What is Title IX?
The U.S. Department of Education’s Office for Civil Rights enforces, among other statutes, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Title IX protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. Title IX states that: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. Title IX applies to institutions that receive federal financial assistance from the U S. Department of Education, including state and local educational agencies. These agencies include approximately 16,500 local school districts, 7,000 postsecondary institutions, as well as charter schools, for-profit schools, libraries, and museums. Also included are vocational rehabilitation agencies and education agencies of 50 states, the District of Columbia, and territories and possessions of the United States. SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2015). Title IX and Sex Discrimination. Examples of progress toward gender equity in recent decades are listed below:
Educational attainment refers to the highest level of education completed (defined here as a high school diploma or equivalency certificate, an associate's degree, a bachelor's degree, or a master's or higher degree). Between 2000 and 2017, educational attainment rates among 25- to 29-year-olds increased at each attainment level. During this time, the percentage who had received at least a high school diploma or its equivalent increased from 88 to 92 percent, the percentage with an associate's or higher degree increased from 38 to 46 percent, the percentage with a bachelor's or higher degree increased from 29 to 36 percent, and the percentage with a master's or higher degree increased from 5 to 9 percent.
Between 2000 and 2017, attainment rates increased for both female and male 25- to 29-year-olds across all education levels. Attainment rates for 25- to 29-year-olds were generally higher for females than for males during this period. Between 2000 and 2017, the difference between the attainment rates for 25- to 29-year-old females and males (also referred to in this indicator as the gender gap) did not vary measurably at the high school completion or higher and master's or higher degree attainment levels; however, the gender gap did widen at the associate's or higher degree and bachelor's or higher degree attainment levels. Among 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed an associate's or higher degree, the gender gap widened from 5 percentage points in 2000 to 10 percentage points in 2017. Similarly, among 25- to 29-year-olds who had completed a bachelor's or higher degree, the gender gap widened from 2 percentage points in 2000 to 7 percentage points in 2017.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2018). The Condition of Education 2018 (NCES 2018-144), Educational Attainment of Young Adults.
Participation in Athletics
The girls’ high school participation rate is greater than 10 times what it was when Title IX was passed, an increase of more than 1,000 percent. However, current girls’ participation numbers have never reached the boys’ 1971-72 level. In 1972, when Title IX was passed, boys’ participation numbers were 3,666,917, which is 324,591 more than girls have in 2016.
Both women’s and men’s NCAA championship sports participation opportunities have increased every year since Title IX was passed. In 2015-16, a record number of male and female student-athletes participated in NCAA championship sports. Division I has the highest female participation rate, with 46.7 percent of opportunities for women, who are on average 53 percent of the undergraduate population on Division I campuses. Female student-athletes have 41.7 percent of the championship sport opportunities offered by Division II, a slight increase from five years ago. Division II has a participation gap of 16.6 percent between men and women. Since 2002, the Division III female participation rate as compared to the men’s rate has decreased slightly. Division III has the largest participation gap between men and women of the three NCAA divisions.
SOURCE: The National Collegiate Athletic Association. (2017). 45 Years of Title IX: The Status of Women in Intercollegiate Athletics.
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