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Digest of Education Statistics
2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 43. Child care arrangements of 3- to 5-year-old children who are not yet in kindergarten, by age and race/ethnicity: Various years, 1991 through 2005
Child care arrangement Total Age Race/ethnicity
3 years old 4 years old 5 years old White Black Hispanic Other
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1991 children                                
In thousands 8,402 (40.9) 3,733 (7.1) 3,627 (14.6) 1,042 (38.6) 5,850 (59.9) 1,236 (41.0) 999 (31.3) 317 (34.6)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.4 (0.21) 43.2 (0.24) 12.4 (0.40) 69.6 (0.67) 14.7 (0.47) 11.9 (0.37) 3.8 (0.41)
Percent in nonparental arrangements                                
Relative care 16.9 (0.60) 16.2 (0.72) 18.0 (0.85) 15.6 (1.34) 14.8 (0.66) 24.1 (2.09) 19.6 (2.08) 19.4 (3.87)
Nonrelative care 14.8 (0.56) 14.8 (0.76) 14.7 (0.79) 14.9 (1.81) 17.3 (0.76) 7.9 (1.20) 9.4 (1.27) 12.1 (2.45)
Center-based programs1  52.8 (0.89) 42.3 (1.44) 60.4 (1.04) 63.9 (2.12) 54.0 (0.95) 58.3 (2.49) 38.8 (2.20) 52.9 (3.45)
Percent with parental care only 31.0 (0.80) 37.8 (1.19) 26.0 (1.05) 24.3 (2.10) 30.6 (0.87) 24.8 (2.02) 40.7 (2.35) 32.8 (4.03)
                                 
1995 children                                
In thousands 9,222 (52.9) 4,123 (8.3) 4,061 (12.5) 1,038 (48.3) 6,334 (94.0) 1,389 (56.1) 1,042 (38.8) 457 (39.1)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.7 (0.25) 44.0 (0.24) 11.3 (0.46) 68.7 (0.94) 15.1 (0.60) 11.3 (0.42) 5.0 (0.42)
Percent in nonparental arrangements                                
Relative care 19.4 (0.64) 21.4 (1.23) 18.4 (0.95) 15.2 (2.14) 16.5 (0.84) 28.7 (2.78) 22.8 (2.01) 22.6 (3.75)
Nonrelative care 16.9 (0.84) 18.5 (1.35) 15.3 (1.03) 17.2 (2.19) 19.4 (1.04) 11.3 (1.65) 12.5 (1.64) 10.5 (2.74)
Center-based programs1  55.1 (0.97) 40.7 (1.55) 64.8 (1.45) 74.5 (2.35) 56.9 (1.44) 59.8 (3.19) 37.4 (2.15) 56.7 (5.47)
Percent with parental care only 25.9 (1.01) 32.0 (1.95) 22.1 (1.24) 16.2 (1.78) 25.2 (1.39) 19.9 (2.50) 38.4 (2.33) 24.2 (3.59)
                                 
1999 children                                
In thousands 8,518 (139.7) 3,809 (79.1) 3,703 (79.9) 1,006 (54.2) 5,384 (77.4) 1,214 (59.2) 1,376 (52.3) 545 (38.3)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.7 (0.93) 43.5 (0.93) 11.8 (0.64) 63.2 (0.91) 14.2 (0.69) 16.2 (0.61) 6.4 (0.45)
Percent in nonparental arrangements                                
Relative care 22.8 (0.77) 24.3 (1.28) 22.0 (1.14) 20.2 (2.06) 18.7 (0.90) 33.4 (2.58) 26.5 (1.86) 30.0 (3.97)
Nonrelative care 16.1 (0.67) 16.3 (1.02) 15.9 (1.07) 16.1 (2.08) 19.4 (0.88) 7.4 (1.37) 12.7 (1.29) 10.4 (1.98)
Center-based programs1  59.7 (0.63) 45.7 (1.28) 69.6 (1.19) 76.5 (2.40) 60.0 (0.81) 73.2 (2.40) 44.2 (2.19) 66.0 (4.10)
Percent with parental care only 23.1 (0.72) 30.8 (1.42) 17.7 (0.99) 13.5 (1.78) 23.2 (0.91) 13.7 (1.97) 33.4 (2.04) 16.6 (3.50)
                                 
2001 children                                
In thousands 8,551 (11.0) 3,795 (91.4) 3,861 (89.0) 896 (47.0) 5,313 (68.0) 1,251 (55.1) 1,506 (43.5) 482 (38.3)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.4 (1.06) 45.1 (1.04) 10.5 (0.55) 62.1 (0.79) 14.6 (0.64) 17.6 (0.51) 5.6 (0.45)
Percent in nonparental arrangements                                
Relative care 22.8 (0.89) 23.6 (1.39) 22.5 (1.33) 20.9 (2.66) 19.6 (1.01) 36.7 (3.42) 22.8 (1.89) 22.8 (3.54)
Nonrelative care 14.0 (0.65) 14.7 (1.17) 13.6 (0.95) 13.1 (2.13) 16.5 (0.98) 8.5 (1.65) 11.3 (1.43) 10.8 (2.72)
Center-based programs1  56.4 (0.55) 42.8 (1.21) 65.9 (1.25) 73.0 (2.69) 59.1 (0.89) 63.1 (2.93) 39.9 (1.86) 61.8 (4.10)
Percent with parental care only 26.1 (0.67) 33.8 (1.29) 20.4 (1.11) 18.0 (2.49) 25.3 (0.99) 15.1 (2.22) 39.0 (2.03) 23.7 (3.90)
                                 
2005 children                                
In thousands 9,066 (9.0) 4,070 (93.0) 3,873 (92.0) 1,123 (67.3) 5,177 (80.2) 1,233 (57.1) 1,822 (50.0) 834 (54.3)
Percent 100.0 (†) 44.9 (1.03) 42.7 (1.01) 12.4 (0.74) 57.1 (0.89) 13.6 (0.63) 20.1 (0.56) 9.2 (0.60)
Percent in nonparental arrangements                                
Relative care 22.6 (1.02) 24.0 (1.44) 20.8 (1.56) 23.8 (3.17) 21.4 (1.34) 25.0 (3.42) 22.6 (1.79) 26.4 (3.29)
Nonrelative care 11.6 (0.73) 14.4 (1.12) 9.2 (1.03) 9.9 (2.00) 15.0 (1.13) 5.2 (1.31) 8.1 (1.36) 8.1 (1.94)
Center-based programs1  57.2 (0.83) 42.5 (1.67) 69.2 (1.36) 68.7 (3.51) 59.1 (1.32) 66.5 (3.41) 43.4 (2.10) 61.5 (3.31)
Percent with parental care only 26.3 (0.92) 33.4 (1.48) 20.6 (1.42) 20.4 (3.15) 24.1 (1.22) 19.5 (2.85) 38.0 (2.10) 24.7 (3.11)
† Not applicable.
1 Center-based programs include day care centers, nursery schools, prekindergartens, pre­schools, and Head Start programs.
NOTE: Row percents for nonparental and parental care do not add to 100 percent because some children participated in more than one type of nonparental care arrangement. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Education Survey, Parent Survey, and Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECE-NHES:1991; Parent-NHES:1999; and ECPP-NHES:1995, 2001, and 2005). (This table was prepared July 2006.)

2007 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest