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PEDAR: Executive Summary  Gender Differences in Participation and Completion of Undergraduate Education and How They Have Changed Over Time
Executive Summary
Research Methodology
Full Report (PDF)
Executive Summary (PDF)

1Calculated from U.S. Department of Education 2004, table 189. (return to text)

2The 1982 and 1992 high school graduate cohorts from the HS&B and NELS longitudinal studies were analyzed because they provide comprehensive and comparable measures of high school academic preparation among high school graduates who enrolled in college. More recent data from the 2000 High School Transcript Study reported in Freeman (2004) indicate young women were more likely than young men to take advanced placement (AP) courses and to take the AP exams. The same study also reported that among 2001 high school seniors, young women were more likely than their male peers to report definite plans to graduate from a 4-year college. (return to text)

3High school academic intensity is a composite measure of students’ highest level of mathematics, total mathematics credits, total Advanced Placement courses, total English credits, total foreign language credits, total science credits, total core laboratory science credits, total social science credits, and total computer science credits. For more information, see Adelman, Daniel, and Berkovits (2003). (return to text)

4For the 1982 cohort, degrees were determined in 1992, or 10 years after enrollment, while for the 1992 cohort, degrees were determined at the time of the last follow-up in 2000, or 8 years after enrollment. (return to text)

5The unemployment rate is constructed to approximate the definition of the unemployment rate used by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. That is, the rate is calculated as the number of people who are unemployed divided by all those who are in the labor force (unemployed plus those who are working; respondents who are out of the labor force are excluded from the calculation). The rate includes unemployed (with or without benefits) for 1992–93 bachelor’s degree recipients and includes unemployed and waiting to report to work or laid off for 1999–2000 bachelor’s degree recipients. (return to text)