Search Results: (1-15 of 91 records)
|WWC 2021006||Assisting Students Struggling with Mathematics: Intervention in the Elementary Grades
The What Works Clearinghouse&TM; (WWC) developed this practice guide in partnership with a panel of experts including educators in both mathematics and special education. The panel distilled recent, rigorous mathematics intervention research into six practice recommendations for educators working with students in grades K-6. The guide can help educators tailor their math instruction approaches and small-group intervention programs and will also be useful to math specialists, math coaches, district and state personnel, and parents.
|REL 2021060||Integrating Reading Foundations: A Tool for College Instructors of Pre‑service Teachers
The College Instructor’s Guide is designed to assist college instructors build pre-service teacher knowledge of evidence-based strategies to help kindergarten through grade 3 students acquire the language and literacy skills needed to succeed academically. This tool is intended to be used in conjunction with the Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade practice guide, produced by the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC), an investment of the Institute of Education Sciences at the U.S. Department of Education. College instructors may use the lessons in this tool to provide collaborative learning experiences which engage pre-service teachers in activities that will expand their knowledge base as they read, discuss, share, and apply the key ideas and strategies presented in the WWC Practice Guide.
Each lesson in this College Instructor's Guide includes the following:
|REL 2021078||Students' Use of School-Based Telemedicine Services and Rates of Returning to Class After These Services in a Small Elementary School District
In 2018, a small elementary school district in California introduced school-based telemedicine services for K–6 students to address the health, well-being, and attendance challenges that can interfere with school success. During the first two years of implementation, about a quarter of the students used telemedicine services at least once, and nearly one in ten used telemedicine services multiple times. Descriptive results indicated that students in the lower and upper elementary grades did not differ in their use of telemedicine, though there were some differences in telemedicine use and reasons for seeking services by student race/ethnicity. This suggests that the needs, awareness, level of comfort, or rate of parent/guardian consent for receiving these services may vary across student groups. Results also indicated that telemedicine can treat students during the school day, enabling them to attend classes for the remainder of instruction the day of the visit. For these students, this resulted in an average of 3 hours of instruction instead of being sent home with an unmet health need. Telemedicine may hold promise to help students stay healthy and in school, whether they are learning from home during the pandemic or when schools buildings are open.
|REL 2021061||Changes in Exclusionary and Nonexclusionary Discipline in Grades K-5 Following State Policy Reform in Oregon
Oregon has enacted policy reforms to reduce exclusionary discipline and increase racial equity in school discipline practices. One such reform passed in 2015 limits the use of exclusionary discipline (i.e., removing students from classroom instruction through suspension and expulsion) for students in grades K-5 for infractions that do not pose a direct threat to the safety of others. This study examined school discipline practices in a voluntary sample of 401 Oregon elementary schools to determine whether the 2015 policy reform was associated with shifts in how exclusionary discipline and nonexclusionary discipline was applied among racial and ethnic student groups. Nonexclusionary discipline does not remove students from classroom instruction and may include teacher conferences, parent/guardian contact, detention, and other consequences. Descriptive findings indicate that there was an increase in the total number of exclusionary and nonexclusionary discipline actions after the 2015 policy reform compared to the pre-policy years. Black students, in particular, experienced the largest increase in exclusionary discipline after the 2015 policy reform than before the reform, and were two to three times more likely to experience exclusionary discipline than all other students across study years. For most racial and ethnic student groups, office discipline referrals for minor, disruptive, and/or aggressive behavioral infractions that were not a school safety concern became less likely to result in exclusionary discipline, and therefore more likely to result in nonexclusionary discipline than before the reform. However, for Black students the opposite was true. Office discipline referrals issued to Black students after the 2015 policy reform became more likely to result in exclusionary discipline for all office discipline referrals and referrals issued for disruptive behaviors. The study findings provide information that will help state policymakers better understand the changes in exclusionary and nonexclusionary discipline practices before and after the 2015 policy reform and identify areas for improving racial equity in school discipline actions.
