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NAEP Accommodations Increase Inclusiveness

The responses of students with disabilities (SD) and English learners (EL) on NAEP assessments represent those of hundreds of other similar students. Without them, information about how to best meet the educational needs of these students would be lost. NAEP incorporates inclusive policies and practices into every aspect of the assessment, including selection of students, participation in the assessment administration, and valid and effective accommodations. This is essential to ensuring an assessment that yields meaningful NAEP results for all students. By representing their peers across the nation on NAEP, students with disabilities and English learners help to ensure that NAEP results can be used to inform efforts to improve educational programs.

Just like any other student, SD and EL students are selected to participate in NAEP. Within each selected school and grade to be assessed, students are chosen at random to participate in NAEP. Regardless of race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disability, status as an English learner, or any other factors, every student has the same chance of being selected, because NAEP is administered to a sample of students who represent the student population of the nation as a whole, and for state level tests, of each individual state.

The accommodations allowed on NAEP and those allowed in states are often similar, but there may be some differences. Sometimes these differences result from the way that the subject being measured is defined in the NAEP frameworks. For example, NAEP does not allow read-aloud of any part of the NAEP reading test except the instructions, because decoding words is part of what the NAEP framework is measuring.

The many accommodations available in NAEP can be categorized for ease of understanding:

standard
Standard NAEP Practice, for SD and/or EL
Standard Accommodations for SD/EL StudentsMathReadingScienceWriting (CBA)Civics, Economics, Geography, U.S. HistoryMusic and Visual ArtsTELWriting (before CBA; paper and pencil)
Extended timeYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Small group, or one-on-oneYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
One-on-oneYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Directions only read aloud in EnglishYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Test items read aloud in English – occasional or most/allYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Breaks during testYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Writes directly in the bookletNoNoNoNoNoNoNoNo
sd_students
Other Accommodations for SD students
Other Accommodations for SD StudentsMathReadingScienceWriting (CBA)Civics, Economics, Geography, U.S. HistoryMusic and Visual ArtsTELWriting (before CBA; paper and pencil)
Calculator version of the test FN3Yes FN3NoNoNoNoNoNoNo
Must have an aide present in the testing roomYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Responds orally to a scribeYesYesYesYesYesYesYesNo
Large print version of the testYesYesYesYes UDYesYes (Music Only)Yes UDYes
MagnificationYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Uses template/special equipment/preferential seatingYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Cueing to stay on taskYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Presentation in BrailleYesYesNoYesYesYesYesYes
Response in BrailleYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Presentation in Sign LanguageYesNoYesYesYesYesYesYes
Response in Sign LanguageYesYesYesYesYesNoNoNo
accommodations
Other Accommodations for EL students
Accommodations for EL StudentsMathReadingScienceWriting (CBA)Civics, Economics, Geography, U.S. HistoryMusic and Visual ArtsTELWriting (before CBA; paper and pencil)
Bilingual dictionary without definitions in any languageYesNoYesNoYesYesYesNo
Directions only read aloud in SpanishYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYes
Spanish/English version of the test (not g12)YesNoYesNo FN6Yes FN3NoNoNo
Test items read aloud in Spanish (not g12 Math)YesNoYesNoYesNoNoNo
universal
Universal Design Elements and Descriptions
Universal Design Elements available for all students in Digitally Based AssessmentsNAEP SubjectUsed for Mathematics, Reading, Science, and TEL
ZoomingMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELText size options are provided for short standalone items (e.g., multiple-choice and short constructed-response items) but not for the scenario-based tasks, which will be the standard 12-point font. For the short standalone items, students can change sizes ranging from approximately 12-point font to approximately 24-point font. Twenty-four point font is approximately 1/3-inch tall. NOTE: This only enlarges the short standalone items, NOT the scenario-based tasks, tool icons, menus, etc.
Small GroupMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELUnnecessary due to the mode of test administration. All students are interacting on a one-on-one basis with the tablet and will have earbuds to reduce distractions. Read aloud and other accommodations will be provided through the computer and will not distract other students in the room.
One-on-OneMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELUnnecessary due to the mode of test administration. All students are interacting on a one-on-one basis with the tablet and will have earbuds to reduce distractions. Read aloud and other accommodations will be provided through the computer/tablet and will not distract other students in the room.
Text-to-Speech (English) - Directions OnlyMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELGeneral directions are read aloud to all students. Directions within the assessment can be read aloud using the text-to-speech function. The tutorial explains how to do this and has full audio.
Text-to-Speech (English) - Occasional or Most or All
Mathematics, TEL, and Science
Not Allowed for Reading
Students select some or all text to be read aloud. The tutorial explains how to do this and has full audio.
Text-to-Speech (English)- Occasional or Most or All is not allowed for Reading passages or items.
Use a Computer/Tablet to RespondMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELAll students respond on NAEP-provided tablets.
Color ContrastMathematics, Science, and TEL Accommodation for ReadingStudents have a choice of three color contrast options, including one high-contrast option. The default is black text on white background and the two other options are white text on black background and black text on beige background.
NOTE: This tool is not available for the tutorial, the scenario-based tasks, or any image/video content. For reading, this is available as an accommodation for visually-impaired students.
Scratchwork/Highlighter CapabilityMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELA scratchwork/highlighter tool is available for short standalone items (e.g., multiple-choice and short constructed-response items). This tool contains an embedded pencil mode and highlighter mode. The tutorial explains how to do this and has full audio.
NOTE: This tool is not available for the scenario-based tasks.
Eliminating CapabilityMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELA tool for eliminating answer choices for multiple-choice items, as appropriate.
NOTE: This tool is not available for the scenario-based tasks.
Volume AdjustmentMathematics, Science, Reading, and TELSome portions of the assessment feature audio, such as text-to-speech or multimedia item content. Students may raise or lower the volume using a control on the tablet.
Closed CaptioningMathematics, Science,Reading, and TELAll voice-over narration is closed captioned.

