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Digest of Education Statistics
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Table 44. Average hours in center-based programs, by child and family characteristics and percentage distribution of preschool children under 6 years old, by type of primary nonparental care arrangement: 2001

___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                   |                |    Percent|  Average|                Percentage distribution, by type of primary      |
                                   |                |        in |    hours|                            care arrangement                     |
Child and family                   |       Number of|    center-| per week|_________________________________________________________________|______________
characteristic                     |       children,|      based|       in|          |     Other|  Parental|    Family|    Sitter|  Relative|      Multiple
                                   |     age 0 to 5,|   programs|     non-|      Head|   center-|      care|     child|          |          |      arrange-
                                   |    in thousands|           |  care\1\|     Start|     based|      only|      care|          |          |      ments\2\
___________________________________|________________|___________|_________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|______________
1                                  |               2|         3 |       4 |        5 |        6 |        7 |        8 |        9 |        10|            11
___________________________________|________________|___________|_________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|______________
   Total preschool children\3\ ....|   20,252 (11.0)|   33 (0.5)| 31 (0.3)|    5(0.3)|  25 (0.5)|  40 (0.6)|  11 (0.4)|   2 (0.2)|  16 (0.5)|   1     (0.2)
                                   |________________|___________|_________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|______________
Age                                |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Under 1 year ....................|    3,868   (#) |    8 (0.9)| 30 (0.8)|    1(0.3)|   7 (0.9)|  60 (1.5)|  10 (1.0)|   2 (0.5)|  19 (1.1)|   1     (0.3)
  1 year old ......................|    3,902   (#) |   16 (1.3)| 32 (0.8)|    2(0.4)|  13 (1.2)|  47 (1.7)|  15 (1.0)|   4 (0.6)|  18 (1.1)|   1     (0.4)
  2 years old .....................|    3,931   (#) |   26 (1.4)| 32 (0.9)|    3(0.5)|  21 (1.2)|  40 (1.6)|  13 (1.1)|   3 (0.5)|  18 (1.2)|   2     (0.5)
  3 years old .....................|    3,795 (91.4)|   43 (1.2)| 30 (0.7)|    6(0.7)|  32 (1.4)|  34 (1.3)|  10 (1.1)|   1 (0.3)|  15 (1.1)|   1     (0.4)
  4 years old .....................|    3,861 (90.0)|   66 (1.3)| 30 (0.6)|   12(1.1)|  45 (1.5)|  21 (1.1)|   8 (0.7)|   1 (0.3)|  12 (1.0)|   1     (0.4)
  5 years old .....................|      896 (47.0)|   73 (2.7)| 29 (1.5)|   10(2.4)|  55 (3.3)|  18 (2.5)|   6 (1.4)|   1 (0.4)|   9 (1.7)|   1      0.4
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Race/ethnicity                     |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  White, non-Hispanic  ............|   12,353 (74.9)|   35 (0.7)| 28 (0.4)|    2(0.3)|  28 (0.8)|  39 (0.9)|  13 (0.6)|   3 (0.3)|  14 (0.6)|   1     (0.2)
  Black. non-Hispanic .............|    2,987  (2.9)|   40 (2.0)| 38 (1.0)|   14(1.4)|  25 (1.6)|  27 (2.4)|  11 (1.1)|   #  (†) |  22 (2.0)|   1     (0.6)
  Hispanic ........................|    3,693  (1.4)|   21 (0.9)| 31 (0.6)|    6(0.6)|  13 (0.7)|  52 (1.6)|   8 (0.8)|   2 (0.4)|  19 (1.1)|   1     (0.2)
