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PEDAR: Research Methodology  Gender Differences in Participation and Completion of Undergraduate Education and How They Have Changed Over Time
Executive Summary
Research Methodology
References
Full Report (PDF)
Executive Summary (PDF)
 Footnotes

1For more information on NPSAS, consult the methodology reports for each survey: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Methodology Report for the 1990 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NCES 92–080) (Washington, DC: 1992), National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1995–96 (NPSAS:96), Methodology Report (NCES 98–073) (Washington, DC: 1997), and National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1999–2000 (NPSAS:2000), Methodology Report (NCES 2002–152) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

2U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Methodology Report for the 1990 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NCES 92–080) (Washington, DC: 1992). (return to text)

3U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1995–96 (NPSAS:96), Methodology Report (NCES 98–073) (Washington, DC: 1997). (return to text)

4U.S. Department of Education, NCES, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1999–2000 (NPSAS:2000), Methodology Report (NCES 2002–152) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

5For nonresponse bias analysis, see U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, 1999–2000 (NPSAS:2000), CATI Nonresponse Bias Analysis Report (NCES 2002–03) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

6For more information on HS&B:80/92, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, High School and Beyond Fourth Follow-Up Methodology Report (NCES 95–426) (Washington, DC: 1995). (return to text)

7For more information on NELS:88/2000, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988: Base-Year to Fourth Follow-up Data File User’s Manual (NCES 2002–323) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

8For more information on BPS, consult the methodology reports for each survey: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report (NCES 96–153) (Washington, DC:1996) and Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study:1996–2001 Methodology Report (NCES 2002–171) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

9Eligibility status could not be determined for about 6 percent of the BPS:90/94 sample. (return to text)

10For more information on BPS:90/94, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study Second Follow-up (BPS:90/94) Final Technical Report (NCES 96–153) (Washington, DC:1996). (return to text)

11For more information on BPS:96/01, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study:1996–2001 Methodology Report (NCES 2002–171) (Washington, DC: 2002). (return to text)

12For more information on B&B, consult the methodology reports for each survey: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 1993/97 Methodology Report, (NCES 99–159) (Washington, DC: 1999) and Methodology Report for the 2001 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (NCES 2003–156) (Washington, DC: 2003). (return to text)

13For more information on B&B:93/97, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 1993/97 Methodology Report (NCES 99–159) (Washington, DC: 1999). (return to text)

14For more information on B&B:2000/01, consult U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Methodology Report for the 2001 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (NCES 2003–156) (Washington, DC: 2003). (return to text)

15None of the survey samples were based on simple random sampling procedures and, therefore, simple random sample techniques for estimating sampling error cannot be applied to these data. The DAS takes into account the complexity of the sampling procedures and calculates standard errors appropriate for such samples. The method for computing sampling errors used by the DAS is Balanced Repeated Replication (BRR). (return to text)

16A Type I error occurs when one concludes that a difference observed in a sample reflects a true difference in the population from which the sample was drawn, when no such true difference is present. (return to text)

17U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, A Note from the Chief Statistician, no. 2, 1993. (return to text)

18Ibid. (return to text)

19The standard that p≤ .05/k for each comparison is more stringent than the criterion that the significance level of the comparisons should sum to p≤ .05. For tables showing the t statistic required to ensure that p≤ .05/k for a particular family size and degrees of freedom, see Olive Jean Dunn, “Multiple Comparisons Among Means,“ Journal of the American Statistical Association 56 (1961): 52–64. (return to text)