Postsecondary education includes an array of diverse educational experiences offered by American colleges and universities, and technical and vocational institutions. For example, a community college may offer vocational training or the first 2 years of training at the college level. A university typically offers a full undergraduate course of study leading to a bachelor's degree, as well as first professional and graduate programs leading to advanced degrees. Vocational and technical institutions offer training programs that are designed to prepare students for specific careers. Community groups, religious organizations, libraries, and businesses provide other types of educational opportunities for adults.
This chapter provides an overview of the latest statistics on postsecondary education, which includes academic, vocational, and continuing professional education programs after high school. However, to maintain comparability over time, most of the data in the Digest are for degree-granting institutions, which are defined as postsecondary institutions that grant an associate's or higher degree and whose students are eligible to participate in the Title IV federal financial aid programs.1 Degree-granting institutions include almost all 2- and 4-year colleges and universities; they exclude institutions offering only vocational programs of less than 2 years' duration and continuing education programs. The degree-granting institution classification is very similar to the higher education institution classification that the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) used prior to 1996-97.2 This chapter highlights historical data that enable the reader to observe long-range trends in college education in America.
Other chapters provide related information on postsecondary education. Data on price indexes and on the number of degrees held by the general population are shown in chapter 1. Chapter 4 contains tabulations on federal funding for postsecondary education. Information on employment outcomes for college graduates is shown in chapter 5. Chapter 7 contains data on college libraries and use of computers by young adults. Further information on survey methodologies is presented in Appendix A: Guide to Sources and in the publications cited in the table source notes.
Enrollment in degree-granting institutions increased by 16 percent between 1985 and 1995 (table 179 and figure 11). Between 1995 and 2005, enrollment increased at a faster rate (23 percent), from 14.3 million to 17.5 million. Much of the growth between 1995 and 2005 was in female enrollment; the number of females enrolled rose 27 percent, while the number of males rose 18 percent. During the same time period, part-time enrollment rose by 9 percent, compared to an increase of 33 percent in full-time enrollment. Enrollment increases can be affected both by population growth and by rising rates of enrollment. Between 1995 and 2005, the number of 18- to 24-year-olds increased from 25.5 million to 29.3 million (table 16), and the percentage of 18- to 24-year-olds enrolled in college rose from 34 percent to 39 percent (table 195). In addition to the enrollment in accredited 2-year colleges, 4-year colleges, and universities, about 434,000 students attended non-degree-granting, Title IV eligible, postsecondary institutions in fall 2005 (table 177).
The number of young students has been growing more rapidly than the number of older students, but this pattern is expected to shift (table 181 and figure 13). Between 1990 and 2005, the enrollment of students under age 25 increased by 33 percent. Enrollment of people 25 and over rose by 18 percent during the same period. From 2005 to 2016, NCES projects a rise of 15 percent in enrollments of people under 25, and a rise of 21 percent in enrollments of people 25 and over.
Enrollment trends have differed at the undergraduate, graduate, and first professional levels. Undergraduate enrollment generally increased during the 1970s, but dipped slightly between 1983 and 1985 (table 196). From 1985 to 1992, undergraduate enrollment increased each year, rising 18 percent before declining slightly and stabilizing between 1993 and 1996. Undergraduate enrollment rose 21 percent between 1996 and 2005. Graduate enrollment had been steady at about 1.3 million in the late 1970s and early 1980s, but rose about 59 percent between 1985 and 2005 (table 197). After rising very rapidly during the 1970s, enrollment in first professional programs stabilized in the 1980s (table 198). First-professional enrollment began rising again in the 1990s and showed an increase of 13 percent between 1995 and 2005.
Since 1984, the number of females in graduate schools has exceeded the number of males (table 197). Between 1995 and 2005, the number of male full-time graduate students increased by 27 percent, compared to a 65 percent increase for female graduate students. Among part-time graduate students, the number of males increased by 4 percent and the number of females increased by 18 percent.
The percentage of American college students who are minorities has been increasing. In 1976, 15 percent were minorities, compared with 31 percent in 2005 (table 216). Much of the change from 1976 to 2005 can be attributed to rising numbers of Hispanic and Asian or Pacific Islander students. During that time period, the percentage of Asian or Pacific Islander students rose from 2 percent to 6 percent and the Hispanic percentage rose from 3 percent to 11 percent. The percentage of Black students was 9 percent at the beginning of the time period and it fluctuated during the early part of the period before rising to 13 percent in 2005. Nonresident aliens for whom race/ethnicity is not reported made up 3 percent of the total enrollment in 2005.
