status10                                                             
Lowest 20 percent 19.0 (0.53) 65.8 (1.71) 17.2 (1.33) 6.5 (0.92) 10.1 (0.80) 0.4 (0.21) 78.9 (4.92) 20.4 (4.85) (†) (†) (†) (†) 12.4 (4.67) 63.6 (7.47) 24.0 (5.64)
Middle 60 percent 60.4 (0.75) 47.9 (0.99) 21.8 (0.86) 14.9 (0.70) 14.9 (0.61) 0.5 (0.13) 41.4 (3.82) 56.5 (3.77) 2.1 (1.10) 26.5 (5.30) 66.3 (5.33) 7.2 (3.35) 12.2 (2.13) 64.4 (3.54) 23.4 (3.12)
Highest 20 percent 20.5 (0.55) 45.5 (1.82) 10.5 (0.82) 21.0 (1.55) 22.7 (1.41) 0.4 (0.17) 15.7 (5.79) 57.3 (10.82) 27.0 (10.00) 6.3 (2.96) 80.3 (4.52) 13.3 (3.27) 4.0 (1.63) 73.5 (3.86) 22.5 (3.74)
† Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met.
1 Distribution of weighted Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort survey population between 22 and 25 months of age with data on primary care arrangements.
2 Primary type of care arrangement is the type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours.
3 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a relative (excluding parents).
4 Care provided in the child's home or in another private home by a person unrelated to the child.
5 Care provided in places such as early learning centers, nursery schools, and preschools, including Head Start.
6 Children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
7 Quality rating based on the Family Day Care Rating Scale (FDCRS). Low quality = score of 1 but less than 3. Medium quality = score of 3 but less than 5. High quality = score of 5 to 7.
8 Quality rating based on the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale (ITERS). Low quality = score of 1 but less than 3. Medium quality = score of 3 but less than 5. High quality = score of 5 to 7.
9 Poverty status based on Census Bureau guidelines from 2002, which identify a dollar amount determined to meet a household's needs, given its size and composition. In 2002, a family of four was considered to live below the poverty threshold if its income was less than or equal to $18,392.
10 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score on parental education and occupations, and family income.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W2R0. Estimates pertain to children assessed between 22 months and 25 months of age. Children younger than 22 months (less than 1 percent of the survey population) and children older than 25 months (approximately 9 percent of the survey population) are excluded from this table. Ratings of care arrangement quality using both the FDCRS and ITERS scales were based on interviewer observations of children's interactions with adults and peers, children's exposure to materials and activities, the extent to which and the manner in which routine care needs were met, and the furnishings and displays in the classroom. The FDCRS and ITERS metrics are designed to be equivalent. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and suppression of cells that do not meet standards. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, Longitudinal 9-month-2-year Restricted-Use Data File and Longitudinal 9-month-Preschool Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared September 2007.)

2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest