What is Title IX?
The U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights enforces, among other statutes, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX states that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Title IX applies to institutions that receive federal financial assistance from the U S. Department of Education, including state and local educational agencies. These agencies include approximately 16,500 local school districts, 7,000 postsecondary institutions, as well as charter schools, for-profit schools, libraries, and museums. Also included are vocational rehabilitation agencies and education agencies of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and territories and possessions of the United States.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). Title IX and Sex Discrimination.
Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:
Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education completed (e.g., a high school diploma or equivalency certificate, an associate's degree, a bachelor's degree, or a master's degree). Between 2000 and 2016, educational attainment rates among 25- to 29-year-olds increased. During this time, the percentage who had received at least a high school diploma or its equivalent increased from 88 to 92 percent, the percentage with an associate's or higher degree increased from 38 to 46 percent, the percentage with a bachelor's or higher degree increased from 29 to 36 percent, and the percentage with a master's or higher degree increased from 5 to 9 percent.
Since 2000, attainment rates among 25- to 29-year-olds have generally been higher for females than for males at each education level. Additionally, attainment rates have increased for both female and male 25- to 29-year-olds across all education levels. During this time period, there was no measurable change in the gender gap at the high school completion level, while the gender gaps have widened at the associate's and higher degree levels. Among 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed an associate's or higher degree, the gender gap widened from 5 percentage points in 2000 to 10 percentage points in 2011, but has remained around 9 percentage points in every year since. Similarly, among 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a bachelor's or higher degree, the gender gap widened from 2 percentage points in 2000 to 8 percentage points in 2009, but the gender gap has remained between 6 and 8 percentage points since 2009. Among 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a master's or higher degree, the gender gap widened from 1 percentage point in 2000 to 4 percentage points in 2016.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2017). The Condition of Education 2017 (NCES 2017-144), Educational Attainment of Young Adults.
Participation in Athletics
Data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) provide information concerning personnel, revenues, expenses, and other comparative variables of men’s and women’s intercollegiate athletics programs at NCAA member institutions for the fiscal years 2004 through 2010. Comparing the 2004 data to the 2010 data reveals increases in the participation of female student athletes. During this time, there was an approximately 14 percentage point increase in the participation of female student athletes in Division I, a 21 percentage point increase for women in Division II, and a 14 percentage point increase for women in Division III.
SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2012). Research — NCAA Gender Equity Report 2004–2010.
Related Tables and Figures: (Listed by Release Date)
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