Despite the sizable numbers of small degree-granting colleges, most students attend the larger colleges and universities. In fall 2005, 40 percent of institutions had fewer than 1,000 students; however, these campuses enrolled 4 percent of college students (table 224). While 12 percent of the campuses enrolled 10,000 or more students, they accounted for 54 percent of total college enrollment.
In 2005, the five colleges with the highest enrollment were University of Phoenix Online Campus, with 117,309 students; Miami-Dade College, with 54,169 students; Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus, with 51,612 students; the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, with 51,175 students; and Western International University, with 50,663 students (table 225).
Faculty, Staff, and Salaries
Approximately 3.4 million people were employed in colleges and universities in the fall of 2005, including 2.5 million professional and 0.9 million nonprofessional staff (table 235). In the fall of 2005, there were 1.3 million faculty members in degree-granting institutions, including 0.7 million full-time and 0.6 million part-time faculty. The proportion of executive and administrative staff was 6 percent in 2005, compared to 5 percent in 1976 (table 234). The proportion of other non-teaching professional staff rose from 10 percent in 1976 to 19 percent in 2005, while the proportion of nonprofessional staff declined from 42 percent to 27 percent. The full-time-equivalent (FTE) student/FTE staff ratio at colleges and universities declined from 5.4 in 1976 to 5.0 in 2005. During the same time period, the FTE student/FTE faculty ratio declined from 16.6 to 15.0.
Colleges differ in their practices of employing part-time and full-time staff. In fall 2005, 48 percent of the employees at public 2-year colleges were employed full time, compared with 68 percent at public 4-year colleges and universities, and 67 percent at private 4-year colleges and universities (table 235). A higher percentage of the faculty at public 4-year colleges and universities were employed full time (70 percent) than at private 4-year colleges and universities (50 percent) or public 2-year colleges (31 percent). In general, the number of full-time staff has been growing at a slower rate than the number of part-time staff (table 233). Between 1995 and 2005, the number of full-time staff increased by 21 percent compared to an increase of 39 percent in the number of part-time staff. Most of the increase in the part-time staff was due to the increase in the number of part-time faculty (61 percent) and instruction and research assistants (47 percent) during this time period.
About 16 percent of U.S. faculty in colleges and universities were minorities in 2005 (based on a total faculty count excluding people whose race/ethnicity was unknown, but including nonresident aliens who were not identified by race/ethnicity) (table 236). Six percent of the faculty were Black, 6 percent were Asian/Pacific Islander, 4 percent were Hispanic, and half a percent were American Indian/Alaska Native. About 45 percent of college faculty were White males, while 36 percent were White females. About 17 percent of executive, managerial, and administrative staffs were minorities in 2005, compared to about 32 percent of the nonprofessional staff. The percentage of minority staffs at public 4-year colleges and universities (23 percent) was similar to their percentage at private 4-year colleges and universities (21 percent).
The percentage of time that full-time instructional faculty and staff spent teaching averaged 58 percent in 2003 (table 240). For the remaining faculty time, research and scholarship accounted for 20 percent of the time and 22 percent was spent on other activities, e.g., administration, professional growth, etc.
Faculty salaries generally lost purchasing power from 1972-73 to 1980-81, when average salaries for faculty on 9-month contracts declined 17 percent after adjustment for inflation (table 247). During the 1980s, average salaries rose and recouped most of the losses. Between 1996-97 and 2006-07, there was a further increase in average faculty salaries, resulting in an average that was about 4 percent higher than the 1972-73 average, after adjustment for inflation. The average salary for males in 2006-07 ($74,167) was higher than the average for females ($61,016). Between 1996-97 and 2006-07, the average salary for males increased by 6 percent and the average salary for females increased by 7 percent, after adjustment for inflation.
The percentage of faculty with tenure has declined in recent years. About 50 percent of full time instructional faculty had tenure in 2005-06, compared with 56 percent in 1993-94 (table 254). A difference existed between the percentage of males and females with tenure. Fifty-five percent of males compared to 41 percent of females had tenure in 2005-06. About 52 percent of the instructional faculty at public institutions had tenure, compared to 45 percent of faculty at private not-for-profit institutions.
During the 2006-07 academic year, 4,314 accredited institutions offered degrees at the associate's degree level or above (table 256). These included 2,629 4 year colleges and universities, and 1,685 2 year colleges. Institutions awarding various degrees in 2005-06 numbered 2,668 for associate's degrees, 2,214 for bachelor's degrees, 1,658 for master's degrees, and 622 for doctor's degrees (table 268).
