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Digest of Education Statistics
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Table 45. Child care arrangements of preschool children, by age and race/ethnicity: 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2001

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                        |                  |                         Age                |                              Race/ethnicity
                        |                  |____________________________________________|_______________________________________________________________
Characteristic          |            Total |       3 years|       4 years|       5 years|         White, |         Black, |        Hispanic|      Other
                        |                  |          old |          old |          old |           non- |           non- |                |
                        |                  |              |              |              |        Hispanic|        Hispanic|                |
________________________|__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|____________
1                       |                2 |            3 |            4 |            5 |              6 |              7 |              8 |          9
________________________|__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|____________
1991 Children\1\        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   In thousands ........|    8,402   (40.9)|  3,733  (7.1)|  3,627 (14.6)|  1,042 (38.6)|   5,850  (59.9)|   1,236  (41.0)|     999  (31.3)|   317(34.6)
   Percent .............|    100.0     (†) |   44.4 (0.21)|   43.2 (0.24)|   12.4 (0.40)|    69.6  (0.67)|    14.7  (0.47)|    11.9  (0.37)|   3.8(0.41)
                        |__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|____________
Percent in nonparental  |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   arrangements         |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
  Relative care ........|     16.9   (0.60)|   16.2 (0.72)|   18.0 (0.85)|   15.6 (1.34)|    14.8  (0.66)|    24.1  (2.09)|    19.6  (2.08)|  19.4(3.87)
  Nonrelative care .....|     14.8   (0.56)|   14.8 (0.76)|   14.7 (0.79)|   14.9 (1.81)|    17.3  (0.76)|     7.9  (1.20)|     9.4  (1.27)|  12.1(2.45)
  Center based          |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
     programs\2\ .......|     52.8   (0.89)|   42.3 (1.44)|   60.4 (1.04)|   63.9 (2.12)|    54.0  (0.95)|    58.3  (2.49)|    38.8  (2.20)|  52.9(3.45)
                        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
Percent with parental   |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   care only ...........|     31.0   (0.80)|   37.8 (1.19)|   26.0 (1.05)|   24.3 (2.10)|    30.6  (0.87)|    24.8  (2.02)|    40.7  (2.35)|  32.8(4.03)
                        |==================|==============|==============|==============|================|================|================|============
1995 Children\1\        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   In thousands ........|    9,222   (52.9)|  4,123  (8.3)|  4,061 (12.5)|  1,038 (48.3)|   6,334  (94.0)|   1,389  (56.1)|   1,042  (38.8)|   457(39.1)
   Percent .............|    100.0     (†) |   44.7 (0.25)|   44.0 (0.24)|   11.3 (0.46)|    68.7  (0.94)|    15.1  (0.60)|    11.3  (0.42)|   5.0(0.42)
                        |__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|_____________
Percent in nonparental  |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   arrangements         |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
  Relative care ........|     19.4   (0.64)|   21.4 (1.23)|   18.4 (0.95)|   15.2 (2.14)|    16.5  (0.84)|    28.7  (2.78)|    22.8  (2.01)|  22.6(3.75)
  Nonrelative care .....|     16.9   (0.84)|   18.5 (1.35)|   15.3 (1.03)|   17.2 (2.19)|    19.4  (1.04)|    11.3  (1.65)|    12.5  (1.64)|  10.5(2.74)
  Center based          |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
     programs\2\ .......|     55.1   (0.97)|   40.7 (1.55)|   64.8 (1.45)|   74.5 (2.35)|    56.9  (1.44)|    59.8  (3.19)|    37.4  (2.15)|  56.7(5.47)
                        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
Percent with parental   |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   care only ...........|     25.9   (1.01)|   32.0 (1.95)|   22.1 (1.24)|   16.2 (1.78)|    25.2  (1.39)|    19.9  (2.50)|    38.4  (2.33)|  24.2(3.59)
