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Digest of Education Statistics: 2004
Digest of Education Statistics: 2004

NCES 2006-005
October 2005


Table 415. Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of the gross domestic product, by level and country: Selected years, 1985 to 2001

__________________________________________________________________________________________________
                       |     All institutions\1\|   Primary and secondary|     Higher education
Country                |                        |       institutions     |       institutions
                       |________________________|________________________|________________________
                       |1985|1990|1995|2000|2001|1985|1990|1995|2000|2001|1985|1990|1995|2000|2001
_______________________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____
1                      |  2 |  3 |  4 |   5|   6|   7|   8|   9|  10|  11|  12|  13|  14|  15|  16
_______________________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____
   Average for year ...| 5.3| 4.9| 4.9| 5.2| 5.1| 3.7| 3.5| 3.5| 3.5| 3.6| 1.1| 1.0| 0.9| 1.2| 1.1
   Average for coun-   |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      tries reporting  |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      data for all     |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
      years ...........| 5.4| 5.2| 5.3| 5.4| 5.1| 3.7| 3.7| 3.6| 3.6| 3.6| 1.1| 1.1| 1.1| 1.4| 1.1
                       |____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____
Australia .............| 5.4| 4.3| 4.5| 5.1| 4.5| 3.5| 3.2| 3.2| 3.9| 3.6| 1.7| 1.0| 1.2| 1.2| 0.8
Austria ...............| 5.6| 5.2| 5.3| 5.8| 5.6| 3.7| 3.6| 3.8| 3.8| 3.8| 1.0| 1.0| 0.9| 1.4| 1.2
Belgium\2\ ............| 6.3| 4.8| 5.0| 5.2| 6.0| 4.0| 3.4| 3.4| 3.4| 4.0| 1.0| 0.8| 0.9| 1.3| 1.2
Canada ................| 6.1| 5.4| 5.8| 5.5| 4.9| 4.1| 3.7| 4.0| 3.3| 3.1| 2.0| 1.5| 1.5| 2.0| 1.5
Czech Republic ........|--- |--- | 4.8| 4.4| 4.2|--- |--- | 3.4| 3.0| 2.8|--- |--- | 0.7| 0.8| 0.8
                       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Denmark ...............| 6.2| 6.2| 6.5| 8.4| 6.8| 4.7| 4.4| 4.2| 4.8| 4.2| 1.2| 1.3| 1.3| 2.5| 1.8
Finland ...............| 5.8| 6.4| 6.6| 6.0| 5.7|--- | 4.3| 4.2| 3.6| 3.7|--- | 1.2| 1.7| 2.0| 1.7
France ................|--- | 5.1| 5.8| 5.8| 5.6|--- | 3.7| 4.1| 4.1| 4.0|--- | 0.8| 1.0| 1.0| 1.0
Germany\3\ ............| 4.6|--- | 4.5| 4.5| 4.3| 2.8|--- | 2.9| 3.0| 2.9| 1.0|--- | 1.0| 1.1| 1.0
Greece ................|--- |--- | 3.7| 3.8| 3.8|--- |--- | 2.8| 2.7| 2.4|--- |--- | 0.8| 0.9| 1.1
                       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Hungary ...............|--- | 5.0| 4.9| 4.9| 4.6|--- | 3.5| 3.3| 3.1| 2.8|--- | 0.8| 0.8| 1.0| 0.9
Iceland ...............|--- | 4.3| 4.5| 6.0| 6.1|--- | 3.3| 3.4| 4.7| 5.0|--- | 0.6| 0.7| 1.1| 0.9
Ireland ...............| 5.6| 4.7| 4.7| 4.4| 4.1| 4.0| 3.3| 3.3| 3.0| 2.9| 0.9| 0.9| 0.9| 1.3| 1.1
Italy .................| 4.7| 5.8| 4.5| 4.6| 4.9| 3.2| 4.1| 3.2| 3.2| 3.6| 0.6| 1.0| 0.7| 0.8| 0.8
Japan .................|--- | 3.6| 3.6| 3.6| 3.5|--- | 2.9| 2.8| 2.7| 2.7|--- | 0.4| 0.4| 0.5| 0.5
                       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Korea, Republic of ....|--- |--- | 3.6| 4.3| 4.8|--- |--- | 3.0| 3.3| 3.5|--- |--- | 0.3| 0.7| 0.4
Luxembourg ............|--- |--- | 4.3|--- | 3.6|--- |--- | 4.2|--- | 3.6|--- |--- | 0.1|--- |---
Mexico ................|--- | 3.2| 4.6| 4.9| 5.1|--- | 2.2| 3.4| 3.4| 3.8|--- | 0.7| 0.8| 0.9| 0.7
Netherlands ...........| 6.2| 5.7| 4.6| 4.8| 4.5| 4.1| 3.6| 3.0| 3.2| 3.1| 1.5| 1.6| 1.1| 1.3| 1.0
New Zealand ...........|--- | 5.5| 5.3| 7.0| 5.5|--- | 3.9| 3.8| 4.9| 4.3|--- | 1.2| 1.1| 1.7| 0.9
                       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Norway ................| 5.1| 6.2| 6.8| 6.7| 6.1| 4.0| 4.1| 4.1| 3.9| 4.6| 0.7| 1.1| 1.5| 1.7| 1.3
Poland ................|--- |--- | 5.2| 5.2| 5.6|--- |--- | 3.3| 3.8| 4.0|--- |--- | 0.8| 0.8| 1.1
Portugal ..............|--- |--- | 5.4| 5.7| 5.8|--- |--- | 4.1| 4.2| 4.2|--- |--- | 1.0| 1.0| 1.0
Russian Federation ....|--- |--- | 3.4| 3.0| 3.0|--- |--- | 1.9| 1.7| 1.7|--- |--- | 0.7| 0.5| 0.5
Spain .................| 3.6| 4.2| 4.8| 4.4| 4.3| 2.9| 3.2| 3.5| 3.1| 3.0| 0.4| 0.7| 0.8| 1.0| 1.0
                       |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |
Sweden ................|--- | 5.3| 6.6| 7.4| 6.3|--- | 4.4| 4.4| 4.9| 4.3|--- | 1.0| 1.6| 2.0| 1.5
Switzerland ...........| 4.9| 5.0| 5.5| 5.4| 5.4| 4.0| 3.7| 4.1| 3.9| 3.9| 0.9| 1.0| 1.1| 1.2| 1.3
Turkey ................|--- | 3.2| 2.2| 3.5| 3.5|--- | 2.3| 1.4| 2.4| 2.5|--- | 0.9| 0.8| 1.1| 1.0
United Kingdom ........| 4.9| 4.3| 4.6| 4.8| 4.7| 3.1| 3.5| 3.8| 3.4| 3.4| 1.0| 0.7| 0.7| 1.0| 0.8
United States .........| 4.7| 5.3| 5.0| 5.0| 5.1| 3.2| 3.8| 3.5| 3.5| 3.8| 1.3| 1.4| 1.1| 1.1| 0.9
_______________________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____

---Not available. ---N
\1\Includes preprimary and other expenditures not classified by level.
\2\Data are for Flemish Belgium only.
\3\Data for 1985 are for the former West Germany.

NOTE: Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions, or households. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures. Some data have been revised from previously published figures.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), "Education Database"; Annual National Accounts, Vol. 1, 1997; and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education at a Glance, 2002 through 2004. (This table was prepared March 2005.)