Growing numbers of people are completing college degrees. Between 1995-96 and 2005-06, the number of associate's, bachelor's, master's, first-professional, and doctor's degrees rose (table 258). During this period, associate's degrees increased 28 percent, bachelor's degrees increased 28 percent, master's degrees increased 46 percent, and doctor's degrees increased 26 percent. The number of first-professional degrees was 14 percent higher in 2005-06 than it was in 1995-96. Since the mid-1980s, more females than males have earned associate's, bachelor's, and master's degrees (table 258). Also, the number of females receiving all types of degrees has increased at a faster rate than the number for males. Between 1995-96 and 2005-06, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded to males increased by 21 percent, while those awarded to females increased by 33 percent. The number of males earning doctor's degrees was about 7 percent higher in 2005-06 than in 1995-96, while the number of females earning doctor's degrees rose by 54 percent.
Of the 1,485,000 bachelor's degrees conferred in 2005-06, the largest numbers of degrees were conferred in the fields of business (318,000), social sciences and history (161,000), and education (107,000) (table 261). At the master's degree level, the largest numbers of degrees were in the fields of education (175,000) and business (146,000) (table 262). The fields with the largest number of degrees at the doctor's degree level were education (7,600), engineering (7,400), health professions and related clinical sciences (7,100), biological and biomedical sciences (5,800), psychology (4,900), and physical sciences (4,500) (table 263).
In recent years, the numbers of bachelor's degrees conferred have followed patterns that differed significantly by field of study. While the number of degrees increased 28 percent overall between 1995-96 and 2005-06, there was substantial variation among the different fields of study, as well as shifts in the patterns of change during this time period (table 261). The number of bachelor's degrees conferred in the combined fields of engineering and engineering technologies declined 7 percent between 1995-96 and 2000-01, but then rose 12 percent between 2000-01 and 2005-06 (table 261 and figure 15). The number of engineering and engineering technologies degrees conferred in 2005-06 was about 5 percent higher than the number conferred in 1995-96. The number of mathematics degrees declined by 12 percent between 1995-96 and 2000-01, but then rose 32 percent between 2000-01 and 2005-06. Some technical fields experienced sustained increases in degrees conferred from 1995-96 through 2005-06. After an increase of 80 percent between 1995-96 and 2000-01, the number of degrees in computer and information sciences grew 8 percent between 2000-01 and 2005-06. Other fields with sizable numbers of degrees (over 5,000) that showed increases of over 30 percent between 2000-01 and 2005-06 included visual and performing arts; transportation and material moving; philosophy and religious studies; parks, recreation, and leisure studies; mathematics and statistics; and security and protective services. Fifty-eight percent of the students who enrolled in a 4-year college or university as first-time freshmen in 1995-96 had completed a bachelor's degree by 2001 (table 318). About 7 percent of students had completed a certificate or associate's degree, 14 percent were still enrolled without having received a degree, and 21 percent were no longer working toward a bachelor's degree.
For the 2006-07 academic year, annual prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board were estimated to be $11,034 at public institutions and $28,384 at private institutions (table 320). Between 1996-97 and 2006-07, prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board at public institutions rose by 32 percent, and prices at private institutions rose by 22 percent, after adjustment for inflation (tables 31 and 320). During the 1996-97 to 2006-07 period, consumer prices rose by 28 percent.
Trend data show small increases in the current-fund expenditures per student at public 2-year and 4-year colleges and universities in the late 1980s and larger increases during the 1990s (table 346). After adjustment for inflation, current fund expenditures per student at public colleges rose about 5 percent between 1985-86 and 1990-91, and another 28 percent between 1990-91 and 2000-01. At public institutions in 2004-05, the average total expenditure per full-time-equivalent student was $23,353 (table 348). At private not-for-profit institutions, total expenditures per full-time-equivalent student rose 14 percent between 1996-97 and 2004-05, after adjustment for inflation (table 350). In 2004-05, total expenditures per full-time-equivalent student at private not-for-profit institutions were $38,472. The expenditures per student at for-profit institutions were $11,205 in 2004-05 (table 352).
As of June 30, 2006, the market value of the endowment funds of the 120 colleges and universities with the largest endowment amounts was $269 billion, reflecting an increase of 14 percent compared to 2005 (table 355). The five colleges with the largest endowments in 2006 were Harvard University, Yale University, Stanford University, University of Texas System, and Princeton University.