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 Pub Number  Title  Date
WWC 2023001 Dual Language Programs Intervention Report
This What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) intervention report summarizes the research on dual language programs. Dual language programs can help native English speakers develop proficiency in a second language and English learners develop proficiency in both their native language and English. Typically, in dual language programs, classroom teachers instruct students from an early age and over multiple years in both English and a second language called the partner language. These programs vary widely by partner language, primary language of the student population, and duration. Most of the studies examined do not meet WWC standards. Based on the two studies that meet WWC standards, the WWC found moderate evidence that dual language programs positively impacted student literacy achievement in English compared with instructional programs in English only. The WWC found uncertain effects on science and mathematics achievement. More high-quality research is needed to understand the effects of dual language programs in varied contexts.
REL 2021084 Effectiveness of Early Literacy Instruction: Summary of 20 Years of Research
Children entering kindergarten vary greatly in their language and literacy skills. Therefore, up-to-date information about evidence-based practices is essential for early childhood educators and policymakers as they support preschool children’s language and literacy development. This study used a process modeled after the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) methodology to systematically identify effective early childhood curricula, lesson packages, instructional practices, and technology programs in studies conducted from 1997 to 2017. More than 74,000 studies were analyzed to identify interventions that improved students' performance in six language and literacy domains (language, phonological awareness, print knowledge, decoding, early writing, and general literacy). The study team identified 132 interventions evaluated by 109 studies that the study team determined were high-quality experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The WWC's evidence standards are used to assess the quality of an evaluation study and the strength of its claims about whether an intervention caused the observed effect on student achievement. To better understand the effectiveness of the interventions, their implementation characteristics and instructional features were coded for the relevant language and literacy domains. The findings revealed that instruction that teaches a specific domain is likely to increase performance in that domain. Interventions that teach language exclusively might be more beneficial when conducted in small groups or one-on-one than in larger group sizes. In addition, teaching both phonological awareness and print knowledge might benefit performance in print knowledge. Finally, some evidence indicates that instruction that teaches both phonological awareness and print knowledge might also lead to improvements in decoding and early writing performance.
REL 2020025 Self-Study Guide for Evidence-Based Practices in Adult Literacy Education
The purpose of this self-study guide is to help adult literacy education providers collect, organize, and analyze evidence that they can use to improve program performance. It was designed to help educators consider which types of evidence to collect and which components of adult education instruction may be important for evaluating implementation. Sources of evidence for this review include records and data such as lesson plans, rosters, and student results confirming that processes are in place to monitor teacher and student success. The components important to evaluation of implementation were determined based on a thorough review of the literature on adult education. The guide was developed in partnership with the Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast's Florida Career Readiness Research Alliance. It was pilot tested with Florida adult literacy educators through the support of the Institute for the Professional Development of Adult Educators.
NCEE 20174024 An Exploration of Instructional Practices that Foster Language Development and Comprehension: Evidence from Prekindergarten through Grade 3 in Title I Schools
To date, efforts to include evidence-based instruction in large-scale reading programs have not generated meaningful improvements in student outcomes. To identify additional instructional practices that merit further evaluation, this evaluation brief provides an exploratory analysis of practices that are related to young students' growth in language skills and comprehension in listening and reading. The analysis is based on student test scores and observations of instructional practices in 1,035 classrooms in prekindergarten through grade 3 within 83 Title I schools during the 2011-2012 school year. Among the practices measured, those that were most consistently related to student growth include engaging students in defining new words, making connections between students' prior knowledge and the texts they read, promoting higher-order thinking, and focusing instruction on the meaning of texts.
REL 2017198 Home Language Survey Data Quality Self-Assessment
Most state departments of education across the U.S. require or recommend that districts use a home language survey as the first step in a multi-step process for identifying students who qualify for English learner student services. However, existing home language surveys may not reveal accurate information about students' language or students' exposure to English language and literacy and, therefore, can actually contribute to the misidentification of English learner students. In response to this challenge, Regional Educational Laboratory Northeast and Islands worked with state and district practitioners to develop the Home Language Survey Data Quality Self-Assessment Tool. This 15-minute self-assessment is designed for use by state leaders who coordinate programs to support students' English language acquisition and achievement in districts, as well as for district leaders who oversee the English learner student identification process in schools. The tool supports the collection of high-quality home language survey data by gathering information from district English learner student coordinators and prompts self-assessment of key practices that impact the quality of home language survey data. The report includes a guiding Data Quality Framework and presents the complete self-assessment tool along with description of how it was developed, how to adapt and administer the self-assessment, and how to engage stakeholders in analyzing and interpreting self-assessment results to identify opportunities for improvement. This engagement at both state and district levels will inform decisions that can contribute to the collection of more accurate data regarding English learner students.
WWC IRECE512 The Creative Curriculum
The Creative Curriculum for Preschool is an early childhood curriculum that focuses on project-based investigations designed to foster social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development in children. The WWC found The Creative Curriculum for Preschool to have no discernible effects on oral language, print knowledge, phonological processing, or math for preschool children.
