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Table 17.  Number and percentage distribution of students in public middle schools involved in the distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol at school receiving various disciplinary actions, by selected school characteristics: School year 2005–06

Disciplinary actions taken for students involved in the distribution, possession, or use of illegal drugs or alcohol at school
Removals with no continuing services for at least the remainder of the school year Transfers to specialized schools1 Out-of-school suspensions lasting 5 or more days but less than the remainder of the school year Other disciplinary action2
School characteristic Number   Percent     Number   Percent     Number   Percent     Number   Percent  
All public schools  2,270   6     10,490   27     17,180   45     8,540   22  
                                       
Enrollment size                                       
Less than 300        620 !       63 !   880 !  
300–499  370 ! 11 !   660   20     1,810   55     470   14  
500–999  1,190   6     5,150   26     8,850   44     4,930   25  
1,000 or more  520   5     4,060   39     3,700   35     2,250   21  
                                       
Urbanicity                                       
City  650 ! 5 !   3,400   25     6,230   46     3,410   25  
Urban fringe  930   6     4,510   31     5,820   40     3,210   22  
Town        660 ! 19     2,000   58     560 ! 16  
Rural  480 ! 7 !   1,920   28     3,130   45     1,360 ! 20  
                                       
Crime level where students live3                                       
High  380 ! 11 !   900 ! 27     1,070   32     990 ! 30  
Moderate  750   6 !   2,820   23     6,250   50     2,580   21  
Low  860   6     4,000   27     6,800   46     3,200   22  
Mixed  280 ! 4 !   2,780   35     3,060   39     1,780   23  
                                       
Percent minority enrollment4                                       
Less than 5 percent        410 ! 12 !   2,040   58     890 ! 25 !
5 to less than 20 percent  350 ! 5     1,260   19     3,380   50     1,700   25  
20 to less than 50 percent  550 ! 5 !   3,560   33     4,410   41     2,140   20  
50 percent or more  1,030   6     4,730   29     7,030   43     3,680   22  
                                       
Percent of students
eligible for free or
reduced-price lunch 
                                     
0–20 percent  250 ! 5 !   1,000   22     2,260   48     1,150   25  
21–50 percent  830   5     4,120   25     7,720   47     3,710   23  
More than 50 percent  1,180   7     5,360   31     7,200   41     3,680   21  
                                       
Percent of students below 15th
percentile on standardized tests 
                                     
0–5 percent  360   6     1,810   28     3,060   47     1,240   19  
6–15 percent  970   5     4,930   28     7,250   41     4,520   26  
More than 15 percent  940   7 !   3,750   26     6,870   48     2,770   19  
                                       
Percent of students likely
to attend college 
                                     
0–35 percent  750 ! 6 !   3,310   26     6,120 ! 48     2,570   20  
36–60 percent  930   6     5,030   34     5,860   40     2,990   20  
More than 60 percent  590   5     2,150   20     5,200   48     2,970   27  
                                       
Percent of students who consider
academic achievement important 
                                     
0–25 percent  200 !     1,200 ! 23 !     60 !   750    
26–50 percent    6 !   3,770   38     3,440   35     2,100   21  
51–75 percent  750   6     3,270   28     5,100   44     2,570   22  
More than 75 percent  710   6     2,250   19     5,490   47     3,130   27  
                                       
Percent male enrollment                                       
0–44 percent        860 !              
45–55 percent  2,070   6     8,890   27     14,640   45     7,250   22  
More than 55 percent        740 ! 29 !   700 ! 27     1,030   40  
                                       
Student-to-FTE ratio5                                       
Less than 12 students  980   6     3,930   26     6,740   45     3,450   23  
12–16 students  820   5     5,120   29     7,770   45     3,690   21  
More than 16 students  460 ! 8     1,440   24     2,680   45     1,400   23  
                                       
Number of classroom changes6                                       
0–3 changes                57 !   130 !  
4–6 changes  950   6     4,170   28     7,000   48     2,560   17  
More than 6 changes  1,200   5     6,310   27     9,840   42     5,840   25  
                                       
Regular use of law enforcement7                                       
Regular use  1,800   6     8,940   29     13,850   45     6,440   21  
No regular use  470   6 !   1,550   21     3,330   45     2,100   28  
                                       
