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Digest of Education Statistics: 2006
Digest of Education Statistics: 2006

NCES 2007-017
July 2007


Table 32. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2003–04 
Selected characteristic 1869–70 1879–80 1889–90 1899–1900 1909–10 1919–20 1929–30 1939–40 1949–50 1959–60 1969–70 1979–80 1989–90 1999–2000 2001–02 2002–03 2003–04
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                    
Total population (in thousands)1  38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   224,567   246,819   279,040   285,108   287,985   290,850  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1  11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,041   44,947   52,811   53,260   53,325   53,269  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent of total population 30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.4   18.2   18.9   18.7   18.5   18.3  
                                                     
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary schools (in thousands)2  7,562 3  9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   47,672   48,183   48,540  
Prekindergarten and grades 1–8 (in thousands) 7,481 3  9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,152   33,488   33,938   34,116   34,202  
Grades 9–12 (in thousands) 80 3  110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,390   13,369   13,734   14,067   14,338  
                                                     
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3  19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.7   16.7   16.7  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3  65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   89.5   90.4   91.1  
Percent of total enrollment in high schools (grades 9–12 and postgraduate) 1.1 3  1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   28.8   29.2   29.5  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   2,622   2,720   2,753  
                                                     
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   44,605   45,017   45,326  
Total number of days attended by pupils enrolled (in millions) 539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4           
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4           
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4           
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4           
                                                     
Total instructional staff (in thousands)   678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   3,989   4,017   4,053  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137   161   164   165  
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff (in thousands)5  201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3,682   3,829   3,853   3,888  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4  711 4  782 4           
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4  1,484 4  1,518 4           
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4  32.4 4  34.0 4           
  Amounts in current dollars
Total revenues and expenditures                                                    
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548   $372,944   $419,502   $440,112   $462,016  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   33,145   37,516   41,921  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   206,542   214,277   217,383  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   179,816   188,318   202,711  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                    
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   7.9   8.5   9.1  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   49.2   48.7   47.1  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   42.9   42.8   43.9  
Total expenditures for public schools (in millions) $63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770   $381,838   $435,364   $454,907   $473,863  
Current expenditures6    114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7  34,218 7  86,984 7  188,229 7  323,889 7  368,378 7  387,594 7  403,376 7 
Capital outlay8    26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   49,961   48,940   50,476  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   10,495   11,499   13,081  
Other current expenditures9    3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10  2,983 5,457 6,531 6,874 6,930
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                    
Current expenditures6    81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7  84.1 7  90.6 7  88.5 7  84.8 7  84.6 7  85.2 7  85.1 7 
Capital outlay8    18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   11.5   10.8   10.7  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.4   2.5   2.8  
Other current expenditures9    0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10  1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5
                                                     
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures per pupil and per capita                                                    
Annual salary of classroom teachers11  $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $44,660   $45,776   $46,752  
Personal income per member of labor force1    1,730 1,320 3,379 5,745   9,643   19,647   37,038   55,984   60,696   61,312   62,546  
Total school expenditures per capita of total population 1.59   1.56 2.23 2.83 4.71 9.91 19.01 17.89 39 88   202   427   862   1,368   1,527   1,580   1,629  
National income per capita1    772.90 627.35 1,595 2,563   4,418   10,015   19,555   29,518   31,496   32,048   33,118  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    13.99 16.67 27.85 53.32 86.70 88.09 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   8,259   8,610   8,899  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14  15.55   12.71 17.23 20.21 33.23 64.16 108.49 105.74 260 471   955   2,491   5,550   8,592   9,614   9,952   10,302  
National income per pupil in ADA13    4,430 3,729 10,680 14,035   21,217   58,740   127,690   188,024   201,320   205,016   212,513  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in ADA6,13,15    0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73            
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13  0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95            
  Amounts in constant 2005-06 dollars16 
Annual salary of classroom teachers11    $9,094 $16,508 $20,519 $25,291 $33,828   $45,440   $40,935   $49,158   $49,141   $49,873   $50,020   $49,993  
Personal income per member of labor force1    20,116 18,795 28,393 38,909   50,796   50,360   58,044   65,806   67,781   66,997   66,882  
Total school expenditures per capita of total population   103 221 255 329 595   1,064   1,095   1,351   1,608   1,705   1,726   1,742  
National income per capita1    8,985 8,933 13,404 17,358   23,273   25,672   30,646   34,697   35,173   35,019   35,413  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    557 1,008 1,254 1,767 2,541   4,298   5,823   7,804   8,691   9,223   9,408   9,516  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14    670 1,261 1,506 2,188 3,190   5,031   6,384   8,698   10,099   10,736   10,875   11,016  
National income per pupil in ADA13    51,498 53,101 89,739 95,047   111,766   150,565   200,113   221,010   224,820   224,024   227,244  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in ADA6,13,15    3.4 5.8 7.1 9.8 14.3   24.0   32.6            
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13    4.2 7.3 8.5 12.3 17.9   28.1   35.8            
—Not available.
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909–10 to 1959–60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869–70 through 1959–60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.
3 Data for 1870–71.
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5 Prior to 1919–20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6 Prior to 1919–20, includes interest on school debt.
7 Because of the modification of the scope of current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959–60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
8 Beginning in 1969–70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959–60, also includes community services, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.
11 Prior to 1959–60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959–60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959–60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1869–70 through 1909–10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919–20 through 1949–50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959–60 and 1969–70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979–80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989–90 through 2003–04, and "National Public Financial Survey," 1989–90 through 2003–04. Census Bureau, unpublished tabulations. Bureau of Economic Analysis, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared March 2007.)