|REL 2021058||Trends and Gaps in Reading Achievement across Kindergarten and Grade 1 in Two Illinois School Districts
To assess educational progress in the early grades and identify achievement gaps, the Midwest Early Childhood Education Research Alliance examined reading achievement data among students in kindergarten and grade 1 in two districts in Illinois. The study documents overall reading achievement in these and examines disparities in achievement among groups defined by race/ethnicity, eligibility for the national school lunch program, English learner status, participation in special education, and gender. District administrators, policymakers, and educators can use the findings to make decisions about allocating resources to students and schools. This study analyzed student records and assessment data from two cohorts of kindergarten and grade 1 students—one from Elgin Area Schools (District U–46) and one from Springfield Public Schools (District 186). District U–46 used the Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System—a formative reading assessment administered by teachers—to assess the reading proficiency of kindergarten and grade 1 students. District 186 used the Measures of Academic Progress for Primary Grades assessment, an adaptive assessment that is appropriate for universal screening and growth measurement of students’ reading. The study team performed separate analyses for both districts given a discrete, categorical outcome variable for District U–46 and a continuous outcome variable for District 186. The study found that reading achievement increased across the kindergarten and grade 1 years for all students. However, there were differences in reading achievement across student demographic groups. In both districts, Asian and White students had higher achievement than Black and Hispanic students, and students not eligible for the national school lunch program and students not in special education had higher achievement than students with this eligibility and this status. In District U–46, non-English learner students had higher achievement levels than English learner students. In District 186, female students started kindergarten and ended grade 1 with slightly higher levels of reading achievement than male students. District administrators, policy makers, and educators can use these findings to make decisions about allocating resources—such as professional development, literacy coaches, or books—to schools that serve larger concentrations of Black or Hispanic students, students eligible for the national school lunch program, students in special education, or English learner students. Examining achievement patterns by student demographic group is an important first step in identifying whether districts or schools need to distribute resources or opportunities differently to achieve more equitable outcomes across student demographic groups. District administrators, policy makers, and educators can use the results to motivate conversations about the root causes of inequities and how to resolve them.
|REL 2021053||A Second Grade Teacher’s Guide to Supporting Family Involvement in Foundational Reading Skills
This Second Grade Teacher's Guide provides information for second grade teachers on how to support families as they practice foundational reading skills at home. It serves as a companion to the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) practice guide, Foundational Skills to Support Reading for Understanding in Kindergarten Through 3rd Grade. Both guides present four research-based recommendations and how-to steps: the WWC guide is for teaching children at school, and this guide is to help teachers support families in practicing foundational reading skills at home.
The information in this Second Grade Teacher's Guide is designed to assist teachers in supporting out-of-school literacy activities that are aligned to classroom instruction, informed by student need, grounded in evidence-based practices, and facilitated by ongoing parent-teacher communication. The Teacher's Guide provides a framework for literacy support activities presented during schools' family literacy nights and parent-teacher conferences. This Teacher's Guide includes:
|NFES 2020137||Forum Guide to Cybersecurity: Safeguarding Your Data
The Forum Guide to Cybersecurity: Safeguarding Your Data provides timely and useful best practice information to help education agencies proactively prepare for, appropriately mitigate, and responsibly recover from a cybersecurity incident. It provides recommendations to help protect agency systems and data before, during, and after a cybersecurity incident and features case studies from state and local education agencies.
|NCEE 2020006||Can Texting Parents Improve Attendance in Elementary School? A Test of an Adaptive Messaging Strategy
Chronic absence is a nationwide problem, even among young students. This report presents findings from a study that tested four versions of an adaptive text messaging strategy to see which, if any, would reduce chronic absence and improve achievement among 26,000 elementary school students. All four versions of the adaptive text messaging strategy reduced chronic absence but did not improve achievement after one school year.
|REL 2020030||Identifying North Carolina Students at Risk of Scoring below Proficient in Reading at the End of Grade 3
This study examines how students’ performance on North Carolina’s assessments taken from kindergarten to the beginning of grade 3 predicts reading proficiency at the end of grade 3. The study used longitudinal student-level achievement data for 2014/15–2017/18. The sample consisted of students in grade 3 who took the 2017/18 grade 3 end-of grade assessment in reading for the first time and had reading assessment data when they were in kindergarten in 2014/15. The analyses modeled associations between student performance on grade-level interim assessment measures and proficiency on the grade 3 end-of-grade assessment in reading using classification and regression tree analyses. The results indicated that less than 80 percent of students who failed the grade 3 state assessment were correctly identified as being at risk. The only exception to this finding was when a test better aligned to the end-of-grade state assessment was used as a predictor. These results suggest that more information is needed to use test score data from grades K–2 to reliably identify who is at risk of not being proficient on the grade 3 end-of-grade assessment. Educators may want to consider supplementing screening and progress monitoring assessments with informal, curriculum-based assessments that measure student vocabulary, syntax, and listening comprehension skills because research has identified these skills as important predictors of reading comprehension.