WWC IRSNPA12 Phonological Awareness Training
These practices aim to help children detect and manipulate sounds in words independent of meaning. The WWC reviewed 225 studies that investigated the effects of phonological awareness training on children with learning disabilities in early education settings. Four studies are randomized controlled trials that meet WWC evidence standards without reservations. The four studies included 78 children with disabilities or developmental delays attending preschool in four locations across the United States. Based on these four studies, the WWC found phonological awareness training to have potentially positive effects on communication/language competencies for children with learning disabilities in early education settings.
WWC IRSNMT12 Milieu Teaching
Milieu teaching is a practice that involves manipulating or arranging stimuli in a preschool child’s natural environment to create a setting that encourages the child to engage in a targeted behavior. Typically, milieu teaching involves four strategies that a teacher will utilize to encourage a student to demonstrate the targeted behavior, such as using a particular language structure: modeling, mand-modeling, incidental teaching, and time-delay. The WWC reviewed 162 studies that investigated the effects of milieu teaching on preschool children with disabilities. One study is a randomized controlled trial that meets WWC evidence standards without reservations. The study included 40 preschool children with developmental delays attending two schools in Davidson County, Tennessee. Based on this study, the WWC found milieu teaching to have no discernible effects on communication/language competencies for preschool children with disabilities.
REL 20124004 Lessons in Character Impact Evaluation
The study of the Lessons in Character program found no effect of the program on the academic achievement, social competence, or problem behavior of students who participated in the program, compared to students who did not participate.

Lessons in Character is a supplementary literature-based language arts program that uses a collection of multicultural literature, classroom lessons, and decision-making training to enhance student problem solving skills; promote student understanding, endorsement, and behavioral enactment of core values; and boost language, grammar, mechanics (punctuation, spelling), and composition skills.
REL 2012122 Teaching English Language Learner Students: Professional Standards in Elementary Education in Central Region States
This report on professional teaching standards in the Central Region examines what K-8 general education teachers are expected to know and be able to do in order to teach English language learner students. It reviews the standards for coverage of six topics that the research literature suggests are important for improving student achievement.
REL 2011110 The Relationship Between English Proficiency and Content Knowledge for English Language Learner Students in Grades 10 And 11 in Utah
This study examines the relationship between performance on Utah's English proficiency assessment and English language arts and mathematics content assessments by English language learner students and compares the performance of English language learner and non–English language learner students on the content assessments.
REL 2010096 What English Language Arts, Math, and Science Instructional Materials have Districts in the Mid‑Atlantic Region States Adopted?
This report describes results of an on-going project to generate and share information on core texts, supplemental materials, and benchmark assessments adopted by districts in the Mid-Atlantic Region states for language arts, math, and science courses in specific elementary, middle, and high school grade levels. The results, described in the text, are also available in an online, searchable database.
WWC IRALCR10 Corrective Reading
Corrective Reading is a program that aims to promote the reading accuracy (decoding), fluency, and comprehension skills of students in grades 4-12 who are reading below grade expectations. The program takes students through four sequential levels that address decoding skills and six sequential levels that address comprehension skills. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found Corrective Reading to have no discernible effects on alphabetics, reading fluency, and comprehension for adolescent learners.
WWC QRRL0808 Reading and Language Outcomes of a Five-Year Randomized Evaluation of Transitional Bilingual Education
This study examined how the English reading performance of predominantly Spanish-speaking students in transitional bilingual education compared with the performance of predominantly Spanish-speaking students in structured English immersion. Students were randomly assigned to receive either transitional bilingual education or structured English immersion upon entering kindergarten and were followed for three, four, or five years. The study authors found that at the end of kindergarten and first grade, students in structured English immersion had significantly better English-reading skills than students in transitional bilingual education. By the end of second and third grades, when many students in transitional bilingual education had switched to instruction in English, the differences in skills were statistically insignificant for six of the eight outcomes tested. When the students reached fourth grade, they only received English instruction. At this time, differences in English-reading skills between the groups were all statistically insignificant. Two of the four outcomes, though, showed large enough differences favoring structured English immersion that the WWC considered them noteworthy. The WWC rated the research described in this report as meeting WWC evidence standards but offered the following caution: Although all three cohorts of students are included in the analyses of first and second grade outcomes, the analyses of kindergarten and third grade outcomes include two cohorts, and the analysis of fourth grade outcomes includes only one cohort of students.
WWC IRALFF10 Fast ForWord
Fast ForWord is a computer-based reading program intended to help students develop and strengthen the cognitive skills necessary for successful reading and learning. The program includes two components, Fast ForWord Language and Literacy and Fast ForWord to Reading. Based on its review of the research, the WWC found the program to have no discernible effects on alphabetics and general literacy achievement and potentially positive effects on reading fluency and comprehension for adolescent learners.
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