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 Table 48. Percent of 3- to 5-year-olds not yet enrolled in kindergarten who have participated in home literacy activities with a family member, by type of activity and selected child and family characteristics: 1993, 1999, and 2001

 ```______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ | | Percent participating 3 or more times in the past week | | Children, in thousands |________________________________________________________________________________________________| Selected child and family |___________________________________| Read to by | Told a story | Taught letters, | Did arts and | Visited a library\2\ characteristics | | | | family member | by family member | words, or numbers | crafts | | 1993 | 1999 | 2001|________________________|_______________________|_______________________|_______________________|_______________________ | | | | 1993\1\| 1999| 2001| 1993| 1999| 2001| 1993| 1999| 2001| 1993| 1999| 2001| 1993| 1999| 2001 _________________________________|___________|___________|___________|________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______ 1 | 2 | 3 | 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| 10| 11| 12| 13| 14| 15| 16| 17| 18| 19 _________________________________|___________|___________|___________|________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______ Total ........................|8,579(42.0)|8,525(13.6)|8,551(11.0)|78 (0.7)|82(0.7)|84(0.8)|43(0.9)|50(1.1)|54(0.9)|58(0.8)|64(0.9)|74(1.0)|33(0.8)|39(0.8)|46(1.0)|38(1.0)|37(0.9)|36(1.1) |___________|___________|___________|________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______ Age | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | 3 years old ...................|3,889 (8.2)|3,814(78.7)|3,795(91.4)|79 (1.0)|82(1.1)|84(1.1)|46(1.3)|53(1.6)|54(1.4)|57(1.3)|66(1.2)|71(1.7)|34(1.3)|41(1.7)|43(1.7)|34(1.3)|33(1.3)|35(1.9) 4 years old ...................|3,713(15.7)|3,705(80.1)|3,861(89.0)|78 (1.0)|82(1.1)|85(1.2)|41(1.5)|48(1.6)|55(1.4)|58(1.1)|63(1.4)|77(1.3)|33(1.1)|38(1.3)|48(1.5)|41(1.5)|39(1.4)|37(1.4) 5 years old ...................| 976(39.4)|1,006(54.2)| 896(47.0)|76 (2.1)|79(2.4)|81(2.7)|36(2.7)|45(3.0)|52(3.0)|58(2.8)|65(2.7)|75(2.5)|33(2.3)|35(2.5)|44(2.7)|38(2.7)|42(2.8)|37(3.4) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Sex | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Male .........................|4,453(60.2)|4,364(79.3)|4,292(79.9)|77 (1.0)|81(1.0)|82(1.2)|43(1.3)|50(1.4)|53(1.4)|58(1.0)|64(1.3)|73(1.6)|31(1.0)|38(1.2)|41(1.3)|38(1.5)|35(1.2)|35(1.4) Female ........................|4,126(65.0)|4,162(79.4)|4,260(79.6)|79 (1.0)|82(1.1)|86(1.0)|43(1.2)|50(1.5)|55(1.3)|58(1.4)|65(1.3)|76(1.3)|36(1.2)|40(1.2)|50(1.5)|38(1.1)|38(1.3)|37(1.6) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Race/ethnicity | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | White, non-Hispanic ...........|5,902(63.6)|5,389(77.0)|5,313(68.0)|85 (0.7)|89(0.7)|89(0.8)|44(1.0)|53(1.2)|58(1.1)|58(0.9)|65(1.1)|75(1.2)|36(1.0)|44(1.1)|49(1.2)|42(1.3)|40(1.1)|39(1.3) Black, non-Hispanic ...........|1,271(44.9)|1,214(59.2)|1,251(55.1)|66 (2.4)|72(2.4)|77(2.6)|39(2.7)|44(2.7)|51(2.9)|63(2.7)|67(2.5)|78(3.4)|28(2.4)|27(2.6)|34(3.3)|29(2.6)|34(2.7)|31(2.6) Hispanic ......................|1,026(34.1)|1,376(52.3)|1,506(43.5)|58 (2.4)|62(2.1)|71(1.9)|38(2.2)|40(2.3)|42(2.1)|54(1.9)|57(2.2)|68(2.0)|25(2.1)|32(2.0)|42(2.2)|26(1.6)|24(1.7)|30(2.0) Other .........................| 381(33.5)| 547(38.5)| 482(38.3)|73 (3.8)|82(3.3)|87(2.7)|50(5.3)|54(4.0)|60(4.0)|59(3.9)|68(4.4)|78(3.6)|32(3.3)|33(3.3)|46(3.8)|43(4.6)|43(3.9)|38(4.6) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Mother's highest level | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | of education\3\ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Less than high school .........