Indicator 2: Incidence of Victimization at School and Away From School16
(Last Updated: May 2016)

Between 1992 and 2014, the total victimization rate at school declined 82 percent, from 181 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. The total victimization rate away from school declined 86 percent, from 173 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014.

In 2014, data from the National Crime Victimization Survey showed that students ages 1218 experienced 850,100 nonfatal victimizations (theft17 and violent victimization18) at school and 621,300 nonfatal victimizations away from school (table 2.1).19 These figures represent total crime victimization rates of 33 victimizations per 1,000 students at school and 24 per 1,000 students away from school; these rates were not measurably different.

For most of the years between 1992 and 2008 as well as in 2012, the rate of theft at school was higher than the rate of theft away from school among students ages 1218 (figure 2.1). There were no measurable differences between the rates of theft at school and away from school in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, or 2014.

The rate of theft at school was 14 thefts per 1,000 students in 2014 and 18 thefts per 1,000 students in 2013; these rates were not measurably different. The rate of theft away from school was lower in 2014 (11 thefts per 1,000 students) than in 2013 (16 thefts per 1,000 students).

Between 1992 and 2000, the rate of violent victimization per 1,000 students at school was either lower than or not measurably different from the rate away from school. Since 2001, the rate of generally been higher than or not measurably different from the rate away from school. In 2014, the rate of violent victimization was 19 per 1,000 students at school and 13 per 1,000 students away from school; these rates were not measurably different. The rate of simple assault20 at school (15 per 1,000 students) was higher than away from school (6 per 1,000).

The rate of violent victimization at school was lower in 2014 (19 violent victimizations per 1,000 students) than in 2013 (37 violent victimizations per 1,000 students). For violence away from school, the 2014 violent victimization rate did not differ measurably from the 2013 rate.

The rate of serious violent victimization21 against students ages 1218 was generally lower at school than away from school in most survey years between 1992 and 2008. Between 2009 and 2014, the rate at school was not measurably different from the rate away from school.

The 2014 serious violent victimization rate for students ages 1218 did not differ measurably from the 2013 rate regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. In 2014, students experienced about 4 serious violent victimizations per 1,000 students at school and 6 serious violent victimizations per 1,000 students away from school.

Between 1992 and 2014, total victimization rates for students ages 1218 generally declined both at school and away from school (figure 2.1). The total victimization rate at school declined 82 percent, from 181 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 33 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014. The total victimization rate away from school declined 86 percent, from 173 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 24 victimizations per 1,000 students in 2014.


Figure 2.1. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by type of victimization and location: 1992 through 2014

Figure 2.1. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by type of victimization and location: 1992 through 2014

1 Serious violent victimization is also included in all violent victimization.
NOTE: Due to methodological changes, use caution when comparing 2006 estimates to other years. "Serious violent victimization" includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault. "All violent victimization" includes serious violent crimes as well as simple assault. "Theft" includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. "Total victimization" includes thefts and violent crimes. "At school" includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 1218 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding. Estimates may vary from previously published reports.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 1992 through 2014.


This pattern of decline in total victimization rates both at and away from school between 1992 and 2014 also held for thefts, violent victimizations, and serious violent victimizations. Thefts at school declined from a rate of 114 per 1,000 students to 14 per 1,000, and thefts away from school declined from a rate of 79 thefts per 1,000 students to 11 per 1,000. The rate of violent victimization at school declined overall from 68 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 19 per 1,000 in 2014. The rate of violent victimization away from school declined from 94 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 13 per 1,000 in 2014. Serious violent victimizations at school declined from 8 per 1,000 students in 1992 to 4 per 1,000 in 2014. The rate of serious violent victimization away from school declined from 43 victimizations per 1,000 students in 1992 to 6 per 1,000 in 2014.