                        |==================|==============|==============|==============|================|================|================|=============
1999 Children\1\        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   In thousands ........|    8,518  (139.7)|  3,809 (79.1)|  3,703 (79.9)|  1,006 (54.2)|   5,384  (77.4)|   1,214  (59.2)|   1,376  (52.3)|   545(38.3)
   Percent .............|    100.0     (†) |   44.7 (0.93)|   43.5 (0.93)|   11.8 (0.64)|    63.2  (0.91)|    14.2  (0.69)|    16.2  (0.61)|   6.4(0.45)
                        |__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|_____________
Percent in nonparental  |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   arrangements         |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
  Relative care ........|     22.8   (0.77)|   24.3 (1.28)|   22.0 (1.14)|   20.2 (2.06)|    18.7  (0.90)|    33.4  (2.58)|    26.5  (1.86)|  30.0(3.97)
  Nonrelative care .....|     16.1   (0.67)|   16.3 (1.02)|   15.9 (1.07)|   16.1 (2.08)|    19.4  (0.88)|     7.4  (1.37)|    12.7  (1.29)|  10.4(1.98)
  Center based          |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
     programs\2\ .......|     59.7   (0.63)|   45.7 (1.28)|   69.6 (1.19)|   76.5 (2.40)|    60.0  (0.81)|    73.2  (2.40)|    44.2  (2.19)|  66.0(4.10)
                        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
Percent with parental   |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   care only ...........|     23.1   (0.72)|   30.8 (1.42)|   17.7 (0.99)|   13.5 (1.78)|    23.2  (0.91)|    13.7  (1.97)|    33.4  (2.04)|  16.6(3.50)
                        |==================|==============|==============|==============|================|================|================|=============
2001 Children           |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   In thousands ........|    8,551   (11.0)|  3,795  91.4 |  3,861 (89.0)|    896 (47.0)|   5,313  (68.0)|   1,251  (55.1)|   1,506  (43.5)|   482(38.3)
   Percent .............|    100.0     (†) |   44.4 (1.06)|   45.1 (1.04)|   10.5 (0.55)|    62.1  (0.79)|    14.6  (0.64)|    17.6  (0.51)|   5.6(0.45)
                        |__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|_____________
Percent in nonparental  |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   arrangements         |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
  Relative care ........|     22.8   (0.89)|   23.6 (1.39)|   22.5 (1.33)|   20.9 (2.66)|    19.6  (1.01)|    36.7  (3.42)|    22.8  (1.89)|  22.8(3.54)
  Nonrelative care .....|     14.0   (0.65)|   14.7 (1.17)|   13.6 (0.95)|   13.1 (2.13)|    16.5  (0.98)|     8.5  (1.65)|    11.3  (1.43)|  10.8(2.72)
  Center based          |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
     programs\2\ .......|     56.4   (0.55)|   42.8 (1.21)|   65.9 (1.25)|   73.0 (2.69)|    59.1  (0.89)|    63.1  (2.93)|    39.9  (1.86)|  61.8(4.10)
                        |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
Percent with parental   |                  |              |              |              |                |                |                |
   care only ...........|     26.1   (0.67)|   33.8 (1.29)|   20.4 (1.11)|   18.0 (2.49)|    25.3  (0.99)|    15.1  (2.22)|    39.0  (2.03)|  23.7(3.90)
________________________|__________________|______________|______________|______________|________________|________________|________________|______

†Not applicable.
\1\Estimates are based only on children 3 to 5 years old who have not entered kindergarten.
\2\Center based programs include day care centers, nursery schools, prekindergartens, preschools, and Head Start programs.

NOTE: Row percents for nonparental and parental care do not add to 100 percent because some children participated in more than one type of nonparental care arrangement. Details may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, the Early Childhood Preprimary Survey (ECE-NHES:1991), the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP-NHES:1995), the Parent Survey (Parent-NHES:1999), and the Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP-NHES:2001) of The National Household Education Surveys Program, and unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared July 2005.)