|REL 2020024||Progress of Arizona Kindergartners toward English Proficiency in Grade 3 by English Learner Student Classification
This study was prompted by the Arizona Department of Education’s interest in learning more about the progress of English learner students toward English proficiency in the early grades. The study examined the English language proficiency and English language arts (ELA) proficiency (reading and writing at grade level) of non-native English speaker students in kindergarten and in grade 3. About 11 percent of 2013/14 kindergartners in Arizona were initially classified as English learner students. At the end of that school year, Arizona retested all non-native English speaker kindergartners after setting a higher threshold for English language proficiency. After reassessment, the proportion of kindergartners classified as English learner students rose to 18 percent. Students initially classified as English language proficient and reclassified as English learner students at the end of kindergarten were no more likely to achieve proficiency by the end of grade 3 than were students initially classified at the basic/intermediate (below proficient) level. This finding suggests that students who were reclassified likely needed English learner services at kindergarten entry. One group of students outperformed native English speakers on grade 3 proficiency assessments: non-native English speakers who were proficient when they entered kindergarten and confirmed as proficient when reassessed at the end of the school year. This finding increases confidence that these non-native English speaker students were appropriately classified as not needing English learner services. A small amount of the variation in English language proficiency and ELA proficiency in grade 3 was attributable to school characteristics, but most of the variation in outcomes was attributable to student characteristics. This suggests that practitioners and policymakers might want to investigate how to reduce gaps in achievement within schools in addition to increasing students’ achievement levels overall. Student characteristics associated with lower outcomes in grade 3 included lower English language proficiency level at kindergarten entry, being eligible for special education services, being a racial/ethnic minority student, and being male. Being socioeconomically disadvantaged was associated with a lower probability of achieving ELA proficiency by the end of grade 3 but not with reaching English language proficiency.
|NFES 2020083||Forum Guide to Data Governance
The Forum Guide to Data Governance highlights the multiple ways that data governance programs can benefit education agencies. It addresses the management, collection, use, and communication of education data; the development of effective and clearly defined data systems and policies to handle the complexity and necessary protection of data; and the continuous monitoring and decisionmaking needed in a regularly shifting data landscape. The Guide also features 12 case studies from state and local education agencies that have implemented effective data governance programs.
|NCES 2020048||Teachers’ Use of Technology for School and Homework Assignments: 2018–19
This report provides statistics about the use of technology for homework assignments in grades 3–12. Data were provided by public school teachers about their homework practices and about their understanding of information technology available to their students outside of school.
|WWC 2020009||Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring for the Structure Strategy
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on Web-Based Intelligent Tutoring for the Structure Strategy (ITSS), a web-based program that provides supplemental literacy instruction and practice for students in kindergarten to grade 8. The program is designed to develop students’ literacy skills needed to understand factual texts encountered in school and everyday life. The program teaches students how to follow the logical structure of factual text and to use text structure to improve understanding and recall. Based on the research, the WWC found that ITSS is likely to increase students’ reading comprehension in grades 4-7.
|WWC 2020008||Balanced Leadership® Intervention Report
This What Works Clearinghouse intervention report summarizes the research on Balanced Leadership, a professional development program for current and aspiring school leaders in schools serving students in kindergarten to grade 12. The program helps school leaders understand and implement a set of actions and behaviors that may be associated with improved student outcomes. The WWC's review of eligible research found that Balanced Leadership may increase principal retention at the school.
|REL 2020018||Guide and Checklists for a School Leader’s Walkthrough during Literacy Instruction in Grades 4–12
This tool was developed to assist school leaders in observing specific research-based practices during literacy instruction in grade 4–12 classrooms and students’ independent use or application of those practices. The tool aims to help school leaders conduct brief and frequent walkthroughs throughout the school year. The tool consists of three parts to be used with students in three grade bands: grades 4 and 5, grades 6–8, and grades 9–12. The first is the Pre-Walkthrough Meeting Guide, for use in all grade bands, to facilitate conversation between school leaders and teachers before the walkthrough. The second is a set of eight walkthrough checklists, differentiated by grade band and classroom type (that is, whole class, English language arts class, content area class, and literacy intervention class), which are based on best practices in literacy instruction. The third is the Post-Walkthrough Meeting Guide, for use in all grade bands, to facilitate debriefing between school leaders and teachers.