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Table 22.  Percentage of public secondary schools reporting use of selected violence prevention program components, by selected school characteristics: 1999–2000


School characteristic Prevention curriculum, instruction, or training for students1 Behavioral or behavior  modification intervention for students Counseling, social work,  psychological, or therapeutic activity for students or adults Individual
attention/
mentoring/
tutoring/
coaching of
 students by
students
or adults
Recrea-
tional, enrichment, or leisure activities for students
Students’  involvement in resolving student conduct problems2 Programs to promote sense of  community/ social integration among students Hotline/
tipline for students to report  problems
All public secondary schools 54 58 61 58 52 47 52 37
                 
Enrollment size                
Less than 300 49 47 55 42 51 37 48 27
300–499 48 53 52 54 47 34 42 27
500–999 49 53 58 56 47 40 47 34
1,000 or more61 68 68 69 57 60 60 48
                 
Urbanicity                
City 66 72 73 73 66 61 68 50
Urban fringe 55 63 63 64 52 53 55 41
Town 56 57 59 56 47 42 46 33
Rural 45 46 52 45 45 34 41 28
                 
Crime level where students live3                
High 83 83 80 80 80 59 74 53
Moderate 52 61 62 57 47 46 51 38
Low 52 56 58 56 50 44 50 36
Mixed 56 60 67 65 54 55 59 37
                 
Percent minority enrollment3                
0–5 percent 44 45 53 48 44 32 39 27
6–20 percent 51 57 60 58 51 48 49 41
21–50 percent 57 64 62 62 53 54 58 43
More than 50 percent 66 72 71 68 61 58 65 39
                 
Percent of students eligible for free/reduced-price lunch                
0–20 percent 50 54 59 56 49 46 52 38
21–50 percent 55 57 59 60 51 46 50 38
More than 50 percent 60 69 67 59 59 48 57 34
                 
Percent of students below 15th percentile on standardized tests                
0–5 percent 49 53 56 51 48 43 51 37
6–15 percent 52 55 58 57 50 45 47 36
More than 15 percent 64 72 71 69 59 54 63 41
                 
Percent of students likely to attend college                
0–35 percent 57 62 63 61 55 50 57 35
36–60 percent 52 52 57 54 47 40 45 37
More than 60 percent 54 60 62 60 53 49 54 39
                 
Percent of students who consider academic achievement important                
0–25 percent 43 52 53 46 46 37 48 25
26–50 percent 58 63 63 65 57 49 55 40
51–75 percent 58 60 62 59 53 47 50 39
More than 75 percent 51 56 60 57 49 46 53 37
                 
Percent male enrollment                
0–44 percent 75 74 77 73 68 55 74 46
45–55 percent 52 58 60 58 50 47 51 38
More than 55 percent 45 45 51 42 45 30 39 25
                 
Student/teacher ratio3,4                
Less than 12 48 51 56 51 44 36 47 29
12–16 55 61 64 62 53 50 54 44
More than 16 60 65 65 65 59 53 58 39
                 
Number of classroom changes3                
0–3 changes 47 52 50 51 51 42 48 35
4–6 changes 58 62 63 62 55 49 57 42
More than 6 changes 50 56 61 57 50 46 48 33
                 
Use of paid law enforcement5                
Regular use 56 60 62 60 52 49 53 40
No regular use 33 41 50 45 51 30 41 16
                 
Number of serious discipline problems6                
No problems 47 49 54 52 48 38 46 36
1 problem 56 61 63 60 56 49 58 35
2 problems 59 62 63 61 48 51 51 45
3 or more problems 62 72 70 67 57 58 59 36
                 
Transfers as percentage of enrollment3,7                
0 to 6 percent 52 57 58 57 53 47 53 35
6 to 11 percent 53 50 58 53 46 43 53 33
11 to 21 percent 57 66 67 62 57 41 55 44
21 percent or more 55 63 63 64 52 54 49 39
                 
Prevalence of schoolwide disruptions3,8                
No disruptions 51 55 60 56 51 46 51 36
Any disruptions 62 69 64 65 53 50 56 42
                 
Percent of students absent without excuses                
None 42 40 49 39 45 33 41 27
1–2 percent 56 59 62 60 51 45 51 36
3–5 percent 53 61 63 62 55 49 53 40
6–10 percent 52 58 58 57 49 50 53 37
More than 10 percent 66 67 66 66 57 54 61 43
                 
Prevalence of violent incidents3,9                
No violent incidents 50 49 58 52 54 47 56 22
Any violent incidents 54 59 61 59 51 46 51 39
1 For example, social skills training.
2 For example, conflict resolution or peer mediation, student court.
3 Some schools are omitted from these categories because of missing data on their school characteristics. For this reason, the detailed results do not sum to the totals. See appendix J of 2000 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS) Detailed Data Documentation (NCES 2004-307) for further information.
4 Student/teacher ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time equivalent teachers. The total number of full-time equivalent teachers is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers, including special education teachers, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
5 Schools were included as regularly using paid law enforcement if they reported the use of paid law enforcement during any of the following times: at any time during school hours, while students were arriving or leaving, at selected school activities (e.g., athletic and social events, open houses, science fairs), or at any other time that the respondent specified.
6 Serious discipline problems is a count of discipline problems reported by principals. These discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, and student acts of disrespect for teachers. If a principal reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems. Undesirable gang activities and undesirable cult or extremist group activities were also counted once as a problem if the principal reported that these events occurred at all in their school.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school, divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as bomb threats or anthrax threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. "At school/at your school" was defined for respondents as including activities happening in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that are holding school-sponsored events or activities. Respondents were instructed to, unless the survey specified otherwise, only respond for those times that were during normal school hours or when school activities/events were in session. A gang was defined for respondents as, "an ongoing loosely organized association of three or more persons, whether formal or informal, that has a common name, signs, symbols or colors, whose members engage, either individually or collectively, in violent or other forms of illegal behavior." Secondary schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 9 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 12.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2000.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education