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Digest of Education Statistics
2004 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest


Table 47. Children's mean general knowledge, reading, and mathematics performance in kindergarten and first grade, by child and family characteristics: Selected years, 1998 to 2000

__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                          |          General knowledge    |        Reading, overall       |         Reading, percent      |       Mathematics, overall    |   Mathematics, percent with addi-
Child and family          |     performance scale score\1\|    performance scale score\1\ |       reading sight words\2\  |     performance scale score\1\|    tion and subtraction skills\2\
characteristics           |_______________________________|_______________________________|_______________________________|_______________________________|_______________________________
                          |  Kindergarten |   1st grade   |  Kindergarten |  1st grade    | Kindergarten  |  1st grade    | Kindergarten  |  1st grade    |  Kindergarten |   1st grade
                          |_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________|_______________
                          |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring |  Fall |Spring
                          |  1998 |  1999 |  1999 |  2000 |  1998 |  1999 |  1999 |  2000 |  1998 |  1999 |  1999 |  2000 |  1998 |  1999 |  1999 |  2000 |  1998 |  1999 |  1999 |  2000
__________________________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______
1                         |     2 |     3 |     4 |     5 |     6 |     7 |     8 |     9 |    10 |    11 |    12 |    13 |    14 |    15 |    16 |    17 |    18 |    19 |    20 |    21
__________________________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______
                          |                                                                                 Student performance
                          |_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   Average score .........|   22.7|   27.7|   30.9|   35.5|   22.9|   33.0|   38.7|   55.7|    2.7|   13.6|   25.8|   78.3|   19.8|   28.0|   33.0|   43.8|    4.4|   17.5|   35.0|   74.0
                          |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______
Sex                       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Male ...................|   23.0|   28.1|   31.3|   35.9|   22.5|   32.0|  37.69|   54.5|    2.8|   11.9|   23.3|   74.9|   20.1|   28.2|   33.5|   44.1|    4.4|   18.4|   35.9|   73.8
  Female .................|   22.4|   27.4|   30.4|   35.1|   23.4|   34.1|  39.65|   56.9|    2.6|   15.3|   28.3|   81.8|   19.6|   27.7|   33.0|   43.5|    3.0|   16.7|   33.0|   73.6
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Race/ethnicity            |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  White, non-Hispanic ....|   24.9|   30.0|   33.1|   37.5|   24.2|   34.8|  40.37|   57.9|    3.2|   15.9|   29.3|   83.3|   21.3|   29.7|   35.2|   45.7|    4.9|   21.9|   40.8|   79.7
  Black, non-Hispanic ....|   17.5|   22.4|   25.9|   30.7|   20.3|   29.7|  34.63|   50.4|    0.8|    7.9|   16.7|   67.1|   16.7|   23.9|   28.8|   39.2|    0.8|    7.2|   20.0|   58.8
  Hispanic ...............|   19.6|   25.2|   28.0|   33.2|   20.6|   30.6|  36.07|   52.7|    1.7|    9.7|   20.0|   71.5|   17.5|   25.5|   30.9|   41.7|    1.7|   11.7|   25.9|   67.5
  Asian/Pacific Islander .|   19.9|   25.0|   28.0|   32.5|   27.0|   37.3|  43.52|   59.3|   10.6|   28.0|   39.0|   82.0|   21.2|   28.8|   35.0|   43.1|    6.9|   23.7|   40.0|   70.0
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Parents' highest level    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   of education           |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Less than high school ..|   16.3|   21.9|   24.9|   29.8|   17.4|   26.7|  30.72|   46.2|     # |    2.9|    7.7|   57.0|   14.5|   21.7|   26.4|   37.8|     # |    3.6|   13.7|   53.9
  High school ............|   19.9|   24.6|   27.6|   32.6|   20.1|   30.0|  34.76|   52.0|    1.3|    7.3|   16.0|   70.0|   17.3|   24.8|   30.1|   40.5|    1.2|    9.8|   23.4|   63.3
  Some college ...........|   22.4|   27.6|   30.9|   36.0|   22.3|   32.5|  38.24|   55.2|    1.7|   11.2|   24.2|   80.0|   19.3|   27.6|   32.9|   43.7|    2.3|   14.6|   31.7|   74.7
  Bachelor's or higher ...|   26.7|   31.9|   34.9|   39.2|   27.3|   38.1|  44.13|   61.8|    5.4|   23.9|   39.8|   89.0|   23.8|   32.3|   38.0|   48.0|    8.2|   30.4|   51.4|   84.9
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Socioeconomic status      |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Lowest 20 percent ......|   16.6|   21.6|   24.4|   29.4|   17.5|   26.7|  30.86|   46.1|     # |    4.0|    8.1|   55.9|   14.7|   21.8|   26.4|   37.2|     # |    4.4|   14.2|   51.6
  Middle 60 percent ......|   22.4|   27.6|   30.7|   36.0|   22.5|   32.8|  38.32|   55.6|    1.8|   11.6|   24.3|   79.9|   19.5|   27.7|   33.0|   43.7|    2.5|   15.4|   32.6|   74.3
  Highest 20 percent .....|   27.8|   32.7|   35.9|   39.9|   28.2|   39.2|  45.16|   62.5|    6.8|   26.5|   42.6|   89.7|   24.6|   33.1|   38.9|   48.6|    9.6|   32.9|   54.4|   87.0
                          |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______
                          |                                                                                  Standard errors
                          |_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
   Standard error         |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
      for average.........|(0.279)|(0.317)|(0.345)|(0.277)|(0.336)|(0.381)|(0.482)|(0.492)|(0.338)|(0.791)|(1.299)|(1.192)|(0.265)|(0.292)|(0.329)|(0.347)|(0.323)|(0.783)|(1.127)|(1.221)
                          |_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______
Sex                       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Male ...................|(0.289)|(0.360)|(0.369)|(0.305)|(0.407)|(0.448)|(0.582)|(0.603)|(0.518)|(1.032)|(1.568)|(1.618)|(0.305)|(0.354)|(0.402)|(0.459)|(0.437)|(1.036)|(1.342)|(1.563)
  Female .................|(0.317)|(0.311)|(0.360)|(0.281)|(0.335)|(0.417)|(0.487)|(0.505)|(0.406)|(0.977)|(1.359)|(1.378)|(0.266)|(0.308)| (0.33)|(0.297)|(0.326)|(0.852)|(1.183)|(1.175)
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Race/ethnicity            |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  White, non-Hispanic ....|(0.254)|(0.288)|(0.301)|(0.230)|(0.334)|(0.417)|(0.483)|(0.541)|(0.409)|(0.969)|(1.426)|(1.376)|(0.253)|(0.303)|(0.349)|(0.377)|(0.407)|(0.896)|(1.297)| (1.29)
  Black, non-Hispanic ....|(0.290)|(0.435)|(0.500)|(0.514)|(0.324)|(0.453)|(0.559)|(0.629)|(0.259)|(1.308)|(1.807)|(2.059)|(0.282)|(0.368)|(0.384)|(0.500)|(0.191)|(0.876)|(1.239)|(1.954)
  Hispanic ...............|(0.453)|(0.405)|(0.431)|(0.397)|(0.512)|(0.621)|(0.709)|(1.007)|(0.517)|(1.138)|(2.436)|(2.988)|(0.405)|(0.519)|(0.577)|(0.602)|(0.407)|(1.133)|(1.721)|(2.491)
  Asian/Pacific Islander .|(0.999)|(0.900)|(1.101)|(0.995)|(1.588)|(1.867)|(2.051)|(2.119)|(2.919)|(4.765)|(5.604)|(4.963)|(0.992)|(1.523)|(1.509)|(1.393)|(2.560)|(4.341)|(5.151)|(5.519)
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Parents' highest level    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
   of education           |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Less than high school ..|(0.448)|(0.557)|(0.689)|(0.565)|(0.484)|(0.556)|(0.801)|(1.098)|(0.003)|(0.953)| (1.52)|(3.091)|(0.389)|(0.539)|(0.709)|(1.033)|(0.033)|(0.602)|(2.324)|(3.863)
  High school ............|(0.430)|(0.467)|(0.480)|(0.487)|(0.488)|(0.602)|(0.721)|(0.761)|(0.650)|(1.161)|(1.798)|(2.088)|(0.372)|(0.445)|(0.538)|(0.606)| (0.28)|(0.957)|(1.872)|(2.259)
  Some college ...........|(0.268)|(0.297)|(0.333)|(0.283)|(0.307)|(0.373)|(0.513)|(0.569)|(0.364)|(0.813)|(1.561)|(1.404)|(0.267)|(0.322)|(0.355)|(0.330)|(0.327)|(0.875)|(1.240)|(1.250)
  Bachelor's or higher ...|(0.313)| (0.34)|(0.306)|(0.231)|(0.493)|(0.575)|(0.630)|(0.591)|(0.726)|(1.616)|(1.982)|(1.137)|(0.366)|(0.373)|(0.401)|(0.365)|(0.805)|(1.432)|(1.537)|(1.167)
                          |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
Socioeconomic status      |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
  Lowest 20 percent ......|(0.355)|(0.402)|(0.449)|(0.408)|(0.463)|(0.601)|(0.741)|(0.876)|(0.338)|(1.000)|(1.439)|(2.254)|(0.336)|(0.456)|(0.543)|(0.669)|(0.196)| (0.58)|(1.457)|(2.393)
  Middle 60 percent ......|(0.253)|(0.288)|(0.319)|(0.257)|(0.320)|(0.413)|(0.501)|(0.569)|(0.344)|(0.829)|(1.388)|(1.468)|(0.265)|(0.319)|(0.324)|(0.372)|(0.273)|(0.843)|(1.126)|(1.336)
  Highest 20 percent .....|(0.417)|(0.441)|(0.405)|(0.282)|(0.556)|(0.681)|(0.715)|(0.679)|(0.982)|(1.985)|(2.250)|(1.279)|(0.446)|(0.458)|(0.483)|(0.415)|(1.008)|(1.757)|(1.810)|(1.285)
__________________________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______________|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______|_______