  Other ...........................|    1,219 (74.1)|   37 (2.6)| 33 (1.6)|    6(1.4)|  26 (2.4)|  35 (3.1)|   7 (1.5)|   5 (1.4)|  20 (2.3)|   1     (0.8)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Mother's employment status\4\      |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Currently employed ..............|   11,637(154.1)|   40 (0.8)| 34 (0.3)|    5(0.4)|  29 (0.8)|  20 (0.8)|  18 (0.7)|   3 (0.3)|  24 (0.8)|   2     (0.2)
    35 or more hours/week .........|    7,573(137.0)|   42 (1.0)| 38 (0.4)|    6(0.6)|  30 (0.9)|  15 (0.9)|  21 (0.8)|   2 (0.4)|  24 (0.9)|   1     (0.3)
    Less than 35 hours/week .......|    4,064(112.1)|   36 (1.4)| 23 (0.5)|    3(0.5)|  27 (1.3)|  29 (1.6)|  12 (1.1)|   3 (0.5)|  23 (1.3)|   2     (0.5)
  Looking for work ................|      989 (70.4)|   25 (2.7)| 25 (2.2)|    9(1.8)|  12 (1.9)|  59 (3.5)|   4 (1.3)|   2 (0.8)|  14 (2.7)|   1     (0.4)
  Not in labor force ..............|    7,257(133.9)|   24 (0.9)| 18 (0.6)|    4(0.5)|  20 (0.9)|  69 (1.1)|   1 (0.2)|   2 (0.4)|   4 (0.5)|   #      (†)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Mother's highest education\4\      |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Less than high school ...........|    2,385(113.1)|   21 (2.0)| 30 (1.1)|   10(1.4)|   9 (1.4)|  57 (2.7)|   5 (0.8)|   2 (0.7)|  16 (1.7)|   1     (0.6)
  High school/GED .................|    5,986(163.9)|   28 (1.1)| 31 (0.7)|    6(0.6)|  20 (1.1)|  43 (1.6)|  10 (0.8)|   1 (0.3)|  19 (1.2)|   1     (0.3)
  Vocational/technical or          |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
    some college ..................|    4,347(125.4)|   35 (1.3)| 31 (0.8)|    6(0.8)|  25 (1.2)|  38 (1.6)|  11 (0.9)|   1 (0.3)|  18 (1.3)|   1     (0.3)
  Associate's degree ..............|    1,536 (83.3)|   36 (2.9)| 32 (1.1)|    2(0.7)|  29 (2.5)|  36 (2.7)|  12 (1.8)|   2 (0.8)|  18 (1.8)|   1     (0.3)
  Bachelor's degree ...............|    3,940(105.4)|   41 (1.4)| 29 (0.6)|    1(0.3)|  35 (1.5)|  34 (1.5)|  14 (1.1)|   3 (0.5)|  11 (1.0)|   1     (0.3)
  Graduate/professional degree ....|    1,689 (85.9)|   44 (2.3)| 29 (0.8)|    2(0.9)|  36 (2.0)|  25 (2.4)|  17 (1.8)|   9 (1.3)|   9 (1.5)|   2     (0.5)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Mother in household                |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  No ..............................|      609 (63.8)|   44 (4.0)| 42 (3.1)|    8(2.1)|  28 (3.9)|  24 (3.3)|  10 (2.3)|   2 (0.9)|  25 (3.8)|   2     (1.8)
  Yes .............................|   19,642 (64.2)|   33 (0.5)| 30 (0.3)|    5(0.3)|  25 (0.6)|  40 (0.7)|  11 (0.4)|   2 (0.2)|  16 (0.5)|   1     (0.2)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Household structure\5\             |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Two parents .....................|   15,603(103.4)|   32 (0.6)|  28(0.3)|    3(0.3)|  26 (0.6)|  43 (0.7)|  11 (0.5)|   2 (0.2)|  14 (0.5)|   1     (0.2)
  One parent ......................|    4,354 (99.9)|   36 (1.4)|  37(0.7)|   11(1.1)|  21 (1.3)|  28 (1.7)|  12 (1.0)|   2 (0.5)|  24 (1.4)|   2     (0.7)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Household income                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  $15,000 or less .................|    3,590 (69.5)|   28 (1.5)|  33(1.1)|   12(1.1)|  15 (1.3)|  45 (2.2)|   6 (1.0)|   2 (0.6)|  19 (1.7)|   1     (0.6)
  $15,001 to $25,000 ..............|    2,831 (69.9)|   26 (1.7)|  33(1.3)|    8(1.1)|  15 (1.3)|  47 (2.2)|   8 (1.2)|   1 (0.4)|  20 (1.7)|   #      (†)
  $25,001 to $35,000 ..............|    2,463(107.1)|   30 (1.5)|  31(1.0)|    6(1.0)|  21 (1.4)|  44 (2.1)|  10 (1.2)|   1 (0.4)|  17 (1.6)|   1     (0.5)
  $35,001 to $50,000 ..............|    3,180(106.2)|   27 (1.5)|  31(0.8)|    3(0.5)|  21 (1.4)|  44 (2.0)|  13 (1.3)|   1 (0.3)|  17 (1.2)|   1     (0.4)
