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Percentage of children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten participating in weekly nonparental care and the mean number of hours per week that children spend in current primary weekly nonparental care arrangements with relative, nonrelative, or center-based provider, by child and family characteristics: 2016

Characteristic Number of
Percent in at
least one weekly
nonparental care
Mean number of hours per week spent in
different types of primary nonparental
care arrangements1
Total   21,362 60 23 27 24
Child’s age            
Less than one year   4,724 47 25 30 31
1–2 years   8,552 54 23 27 28
3–5 years   8,087 73 20 26 21
Household income            
$20,000 or less   3,049 48 25 26 20
$20,001–$50,000   5,706 50 24 25 22
$50,001–$75,000   3,821 56 21 26 23
$75,001–$100,000   2,882 66 23 27 24
$100,001 or more   5,904 75 21 28 26
1 If children were not in a given care arrangement, they were not included in the estimate for mean length of time in that particular care arrangement (e.g., children not in relative care were not included in the denominator for estimates for relative care).
2 Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.
NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten with at least one regularly scheduled weekly nonparental care arrangement. Since a child may have multiple weekly arrangements within a single type of care (e.g., different arrangements with two or more relatives), parents were asked to only report on the primary arrangement for that care type. The primary care arrangement is defined as where the child spends the most time within a particular type of care as determined by the parent. A child may also have multiple weekly arrangements across the three types of care. That is, a child may have a primary care arrangement with a relative as well as a primary care arrangement at a center. As a result, a single child may be represented in multiple columns of this table. Among all children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten, 12 percent of children's parents report having more than one type of regularly scheduled weekly nonparental care arrangement. Parents were not asked to distinguish which type of care is the most primary weekly arrangement for the child.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the 2016 National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2016).