 

Universal Design Elements available for all students in Digitally-Based AssessmentsUsed for CBA Writing 2011 and TEL 2013
Adjusting font sizeText size options are provided for short standalone items (e.g., multiple choice and short constructed response items), but not for the scenario-based tasks which will be the standard 14-point font. For the short standalone items, students can change between three sizes ranging from approximately 14-point font to approximately 48-point font. Forty-eight point font is approximately ¾ - inch tall.
NOTE: This only enlarges the short standalone items , NOT the scenario-based tasks, tool icons, menus, etc.
Small groupUnnecessary due to the mode of test administration. All students are interacting on a one-on-one basis with the computer and will have earbuds to reduce distractions. Read aloud and other accommodations will be provided through the compute
One-on-oneUnnecessary due to the mode of test administration. All students are interacting on a one-on-one basis with the computer and will have earbuds to reduce distractions. Read aloud and other accommodations will be provided through the computer and will not distract other students in the room.
Directions only read aloud in English-occasional (text to speech)General directions are read aloud to all students. Directions within the assessment can be read aloud using the text to speech function. See Test items read aloud in English for more information.
Test items read aloud in English – occasional (text to speech)Students select some or all text to be read aloud. Tutorial explains how to do this and has full audio. Text selection is provided for short standalone items (e.g., multiple choice and short constructed response items). For scenario-based tasks, all text is read aloud; individual words or phrases cannot be selected.
Test items read aloud in English – most or all (text to speech)Students select some or all text to be read aloud. Tutorial explains how to do this and has full audio. Text selection is provided for short standalone items (e.g., multiple choice and short constructed response items). For scenario-based tasks, all text is read aloud; individual words or phrases cannot be selected.
Using a computer or typewriter to respondAll students respond on NAEP-provided laptops.
Adjusting contrast or colorsStudents have a choice of three color options, or skins, including one high-contrast option.
Highlighter toolA yellow highlighter tool is available for short standalone items (e.g., multiple choice and short constructed response items).
NOTE: This tool is not available for the student questionnaire or the scenario-based tasks.
Eliminating answer choice toolA tool for eliminating answer choices for short standalone items (e.g., multiple choice and discrete items) in the cognitive section of the assessment (as appropriate).
NOTE: This tool is not available for the student questionnaire or the scenario-based tasks.
dbauniversal
NAEP Digitally Based Assessments Universal Design Elements and Accommodations
NAEP Universal Design ElementsNAEP Accommodations Provided by the Test Delivery SystemNAEP Accommodations Provided Outside the Test Delivery System
ZoomingExtended TimeBreaks During Testing
Individual Testing ExperienceMagnificationSeparate Location
Directions Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (English)Low Mobility Version of the TestFamiliar Person Present in Testing Room
Directions Clarified/ExplainedCalculator Version of the Test 2Uses Template
Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (English) - Occasional or Most or All 1Hearing Impaired Version of the Test 3Special Equipment
Use a Computer/Tablet to RespondVisually Impaired StudentsPreferential Seating
Color ThemingDirections Only Translated to SpanishCueing to Stay on Task
Scratchwork/Highlighter CapabilityDirections Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish)Scribe
Eliminating CapabilitySpanish/English Version of the Test 1Directions Only Presented in Sign Language
Volume AdjustmentRead Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish) – Occasional or Most or All 1Presentation in Sign Language 1
Closed CaptioningN/AResponse in Sign Language
Scratch PaperN/ABraille Version of the Test
1NAEP UDE or accommodations that are not allowed for the NAEP reading assessments.
2A Calculator Version of the Test is not needed for civics, reading or U.S. history.
3A Hearing Impaired Version of the Test is not needed for math or reading since all auditory content includes closed captioning.