|1,036(50.1)| 894(51.7)| 996(54.5)|60 (2.7)|63(2.8)|69(2.8)|37(3.2)|36(3.0)|43(3.7)|56(2.7)|60(3.4)|67(3.0)|25(2.2)|28(2.8)|30(2.9)|22(2.7)|17(2.2)|21(2.4) High School/GED ...............|3,268(79.6)|2,549(80.7)|2,712(89.0)|75 (1.3)|77(1.8)|81(1.6)|41(1.3)|49(2.1)|53(1.7)|56(1.3)|64(1.6)|73(1.5)|30(1.2)|38(1.7)|43(1.7)|30(1.8)|30(1.8)|30(1.9) Vocational/technical | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | or some college .............|2,291(69.1)|1,907(75.9)|1,833(73.9)|83 (1.4)|84(1.5)|85(1.8)|45(1.9)|53(1.9)|53(2.5)|60(1.7)|68(1.5)|76(1.8)|37(1.8)|39(1.9)|47(2.3)|44(2.2)|39(2.0)|38(2.2) Associate's degree ............| 332(25.7)| 689(40.8)| 573(40.9)|84 (3.1)|88(1.7)|89(2.5)|44(4.3)|51(3.1)|56(3.2)|63(3.9)|66(3.0)|78(3.5)|39(4.1)|43(3.2)|46(3.8)|38(4.1)|45(3.3)|42(4.3) Bachelor's degree .............| 912(42.3)|1,611(69.1)|1,553(68.4)|90 (1.6)|92(1.1)|93(1.2)|48(2.4)|56(2.2)|58(2.2)|57(2.2)|65(2.1)|76(1.9)|37(2.4)|42(1.7)|53(2.7)|55(2.2)|51(2.1)|46(2.4) Graduate/professional degree ..| 569(37.7)| 602(34.7)| 685(45.7)|90 (2.1)|92(1.8)|96(1.1)|50(3.2)|51(3.5)|67(3.6)|60(2.7)|62(3.6)|80(2.8)|42(3.0)|51(3.6)|55(3.8)|59(3.5)|48(3.2)|55(3.8) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Mother's employment status\3\ | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Employed ......................|4,486(77.3)|5,097(75.9)|5,148(84.2)|79 (1.0)|82(1.0)|86(1.0)|44(1.0)|50(1.5)|54(1.3)|57(1.2)|65(1.2)|73(1.3)|33(1.1)|37(1.0)|45(1.5)|39(1.2)|36(1.0)|36(1.2) Unemployed ....................| 594(45.0)| 443(43.7)| 396(36.9)|71 (3.4)|73(3.1)|77(5.0)|43(2.9)|49(4.3)|56(5.6)|66(3.7)|64(4.0)|73(5.0)|33(3.9)|40(4.6)|38(5.2)|37(3.7)|31(3.9)|37(4.8) Not in labor force ............|3,328(72.9)|2,712(70.6)|2,809(73.3)|79 (1.3)|84(1.2)|83(1.4)|43(1.5)|50(1.5)|54(2.0)|58(1.5)|65(1.8)|76(1.7)|34(1.4)|43(1.5)|48(2.0)|37(1.4)|41(1.5)|38(1.9) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Family composition of household | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Two parents ...................|6,226(78.1)|6,058(72.8)|6,416(75.1)|81 (0.7)|85(0.6)|87(0.8)|44(1.0)|52(1.2)|55(1.0)|57(0.9)|64(1.0)|74(1.1)|35(0.9)|42(1.0)|48(1.1)|41(1.2)|40(1.0)|38(1.2) None or one parent ............|2,353(66.5)|2,467(75.6)|2,135(75.1)|71 (1.7)|74(1.7)|76(2.0)|41(2.0)|44(2.1)|51(2.2)|59(2.1)|65(1.8)|73(2.2)|30(1.9)|33(1.5)|39(2.3)|30(1.7)|29(1.8)|30(2.1) | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Poverty status | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Above poverty threshold .......|6,323(62.1)|6,522(75.8)|6,620(61.6)|82 (0.7)|85(0.7)|87(0.8)|44(0.9)|52(1.1)|55(0.9)|57(0.8)|66(1.0)|75(1.1)|36(0.9)|41(0.9)|47(1.0)|41(1.2)|40(1.1)|39(1.2) At or below poverty threshold .|2,256(56.6)|2,004(73.0)|1,931(62.1)|67 (1.6)|70(2.1)|74(2.3)|39(1.8)|42(2.7)|51(2.7)|60(2.0)|59(2.3)|72(2.4)|27(1.9)|33(2.2)|40(2.4)|28(2.0)|25(2.1)|27(2.2) _________________________________|___________|___________|___________|________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______```
 \1\ In 1993, respondents were asked about reading frequency in one of two versions. The percentages presented in the table are for all of the respondents who answered three or more times on either version of the questions. \2\Refers to visiting a library at least once in the past month. \3\Excludes children who did not have a mother (birth, adoptive, step, or foster) residing in their household and also did not have a female respondent on the telephone. NOTE: Standard errors appear in parentheses. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Readiness Survey (SR-NHES:1993), Parent Survey (Parent-NHES:1999), and Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP-NHES:2001) of The National Household Education Surveys Program. (This table was prepared July 2005.)

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