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National Center for Education Statistics

1Physical library circulation is defined as usage of physical books, media, or serials whether viewed within the library or at an off-site location.

2Digital/electronic circulation is defined as usage of digital/electronic titles whether viewed, downloaded, or streamed.

NOTE: Title IV institutions are those with a written agreement with the U.S. Department of Education that allows the institution to participate in any of the Title IV federal student financial assistance programs. United States includes the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The four U.S. service academies that are not Title IV eligible are included in the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) universe because they are federally funded and open to the public and are included in this table. Definitions for terms used in this table may be found in the collection year’s archived downloadable glossary located at

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, IPEDS, Spring 2018, Academic Libraries component (final data).