Digitally Based Assessments UDE and Accommodation Descriptions

Universal Design Elements

Zooming: Up to two times the default text/image size on the screen, while preserving clarity, contrast, and color. Use the Magnification accommodation if the student needs more than two times the default text/image size.

Individual Testing Experience: Read Aloud and other UDE and accommodations are provided through the tablet and will not distract other students in the room.

  • Students have earbuds to reduce distractions.
  • Students interact directly with tablet.
  • Tested with other selected students.

Directions Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (English): All content in the assessment is text-to-speech enabled, including general directions, directions within the assessment, Tutorial, Help, and Student Questionnaire screens.

Directions Explained/Clarified: Students can raise their hand at any time and ask the test administrator to clarify or explain directions.

Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (English) – Occasional or Most or All: All content in the assessment is text-to-speech enabled. Follow subject-specific recommendations developed by NAEP Item Development and applied to the text-to-speech functionality for the NAEP DBA. Constructed responses added by students and the toolbar are not text-to-speech enabled.

Use a Computer/Tablet to Respond: All students respond on NAEP-provided tablets.

Color Theming: Default is black text on white background. The system provides high contrast of white text on black background and black text on beige background. Follow subject-specific recommendations developed by NAEP Item Development (i.e., science tasks do not allow changing of theme). Applies contrast to content as well as test delivery system theme/chrome (buttons, icons, tools, etc.). For students with visual impairments that require high contrast, instruct schools to select the High Contrast for Visually Impaired Students accommodation.

Scratchwork/Highlighter Capability: Contains an embedded pencil mode to mark-up or take notes on the screen and highlighter mode to highlight text on the screen.

Elimination Capability: Available for multiple-choice items and the student questionnaire.

Volume Adjustment: Students can raise or lower voice-over volume using the tablet’s volume buttons.

Closed Captioning: All auditory content includes closed captioning.

Scratch Paper: Administrators inform students that scratch paper (and pencil) is available upon request. Text in the session script is “If you would like a piece of scratch paper at any time during the assessment, raise your hand and one will be provided to you.”

Accommodations

Extended Time: Students are given up to three times the allotted time to complete the assessment.

Magnification: Requires a special form. Accommodation for students with disabilities that requires magnification greater than two times the default text/image size on the screen. Magnifier provided via the test delivery system. Students use the magnifier to scroll over a portion of the screen to magnify the content on the screen. Magnifies all assessment content, including tools, menus, calculator, and equation editor.

Low Mobility Version of the Test: Requires a special form. All items are keyboard navigable or accessible with an alternate input device provided by the school or student.

