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PEDAR: Executive Summary Gender and Racial/Ethnic Differences in Salary and Other Characteristics of Postsecondary Faculty: Fall 1998
Differences Between Male and Female Faculty Members
Differences Among Racial/Ethnic Groups
Other Findings
Research Methodology
Full Report (PDF)
Executive Summary (PDF)
Differences Between Male and Female Faculty Members

Overall, men's salaries were higher than women's salaries: full-time male faculty averaged about $61,700 in base salary from the institution in 1998, compared with $48,400 for full-time female faculty. Furthermore, men's salary advantage was found among White,2 Asian, Black, and Hispanic faculty as well. The male-female difference in base salary ranged from about $7,000 among Black faculty to about $14,0003 among White faculty. The regression analysis also showed that, after controlling for race, type of institution, teaching field, level of instruction, tenure status, rank, highest degree, years since highest degree, age, average proportion of time spent on teaching and on research, number of classes taught, and number of total publications or other permanent creative works, full-time female faculty members earned nearly 9 percent4 less than their male counterparts.

Other faculty outcomes and characteristics also differed by gender in fall 1998. Overall, men held higher ranks and were more likely than women to have tenure. Men were much more likely than women to be full professors, and 60 percent of men had tenure, compared with 42 percent of women. Women were also more likely than men to have jobs that were not on the tenure track. Men's and women's highest degree and years of experience also differed. While about three-quarters (74 percent) of men held doctoral or first-professional degrees, 54 percent of women held these degrees, and women were much more likely than men to have completed their education with a master's degree. Men had also held their highest degrees for longer periods of time, on average, than women and had been teaching longer both in their current jobs and in higher education overall. On the other hand, no differences were detected between women and men in the number of jobs in higher education during their careers. Since women's careers were shorter, this result suggests more frequent job turnover among women.

Men were more likely than women to be employed at public doctoral institutions, while women were more likely to work at public 2-year colleges. Gender differences in teaching field were evident as well: men were more likely than women to teach in the natural sciences and engineering, while women were more likely to teach in the health sciences or in the social sciences and education.

Teaching and research activities of male and female faculty members also differed. Women spent a greater average proportion of their total work time on activities related to teaching, averaging about 60 percent of their work time on such activities, compared with about 55 percent for men. Conversely, about 70 percent of men reported that they were engaged in some type of research activity, compared with about 62 percent of women. Men had also produced more scholarly works than women over the previous 2 years.

Because non-Hispanic Whites are the largest racial/ethnic group of faculty, gender differences overall are driven by the differences between White men and White women. Less is known about the extent of gender differences among other racial/ethnic groups. This report found that most of the gender differences among White faculty also existed among Asian faculty, while fewer such differences existed among Black and Hispanic faculty. Yet several differences did emerge. Black women were more likely than Black men to be employed at community colleges. In addition, Black men were more likely to teach in the natural sciences and engineering, while Black women were more likely to teach in the health sciences or social sciences and education. Both Black and Hispanic men were more likely than their female counterparts to hold the most senior positions, and like Asian and White men, Black and Hispanic men tended to have more education than their female counterparts.

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