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Table 8.  Number and percentage of public high schools reporting incidents of hate crime and gang-related crime at school, the number of incidents reported, and the rate of incidents per 1,000 students, by selected school characteristics: School year 2003–04


School characteristic Hate crime1   Gang-related crime2
Number
of
schools
Percent
of
schools
Number
of
incidents
Rate per
1,000
students
  Number
of
schools
Percent
of
schools
Number
of
incidents
Rate per
1,000
students
All public schools  790 7 2,746 0.2   1,481 14 9,636 0.8
                   
Enrollment size                   
Less than 300  53 3 53 0.1   # # # #
300–499  14 1 14 #   66 4 177 0.3
500–999  181 7 363 0.2   189 7 789 0.4
1,000 or more  541 11 2,315 0.3   1,226 25 8,670 1.0
                   
Urbanicity                   
City  244 10 1,510 0.4   717 30 6,078 1.8
Urban fringe  372 11 923 0.2   590 17 2,714 0.5
Town  72 4 151 0.1   66 4 435 0.3
Rural  102 3 161 0.1   109 3 408 0.2
                   
Crime level where
students live3 
                 
High  37 7 55 0.1   265 48 3,401 4.7
Moderate  240 11 575 0.2   523 24 2,599 1.0
Low  394 6 874 0.1   420 7 1,816 0.3
Mixed  118 7 1,241 0.6   272 17 1,820 0.8
                   
Percent minority
enrollment4 
                 
Less than 5 percent  117 5 243 0.2   36 1 145 0.1
5 to 20 percent  236 8 476 0.2   145 5 592 0.2
20 to 50 percent  175 7 383 0.1   367 15 1,268 0.4
50 percent or more  247 9 1,629 0.4   926 34 7,596 2.0
                   
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                 
0–20 percent  298 8 645 0.1   349 9 1,201 0.3
21–50 percent  339 7 778 0.2   503 11 2,819 0.6
More than 50 percent  153 6 1,323 0.5   630 25 5,616 2.3
                   
Percent of students
below 15th percentile
on standardized tests 
                 
0–5 percent  183 6 398 0.1   320 11 1,221 0.4
6–15 percent  392 8 1,800 0.3   455 9 2,805 0.5
More than 15 percent  215 7 548 0.2   706 23 5,610 1.7
                   
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                 
0–35 percent  97 5 294 0.1   391 19 4,139 2.1
36–60 percent  201 6 397 0.1   404 13 1,603 0.5
More than 60 percent  491 9 2,054 0.3   685 12 3,895 0.6
                   
Percent of students who
consider academic
achievement important 
                 
0–25 percent  74 8 83 0.1   102 12 592 0.9
26–50 percent  155 7 360 0.2   338 16 3,586 1.7
51–75 percent  261 8 656 0.2   489 14 2,343 0.6
More than 75 percent  300 7 1,647 0.3   551 13 3,114 0.6
                   
Percent male enrollment                   
0–44 percent  31 3 104 0.1   124 14 427 0.5
45–55 percent  740 8 2,472 0.2   1,272 14 8,873 0.9
More than 55 percent  19 2 169 0.3   85 10 336 0.6
                   
Student-to-teacher ratio5                   
Less than 12 students  184 4 259 0.1   258 6 1,640 0.6
12–16 students  297 7 1,673 0.3   644 16 4,040 0.8
More than 16 students  308 12 814 0.2   579 23 3,956 1.0
                   
Number of classroom
changes6 
                 
0–3 changes  22 4 107 0.2   42 8 112 0.2
4–6 changes  380 7 806 0.1   762 15 5,434 0.9
More than 6 changes  388 8 1,833 0.4   677 13 4,090 0.8
                   
Regular use of law
enforcement7 
                 
Regular use  710 9 2,617 0.3   1,427 18 9,409 0.9
No regular use  80 3 129 0.1   54 2 227 0.1
                   
Number of serious
discipline problems8 
                 
No problems  295 4 729 0.1   627 9 2,517 0.4
1 problem  100 6 270 0.1   239 15 2,823 1.5
2 problems  190 16 281 0.2   219 18 942 0.6
3 or more problems  205 17 1,465 0.8   395 33 3,354 1.8
                   
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment9 
                 
0 to 6 percent  180 7 1,559 0.6   213 8 1,436 0.6
6 to 11 percent  99 5 181 0.1   228 11 2,009 1.0
11 to 21 percent  319 9 599 0.2   470 14 2,173 0.6
21 percent or more  193 7 406 0.1   569 21 4,018 1.3
                   
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions10 
                 
No disruptions  615 7 2,378 0.3   1,074 12 7,209 0.8
Any disruptions  175 11 368 0.2   407 25 2,427 1.1
                   
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                 
0–2 percent  45 7 88 0.2   41 6 71 0.1
3–5 percent  283 7 658 0.2   476 12 2,206 0.5
6–10 percent  351 7 1,760 0.3   650 14 4,117 0.7
More than 10 percent  110 9 240 0.2   314 25 3,242 2.6
# Rounds to zero.
1 A hate crime was defined for respondents as "a criminal offense or threat against a person, property, or society that is motivated, in whole or in part, by the offender's bias against a race, color, national origin, ethnicity, gender, religion, disability, or sexual orientation."
2 Gang was defined for respondents as "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior."
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 These estimates exclude data from Tennessee because schools in this state did not report estimates of student race.
5 Student-to-teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2003–2004 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on a regular basis?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2004.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education