Calculator Version of the Test (Mathematics only): Requires a special form. All cognitive blocks in this form permit the use of a calculator. Calculator provided via the test delivery system.

Hearing Impaired Version of the Test: Requires a special form. All auditory content is closed-captioned.

High Contrast for Visually Impaired Students: Requires a special form. Provides a test form with all content that is compliant with WCAG 2.1 minimum contrast requirements (success criteria 1.4.11 and 1.4.3).

Directions Only Translated to Spanish: Requires a special form. Translates all directions, including administrator-read directions, to Spanish. Translates directions within the assessment, Tutorial, Help, and Student Questionnaire screens. A toggle button is available on these screens to go back and forth between Spanish and English. Paired with Directions Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish). All Spanish translations are text-to-speech enabled. Historically, NAEP does not provide Spanish translations at grade 12[1].

Directions Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish): Paired with Directions Translated to Spanish. All Spanish translations are text-to-speech enabled. Historically, NAEP does not provide Spanish translations at grade 12.

Spanish/English Version of the Test: Translate all content, including administrator-read directions, to Spanish. Toggle buttons are available on these screens to go back and forth between Spanish and English. All Spanish translations are text-to-speech enabled. Requires a special form and paired with Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish) – Occasional/Most or All. Historically, NAEP does not provide Spanish translations at grade 12.

Read Aloud/Text-to-Speech (Spanish) – Occasional/Most or All: Requires a special form. Paired with Spanish/English Version of the Test. All Spanish translations are text-to-speech enabled. Historically, NAEP does not provide Spanish translations at grade 12.

Breaks During Test: Students allowed to take breaks as requested or at predetermined intervals during the assessment. Students can take the assessment in more than one sitting during a single day.

Separate Location: Student is tested in a separate location to meet testing needs as appropriate.

  • May be in the same room but in a specific location or a different room.
  • Can be individual or with a small group of students.

Familiar Person Present in Testing Room: The aide that regularly works with the student must be present in the testing room during the assessment. Only trained NAEP staff may conduct the DBA assessment session.

Uses Template: A template is a cutout or overlay provided by the school. Used to focus a student’s attention on one part of a screen by obscuring the other parts of the screen; also known as masking.

Special Equipment: Provided by the school. Includes – but is not limited to – the following:

  • FM system, amplification equipment, auditory amplification device
  • Noise buffers, study carrel, blinder, special lighting, adaptive furniture
  • Stress ball or sensory fidget item

Preferential Seating: Requires that a student sit in a designated area for the assessment, such as away from other students to limit distractions; a location where there is access to special equipment; or close to the front of the room so that a student can see or hear more easily.

Cueing to Stay on Task: Provided by a school staff member. Includes the following:

  • Monitor for understanding, monitor placement of responses
  • Redirect to stay on task, reminders to stay on task, prompts to stay on task
  • Verbal encouragement, reinforcement, refocus
  • Track test items

Scribe: Requires a special form. Includes items that are appropriate for responding orally to a scribe. Accommodation provided by a school staff member who is familiar with scribing for the student.

Directions Only Presented in Sign Language: A qualified sign language interpreter at the school signs the instructions included in the session script.

Presentation and Response in Sign Language: Requires a special form. Includes items that are appropriate for presentation and response in sign language. Accommodation provided by a qualified sign language interpreter at the school.

Braille Version of the Test: A paper-based embossed braille form. NAEP uses contracted Unified English Braille (UEB) for all subjects. For the mathematics, NAEP offers two forms to meet student needs; UEB plus Nemeth and UEB only.

  • Students may use an abacus as scratch paper
  • Mathematics – Non-calculator blocks will be used for the braille form. However, students who have a calculator accommodation in their IEP can bring their own calculator to the assessment (this includes talking calculators). Any items compromised by the use of a calculator will not be used for analysis.

Bilingual Dictionary (in any language): A handheld electronic or hardcopy bilingual dictionary provided by the school in any language that contains English translations of words but does not contain definitions. Sometimes referred to as a “word-for-word” dictionary, “word-to-word translation dictionary,” or a “bilingual word list.”


Last updated 25 October 2021 (DS)