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Table 19.  Percentage of public middle schools reporting the use of selected practices to involve parents in school discipline, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06

School characteristic Have a formal process to obtain parent input on policies related to school crime and discipline   Provide training or technical assistance to parents in dealing with students' problem behavior   Have a program that involves parents at school helping to maintain school discipline  
All public schools  61   53   20  
             
Enrollment size             
Less than 300  51   51   15  
300–499  63   47   19  
500–999  60   56   22  
1,000 or more  69   55   22  
             
Urbanicity             
City  68   59   31  
Urban fringe  62   55   22  
Town  58   52   14  
Rural  54   46   12  
             
Crime level where students live1             
High  62   58   42  
Moderate  64   57   29  
Low  57   50   14  
Mixed  67   57   22  
             
Percent minority enrollment2             
Less than 5 percent  41   43   10  
5 to less than 20 percent  60   51   14  
20 to less than 50 percent  67   55   18  
50 percent or more  67   60   33  
             
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
           
0–20 percent  59   48   13  
21–50 percent  58   54   16  
More than 50 percent  64   56   29  
             
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
           
0–5 percent  58   50   17  
6–15 percent  63   54   15  
More than 15 percent  60   55   31  
             
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
           
0–35 percent  61   50   27  
36–60 percent  63   54   20  
More than 60 percent  59   55   16  
             
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
           
0–25 percent  62   48   22  
26–50 percent  57   49   21  
51–75 percent  63   52   20  
More than 75 percent  61   57   20  
             
Percent male enrollment             
0–44 percent  70   57   27  
45–55 percent  60   53   20  
More than 55 percent  64   53   23  
             
Student-to-FTE ratio3             
Less than 12 students  58   51   22  
12–16 students  63   54   18  
More than 16 students  63   57   21  
             
Number of classroom changes4             
0–3 changes  57   50   24 !
4–6 changes  63   56   24  
More than 6 changes  59   51   17  
             
Regular use of law enforcement5             
Regular use  65   56   23  
No regular use  52   48   15  
             
Number of serious
discipline problems6 
           
No problems  62   55   21  
1 problem  59   50   17  
2 problems  63   53   23  
3 or more problems  59   52   22  
             
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment7 
           
Less than 6 percent  54   57   18  
6 to less than 11 percent  58   47   13  
11 to less than 21 percent  62   55   23  
21 percent or more  65   52   23  
             
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions8 
           
No disruptions  59   53   20  
Any disruptions  73   54   23  
             
Percent of students             
absent on a daily basis             
0–2 percent  58   51   19  
3–5 percent  60   53   19  
6–10 percent  60   52   20  
More than 10 percent  71   56   38  
             
Prevalence of violent incidents9             
No violent incidents  49   62   26 !
Any violent incidents  61   52   20  
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
1 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
2 Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
3 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
4 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
5 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school on at least once a week?"
6 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
7 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
8 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
9 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Detail may not sum to totals, because schools may have reported using more than one of these practices. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education