Number of serious
discipline problems8 
                                     
No problems  770   5 !   4,210   30     6,200 ! 44     2,880   21  
1 problem  780   9     1,960   23     4,190   50     1,410   17  
2 problems  510 ! 7 !   1,780   24     3,560   47     1,710 ! 23  
3 or more problems  210 ! 2 !   2,540   30     3,230   38     2,540   30  
                                       
Transfers as a percentage
of enrollment9 
                                     
Less than 6 percent  400 !     550   10 !   3,600 ! 63     1,130 ! 20 !
6 to less than 11 percent        1,250   24     2,190   42     1,660   32  
11 to less than 21 percent  680 ! 6 !   2,790   26     4,910   47     2,180   21  
21 percent or more  1,030   6     5,900   35     6,470   38     3,570   21  
                                       
Prevalence of schoolwide
disruptions10 
                                     
No disruptions  2,120   6     9,390   27     15,380   45     7,600   22  
Any disruptions  150 ! 4 !   1,100   28     1,800   45     940   24  
                                       
Percent of students
absent on a daily basis 
                                     
0–2 percent        580 ! 39     500 ! 34 !   350 ! 24 !
3–5 percent  1,310   7     6,390   33     7,410   38     4,150   22  
6–10 percent  770   6     3,110   24     6,240   48     2,980   23  
More than 10 percent        410 !       65     1,060 !  
                                       
Prevalence of violent incidents11                                       
No violent incidents              240 !        
Any violent incidents  2,250   6     10,400   27     16,940   45     8,410   22  
! Interpret data with caution. The standard error for this estimate is from 30 percent to 50 percent of the estimate’s value.
‡ Reporting standards not met. The standard error for this estimate is equal to 50 percent or more of the estimate's value.
1 Specialized school was defined for respondents as "a school that is specifically for students who were referred for disciplinary reasons. The school may also have students who were referred for other reasons, although the school may be at the same location as your school."
2 Other disciplinary actions include suspension less than 5 days, detention, etc.
3 Respondents were asked, "How would you describe the crime level in the area(s) in which your students live?" Response options included "high level of crime," "moderate level of crime," "low level of crime," and "students come from areas with very different levels of crime."
4 Responding schools that did not have race/ethnicity on the sampling frame (2 percent of schools) are excluded from the base.
5 Student-to-FTE ratio was calculated by dividing the total number of students enrolled in the school by the total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides. The total number of full-time-equivalent teachers and aides is a combination of the full-time and part-time teachers and aides, including special education teachers and aides, with an adjustment to compensate for the part-time status.
6 Respondents were asked, "How many classroom changes do most students make in a typical day?" Responses exclude morning arrival and afternoon departure.
7 Respondents were asked, "During the 2005–2006 school year, did you have any sworn law enforcement officers, security guards, or security personnel present at your school at least once a week?"
8 Serious discipline problems include student racial tensions, student bullying, student sexual harassment of other students, student verbal abuse of teachers, widespread disorder in classrooms, student acts of disrespect for teachers, gang activities, and cult or extremist group activities. If a respondent reported that any of these problems occurred daily or weekly in their school, each was counted once in the total number of serious discipline problems.
9 Transfers as a percentage of enrollment combines the number of students who were transferred to a school and the number of students who were transferred from a school divided by the total number of students enrolled in the school.
10 Schoolwide disruptions include actions that disrupted school activities such as death threats, bomb threats, and chemical, biological, or radiological threats. Respondents were instructed to exclude all fire alarms, including false alarms.
11 Violent incidents include rape or attempted rape, sexual battery other than rape, physical attack or fight with or without a weapon, threat of physical attack with or without a weapon, and robbery with or without a weapon.
NOTE: "At school" was defined for respondents to include activities that happen in school buildings, on school grounds, on school buses, and at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. The number of incidents, students, or disciplinary actions reported for a specified offense will not always be equal. This may be because a single incident could involve multiple victims or because no disciplinary action is taken for an incident. Data regarding illegal drugs and alcohol are categorized slightly differently in 2006 than they were in previous collections in the SSOCS series; therefore, direct comparisons between the years should not be made. The number of incidents, students, or disciplinary actions reported for a specified offense will not always be equal. This may be because a single incident could involve multiple victims or because no disciplinary action is taken for an incident. Responses were provided by the principal or the person most knowledgeable about crime and safety issues at the school. Middle schools are defined as schools in which the lowest grade is not lower than grade 4 and the highest grade is not higher than grade 9.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 2005–06 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS), 2006.


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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education