#Rounds to zero.
\1\Performance estimates are mean scale scores. Scale scores range as follows: General knowledge, 0-51; Reading, 0-92; and Mathematics, 0-64. The standard deviation for the reading scale scores are: fall kindergarten, 10.32; spring kindergarten, 13.29; fall 1st grade, 16.37; and spring, 1st grade, 20.79. The standard deviations for the mathematics scale scores are: fall kindergarten, 8.98; spring kindergarten, 11.51; fall 1st grade, 13.27; and spring 1st grade, 16.15. The standard deviations for the general knowledge scale scores are: fall kindergarten, 7.50; spring kindergarten, 7.64; fall 1st grade, 7.59; and spring first grade, 7.03.
\2\Student was assumed to have mastered a particular skill if at least three of the four items in the subject cluster were answered correctly.

NOTE: Estimates based on children who entered kindergarten for the first time in the fall of 1998 and were assessed in English for all four rounds of data collection. Approximately 67 percent of Hispanic children and 82 percent of Asian children were assessed in English in all four rounds of data collection. First grade estimates include children promoted to first grade on time and also include the scores of the small percentage of children (i.e., 5 percent) who had repeated kindergarten in 1999-2000.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), fall 1998, spring 1999, fall 1999, and spring 2000, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared September 2001.)