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Digest of Education Statistics: 2006
Digest of Education Statistics: 2006

NCES 2007-017
July 2007


Table 413. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product, by level and country: Selected years, 1985 through 2003
Country All institutions Primary and secondary institutions Higher education institutions
1985 1990 1995 2000 20011  20021  20031  1985 1990 1995 2000 20011  20021  20031  1985 1990 1995 2000 20011  20021  20031 
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Average for year 5.3 4.9 4.9 5.1 4.9   5.0   5.1 3.7 3.5 3.5 3.5   3.6   3.5   3.6   1.1 1.0 0.9 1.2   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Average for countries
reporting data
for all years
5.2 5.2 5.2 5.4 5.1   5.3   5.2 3.7 3.6 3.6 3.6   3.7   3.7   3.7   1.1 1.1 1.1 1.4   1.1   1.2   1.0  
Australia 5.4 4.3 4.5 5.1 4.5   4.4   4.3 3.5 3.2 3.2 3.9   3.6   3.6   3.4   1.7 1.0 1.2 1.2   0.8   0.8   0.8  
Austria 5.6 5.2 5.3 5.8 5.6   5.4   5.2 3.7 3.6 3.8 3.8 2  3.8   3.7   3.7   1.0 1.0 0.9 1.4 2  1.2   1.1   1.1  
Belgium3  6.3 4.8 5.0 5.2 6.0   6.1   5.9 4.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 4  4.0 4  4.1 4  4.0   1.0 0.8 0.9 1.3 4  1.2 4  1.2 4  1.2  
Canada 6.1 5.4 5.8 5.5 4.9   4.6   4.1 3.7 4.0 3.3 5  3.1 5  3.2 5,6    2.0 1.5 1.5 2.0 5  1.5 5  1.3 5   
Czech Republic   4.8 4.4 4.2   4.2   4.3   3.4 3.0 4  2.8 4  2.8   2.9     0.7 0.8 4  0.8 4  0.8   0.9  
                                           
Denmark 6.2 6.2 6.5 8.4 6.8 2  6.8 2  6.7 4.7 4.4 4.2 4.8 2,7  4.2 2,7  4.1 2,7  4.1 7  1.2 1.3 1.3 2.5 2,7  1.8 2,7  1.9 2,7  1.7 7 
Finland 5.8 6.4 6.6 6.0 5.7   5.9   6.0 4.3 4.2 3.6   3.7   3.8   3.9   1.2 1.7 2.0   1.7   1.7   1.7  
France 5.1 5.8 5.8 5.6   5.7   5.8 3.7 4.1 4.1   4.0   4.0   4.0   0.8 1.0 1.0   1.0   1.0   1.1  
Germany8  4.6 4.5 4.5 4.3   4.4   4.4 2.8 2.9 3.0   2.9   3.0   2.9   1.0 1.0 1.1   1.0   1.0   1.0  
Greece 3.7 3.8 3.8 2  3.9 2  4.0 2.8 2.7 2  2.4 2  2.5 2  2.6 6  0.8 0.9 2  1.1 2  1.2 2  1.2  
                                           
Hungary 5.0 4.9 4.9 4.6   5.0   5.5 3.5 3.3 3.1   2.8   3.1   3.5   0.8 0.8 1.0   0.9   1.0   1.0  
Iceland 4.3 4.5 6.0 6.1 2  6.8 2  7.5 3.3 3.4 4.7 2  5.0 2  5.4 2,7  5.2 7  0.6 0.7 1.1 2  0.9 2  1.0 2,7  1.1 7 
Ireland 5.6 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.1   4.1   4.1 4.0 3.3 3.3 3.0 4  2.9 4  3.0 4  3.1   0.9 0.9 0.9 1.3 4  1.1 4  1.1 4  1.0  
Italy 4.7 5.8 4.5 4.6 4.9   4.6   4.6 3.2 4.1 3.2 3.2   3.6   3.4   3.5   0.6 1.0 0.7 0.8   0.8   0.8   0.7  
Japan 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.5   3.5   3.5 2.9 2.8 2.7 7  2.7 7  2.7 7  2.7 7  0.4 0.4 0.5 7  0.5 7  0.4 7  0.5 7 
                                           