  More than $50,000 ...............|    8,189(141.7)|   42 (0.9)|  29(0.4)|    1(0.2)|  35 (0.9)|  31 (0.9)|  14 (0.8)|   4 (0.4)|  13 (0.7)|   1     (0.2)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
In poverty\6\                      |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  At or below poverty threshold ...|    4,445 (83.7)|   27 (1.3)|  32(1.0)|   12(1.1)|  14 (1.1)|  47 (2.0)|   6 (0.8)|   2 (0.5)|  19 (1.6)|   1     (0.5)
  Above poverty threshold .........|   15,807 (82.7)|   35 (0.6)|  30(0.3)|    3(0.3)|  28 (0.6)|  38 (0.7)|  13 (0.5)|   3 (0.2)|  15 (0.6)|   1     (0.2)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Household size                     |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  2 or 3 persons ..................|    5,502(139.6)|   33 (1.3)|  33(0.5)|    5(0.6)|  25 (1.3)|  34 (1.3)|  15 (0.9)|   2 (0.4)|  18 (1.0)|   1     (0.3)
  4 persons .......................|    7,608(145.3)|   37 (0.9)|  30(0.5)|    4(0.4)|  29 (0.8)|  35 (1.0)|  12 (0.8)|   3 (0.4)|  16 (1.0)|   1     (0.2)
  5 persons .......................|    4,102(125.1)|   33 (1.4)|  28(0.8)|    5(0.9)|  24 (1.2)|  43 (1.7)|   9 (1.1)|   3 (0.5)|  14 (1.1)|   1     (0.5)
  6 or more persons ...............|    3,040(128.9)|   25 (1.6)|  30(1.2)|    7(0.9)|  16 (1.5)|  55 (2.1)|   4 (0.7)|   2 (0.5)|  16 (1.8)|   1     (0.5)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Home language\4\                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  English .........................|   16,939(105.3)|   35 (0.6)|  30(0.3)|    5(0.3)|  27 (0.6)|  37 (0.8)|  12 (0.5)|   2 (0.2)|  16 (0.6)|   1     (0.2)
  Non-English .....................|    2,704 (88.7)|   21 (1.2)|  29(1.0)|    6(0.8)|  13 (0.9)|  56 (1.7)|   6 (0.9)|   2 (0.5)|  16 (1.2)|   1     (0.4)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Mother's age at first birth\4\     |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Less than 18 ....................|    2,178(105.0)|   26 (1.6)|  33(1.1)|    9(1.0)|  16 (1.5)|  46 (2.7)|   5 (0.7)|   1 (0.7)|  22 (2.4)|   1     (0.6)
  18 or 19 ........................|    2,835(108.1)|   30 (1.9)|  32(0.9)|    9(1.1)|  17 (1.6)|  41 (2.2)|   9 (1.2)|   1 (0.5)|  22 (1.8)|   1     (0.5)
  20 or older .....................|   14,870(120.4)|   35 (0.7)|  30(0.4)|    3(0.3)|  28 (0.7)|  39 (0.8)|  12 (0.5)|   3 (0.2)|  14 (0.5)|   1     (0.2)
                                   |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
Urbanicity                         |                |           |         |          |          |          |          |          |          |
  Nonmetropolitan .................|    4,959  (7.1)|   32 (1.3)|  31(0.7)|    6(0.7)|  23 (1.3)|  41 (1.7)|  13 (1.0)|   1 (0.5)|   5 (1.2)|   1     (0.4)
  Metropolitan ....................|   15,293  (8.8)|   34 (0.6)|  30(0.3)|    5(0.3)|  25 (0.6)|  39 (0.7)|  10 (0.5)|   3 (0.3)|  17 (0.6)|   1     (0.2)
___________________________________|________________|___________|_________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|__________|______________

†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
\1\Mean hours per week in nonparental care among preschool children enrolled in nonparental care arrangements.
\2\Children who spend equal hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.
\3\Excludes children who have entered kindergarten.
\4\Excludes data for households with no mother present in household.
\5\Excludes children living apart from their parents.
\6\Poverty level determined by household income and number of persons in household.

NOTE: A child's "primary arrangement" was defined as the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey (ECPP-NHES:2001) of the National Household Education Surveys Program. (This table was prepared July 2005.)