What is Title IX?
The U.S. Department of Educationís Office for Civil Rights enforces, among other statutes, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX states that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Title IX applies to institutions that receive federal financial assistance from the U S. Department of Education, including state and local educational agencies. These agencies include approximately 16,500 local school districts, 7,000 postsecondary institutions, as well as charter schools, for-profit schools, libraries, and museums. Also included are vocational rehabilitation agencies and education agencies of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and territories and possessions of the United States.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). Title IX and Sex Discrimination.
Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:
Educational attainment refers to the level of education completed (reported here as high school completion or higher,1 an associateís or higher degree, a bachelorís or higher degree, or a masterís or higher degree). Between 2000 and 2019, educational attainment rates among 25- to 29-year-olds increased at each attainment level. During this time, the percentage with high school completion or higher increased from 88 to 94 percent, the percentage with an associateís or higher degree increased from 38 to 49 percent, the percentage with a bachelorís or higher degree increased from 29 to 39 percent, and the percentage with a masterís or higher degree increased from 5 to 9 percent.
Between 2000 and 2019, educational attainment rates increased for both female and male 25- to 29-year-olds across all education levels. During this period, attainment rates for 25- to 29-year-olds were generally higher for females than for males, and the difference between the attainment rates for 25- to 29-year-old females and males (also referred to in this Fast Fact as the gender gap) widened at all attainment levels except for the high school completion or higher level. For example, at the bachelorís or higher degree level, the gender gap widened from 2 percentage points in 2000 to 6 percentage points in 2019. Similarly, at the masterís or higher degree level, the gender gap widened from 1 percentage point in 2000 to 3 percentage points in 2019. However, the gender gap at the high school completion or higher level in 2019 (2 percentage points) was not measurably different from the gap in 2000.
1High school completion includes those who graduated from high school with a diploma as well as those who completed high school through equivalency programs, such as a GED program.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2020). The Condition of Education 2020 (NCES 2020-144), Educational Attainment of Young Adults.
Participation in Athletics
The girlsí high school participation rate is greater than 10 times what it was when Title IX was passed, an increase of more than 1,000 percent. However, current girlsí participation numbers have never reached the boysí 1971-72 level. In 1972, when Title IX was passed, boysí participation numbers were 3,666,917, which is 324,591 more than girls have in 2016.
Both womenís and menís NCAA championship sports participation opportunities have increased every year since Title IX was passed. In 2015-16, a record number of male and female student-athletes participated in NCAA championship sports. Division I has the highest female participation rate, with 46.7 percent of opportunities for women, who are on average 53 percent of the undergraduate population on Division I campuses. Female student-athletes have 41.7 percent of the championship sport opportunities offered by Division II, a slight increase from five years ago. Division II has a participation gap of 16.6 percent between men and women. Since 2002, the Division III female participation rate as compared to the menís rate has decreased slightly. Division III has the largest participation gap between men and women of the three NCAA divisions.
SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2017). 45 Years of Title IX: The Status of Women in Intercollegiate Athletics.
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