Korea, Republic of 3.6 4.3 4.8   4.2   4.6 3.0 3.3   3.5   3.3   3.5   0.3 0.7   0.4   0.3   0.6  
Luxembourg 4.3 3.6 2    4.2   3.6 2  3.9 2,7  4.0 6  0.1        
Mexico 3.2 4.6 4.9 5.1   5.1   5.6 2.2 3.4 3.4   3.8   3.5   3.8   0.7 0.8 0.9   0.7   1.0   0.9  
Netherlands 6.2 5.7 4.6 4.8 4.5   4.6   4.6 4.1 3.6 3.0 3.2   3.1   3.3   3.2   1.5 1.6 1.1 1.3   1.0   1.0   1.1  
New Zealand 5.5 5.3 7.0 5.5   5.6   5.7 3.9 3.8 4.9   4.3   4.4   4.5   1.2 1.1 1.7   0.9   0.9   0.9  
Norway 5.1 6.2 6.8 6.7 6.1   6.7   6.5 4.0 4.1 4.1 3.9   4.6   4.2   4.6   0.7 1.1 1.5 1.7   1.3   1.4   1.5  
                                           
Poland 5.2 5.2 5.6 2  5.5 2  5.8 3.3 3.8 2  4.0 2  4.0 2  4.2   0.8 0.8 2  1.1 2  1.1 2  1.0  
Portugal 5.4 5.7 5.8 2  5.7 2  5.8 4.1 4.2 2  4.2 2  4.2 2  4.2   1.0 1.0 2  1.0 2  0.9 2  1.0  
Russian Federation 3.4 3.0 3.0   3.7 2  3.7 1.9 1.7   1.7   2.2   2.1   0.7 0.5   0.5   0.6   0.7  
Slovak Republic 4.8 4.6 4.2 4.0 2,4  4.0   4.3 2.7 2,4  2.6 2,4  2.7 2,4  2.8 9,10  0.7 2,4  0.8 2,4  0.7 2,4  0.8 9,10 
Spain 3.6 4.2 4.8 4.4 4.3   4.3   4.2 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.1   3.0   2.9   2.8   0.4 0.7 0.8 1.0   1.0   1.0 4  0.9  
                                           
Sweden 5.3 6.6 7.4 6.3   6.7   6.5 4.4 4.4 4.9 4  4.3 4  4.6 4  4.5   1.0 1.6 2.0 4  1.5 4  1.6 4  1.6  
Switzerland 4.9 5.0 5.5 5.4 5.4   5.7   6.0 4.0 3.7 4.1 3.9   3.9   4.0   4.0   0.9 1.0 1.1 1.2   1.3   1.4   1.6  
Turkey 3.2 2.2 3.5 3.5 2  3.4 2  3.6 2.3 1.4 2.4 2  2.5 2  2.3 2  2.5 2  0.9 0.8 1.1 2  1.0 2  1.0 2  1.1  
United Kingdom 4.9 4.3 4.6 4.8 4.7   5.0   5.1 3.1 3.5 3.8 3.4   3.4   3.7   4.0   1.0 0.7 0.7 1.0   0.8   0.8   0.8  
United States 4.7 5.3 5.0 5.0 5.1   5.3   5.4 3.2 3.8 3.5 3.5 5  3.8 5  3.8   3.9   1.3 1.4 1.1 1.1 5  0.9 5  1.2   1.2  
—Not available.
†Not applicable. Country did not exist during this time period.
1 Includes public subsidies to households attributable for educational institutions and direct expenditure on educational institutions from international sources, except where noted.
2 Public subsidies to households not included in public expenditure.
3 Data are for Flemish Belgium only.
4 Direct expenditure on education institutions from international sources exceeds 1.5 percent of all public expenditure.
5 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in higher education.
6 Preprimary education (for children age 3 and older) is included in primary and secondary education.
7 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in both secondary and higher education.
8 Data for 1985 are for the former West Germany.
9 Postsecondary non-higher-education included in primary and secondary education.
10 Education at the associate's degree level is included in primary and secondary education.
NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions, or households. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education Online Database; Annual National Accounts, Vol. 1, 1997; and Education at a Glance, 2002 through 2006. (This table was prepared September 2006.)