In 2014, the rates of total victimization, theft, and violent victimization for males did not differ measurably from the rates for females; this pattern held regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. In 2014, the rate of total victimization at school for males was 35 victimizations per 1,000 students and the rate for females was 31 victimizations per 1,000 students (table 2.2 and figure 2.2). The total victimization rate away from school for males was 25 victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 23 victimizations per 1,000 students. The rate of violent victimization at school for males was 20 victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 18 victimizations per 1,000 students. The violent victimization rate away from school for males was 14 victimizations per 1,000 students, and the rate for females was 12 victimizations per 1,000 students.

In 2014, the rates of total victimization, theft, and violent victimization for students ages 1214 did not differ measurably from the rates for students ages 1518; this pattern held regardless of whether the location of victimization was at school or away from school. Total victimization rates at school were 34 per 1,000 students ages 1214 and 32 per 1,000 students ages 1518 (table 2.2). Total victimization rates away from school were 22 per 1,000 students ages 1214 and 26 per 1,000 students ages 1518.

Differences in the rates of total victimization of students ages 1218 at school by urbanicity were observed in 2014 (table 2.2, figure 2.3). In 2014, students residing in rural areas had higher rates of total victimization at school (53 victimizations per 1,000 students) than students residing in suburban areas (28 victimizations per 1,000 students). These differences were primarily driven by higher rates of violent victimization at school among students living in rural areas. In the same year, the rate of total victimization at school for students residing in urban areas was 32 victimizations per 1,000 students; the rates between rural and urban areas were not measurably different. Violent victimization rates at school were 40 per 1,000 students in rural areas, compared with 16 per 1,000 students in urban areas and 14 per 1,000 students in suburban areas. There were no measurable differences in rates of theft at school by urbanicity. In 2014, there were no differences by urbanicity in total victimization rates, theft rates, or violent victimization rates for victimizations that occurred away from school.


Figure 2.2. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and sex: 2014

Figure 2.2. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and sex: 2014

NOTE: "Violent victimization" includes serious violent crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault) as well as simple assault. "Theft" includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. "Total victimization" includes thefts and violent crimes. "At school" includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 1218 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding and missing data on student characteristics.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2014.


Figure 2.3. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and urbanicity: 2014

Figure 2.3. Rate of nonfatal victimization against students ages 1218 per 1,000 students, by location, type of victimization, and urbanicity: 2014

NOTE: "Violent victimization" includes serious violent crimes (rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault) as well as simple assault. "Theft" includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime. "Total victimization" includes thefts and violent crimes. "At school" includes inside the school building, on school property, or on the way to or from school. Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 1218 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS. The population size for students ages 1218 was 25,773,800 in 2014. Detail may not sum to totals due to rounding and missing data on student characteristics.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), 2014.

This indicator has been updated to include 2014 data. For more information: Tables 2.1 and 2.2.

Top


16 Although Indicators 2 and 3 present information on similar topics, Indicator 2 is based solely on data collected in the NCVS, whereas Indicator 3 is based on data collected in the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the NCVS as well as demographic data collected in the NCVS. Indicator 2 uses data from all students ages 12-18 who responded to the NCVS, while Indicator 3 uses data from all students ages 12-18 who responded to both the NCVS and the SCS.
17 "Theft" includes attempted and completed purse-snatching, completed pickpocketing, and all attempted and completed thefts, with the exception of motor vehicle thefts. Theft does not include robbery, which involves the threat or use of force and is classified as a violent crime.
18 "Violent victimization" includes serious violent crimes and simple assault.
19 "Students" refers to youth ages 1218 whose educational attainment did not exceed grade 12 at the time of the survey. An uncertain percentage of these persons may not have attended school during the survey reference period. These data do not take into account the number of hours that students spend at school or away from school. "At school" includes inside the school building, on school property, and on the way to or from school.
20 "Simple assault" includes threats and attacks without a weapon or serious injury.
21 "Serious violent victimization" includes the crimes of rape, sexual assault, robbery, and aggravated assault.