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Table 13.  Percentage of public high schools reporting that specified disciplinary actions were allowable, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Percentage of schools allowing specific disciplinary action
Referral to school counselor Assigned to program to reduce disciplinary problems during school hours Assigned to program to reduce disciplinary problems outside of school hours Kept off school bus due to mis-
behavior
Corporal punish-
ment
Put on school probation Detention and/or Saturday school Loss of student privileges Require partici-
pation in community service
All public schools  97 59 41 88 14 82 91 95 48
                   
Enrollment size                   
Less than 300  94 37 25 78 18 79 83 92 48
300–499  98 45 31 92 22 68 87 93 39
500–999  99 61 41 91 18 85 93 98 45
1,000 or more  98 70 50 89 7 86 94 94 53
                   
Urbanicity                   
City  97 69 49 73 8 85 80 91 61
Urban fringe  97 64 43 89 8 81 96 94 46
Town  96 52 39 93 22 85 94 96 42
Rural  98 52 34 97 20 80 91 97 44
                   
Crime level where students live1                   
High  97 74 46 63 6 84 85 96 60
Moderate  97 62 48 84 15 89 88 93 50
Low  98 56 38 92 14 80 94 96 46
Mixed  97 66 42 90 12 81 85 93 51
                   
Percent minority enrollment2                   
Less than 5 percent  100 47 34 97 11 75 92 96 38
5 to 20 percent  97 60 37 94 13 84 94 97 52
20 to 50 percent  98 66 45 88 18 86 90 96 45
50 percent or more  96 65 48 75 11 83 86 89 56
                   
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                 
0–20 percent  98 57 40 91 5 82 93 96 49
21–50 percent  98 61 41 92 18 84 92 96 47
More than 50 percent  96 60 42 79 19 80 86 91 49
                   
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
                 
0–5 percent  98 60 41 90 12 81 90 97 49
6–15 percent  98 59 36 92 16 81 94 95 46
More than 15 percent  97 60 48 82 12 86 86 91 50
                   
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                 
0–35 percent  97 61 39 83 16 85 86 95 44
36–60 percent  98 56 40 94 19 82 92 94 45
More than 60 percent  97 61 42 87 10 81 92 95 52
                   
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
                 
0–25 percent  95 48 33 87 18 83 89 96 38
26–50 percent  97 58 37 88 18 83 90 94 48
51–75 percent  98 61 45 93 14 83 94 95 50
More than 75 percent  98 61 41 85 10 81 89 95 49
                   
Percent male enrollment                   
0–44 percent  98 61 41 76 14 77 75 88 54
45–55 percent  98 60 43 90 12 83 93 95 47
More than 55 percent  94 51 22 87 26 81 82 94 50
                   
Student-to-teacher ratio3                   
Less than 12 students  96 55 35 88 16 77 89 94 44
12–16 students  98 58 42 91 14 85 92 96 47
More than 16 students  99 69 49 84 8 87 92 93 57
                   
Number of classroom changes4                   
0–3 changes  100 50 42 82 10 87 73 90 51
4–6 changes  97 63 43 89 12 85 90 96 52
More than 6 changes  97 56 39 88 16 79 93 94 44
                   
Regular use of law enforcement5                   
Regular use  98 67 47 89 13 85 91 95 50
No regular use  96 40 26 86 16 76 90 93 44
                   
Number of serious
discipline problems6 
                 
No problems  98 56 37 88 16 80 89 95 46
1 problem  99 67 48 92 14 84 95 94 51
2 problems  99 60 48 83 10 87 89 95 53
3 or more problems  93 66 48 92 6 85 94 94 50
                   
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment7 
                 
0 to 6 percent  98 54 40 86 11 75 87 95 47
6 to 11 percent  98 53 38 92 16 83 94 96 48
11 to 21 percent  96 64 39 88 11 83 92 94 48
21 percent or more  98 64 46 88 17 87 90 94 50
                   
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions8 
                 
No disruptions  98 59 40 88 14 82 91 94 46
Any disruptions  96 63 44 93 11 82 90 96 59
                   
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                 
0–2 percent  94 44 39 81 18 83 94 94 60
3–5 percent  99 60 39 93 18 81 92 97 46
6–10 percent  97 62 40 90 11 83 94 94 46
More than 10 percent  96 58 52 73 6 83 73 89 56
                   
Prevalence of violent incidents9                   
No violent incidents  95 43 38 71 6 86 81 95 49
Any violent incidents  98 60 41 89 14 82 91 95 48
1 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
2 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
3 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
5 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
6 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education